Bt Brinjal and Alternatives 2.0

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  • 8/14/2019 Bt Brinjal and Alternatives 2.0


    Do we need Bt Brinjal ?

    Dr. Ramanjaneyulu

    Centre for SustainableAgriculture


  • 8/14/2019 Bt Brinjal and Alternatives 2.0


    Bt Brinjal

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    Brinjal Fruit and shoot borer

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    Mahycos Bt Brinjals-the realstory

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    GM Crops: Dreams sold

    Increased yields

    Reduced chemical use

    Food security Environmentally safe

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    Genetically modifiedtrait

    Area planted (m.ha) %

    Herbicide tolerence 72.2 63

    Insect tolerence (Bt crops)20.3 18

    HT + Bt (stacked traits) 21.8 19

    > 70 % still to



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    GM crop Area planted(m.ha)

    % of crop area % in GM crops

    Soybean 65.8 70 52.85

    Cotton 15.5 46 12.45

    Maize 37.3 13 29.96

    Canola 5.9 5 04.74Total 124.5 100 100

    Only four


    mostly for


    use. Where

    is foodsecurity?

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    Learning from Bt cotton inIndia

    Officially introduced in 2003 7.6 mha, ranks second in the world in production

    and first in area Monoculturing genes

    Monopolising markets AP govt MRTP case to reduce seed royalty Cotton removed from Essential commodities act

    nullifying Seed control order-industry pulled govts ofAP and MP to court

    Non Bt cotton seed withdrawn from market both bypublic and private sector

    GM contamination threatens organic cotton Like pesticides cost of externalities never

    accounted for

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    More resource use Newer pests and


    Animal morbidity

    Skin allergies Reduced soil fertility

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    Are we using right lenses?

    Bt cotton and now Bt brinjal not tested againstbest practices (IPM/NPM/Organic etc)

    No analysis on yield saving vs contributionof varietal/hybrid

    More seed: Cotton seed companies changedrecommendation from one 450 g packet to 2450 g packets per acre

    More fertiliser: ANGRAU recommends 15 %more chemical fertiliser and Dr. CD Mayee,

    earlier GEAC vice-chair says 6 % increase inarea under GE crops will double fertiliser need More water: Rainfed conditions are not

    suitable for GE cotton (planning commission)

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    say? Not tested against the best practices like NPM and IPM using resistant varieites

    and local checks were not used

    lack scientificity in terms of maintaining plant population, date of planting (first

    year the trials were sown in October, 2009) while the peak infestation was in julyto september

    Data on sucking pests is under reported

    seedlings are supplied by the company, genuinity of the seedlings not tested, noblindness in the testing, problem with the identity

    Impacts on soils:

    Root exudates and enzymatic activity not studied.

    report suggest that there is no Bt toxin identified in the soil where as many earlier studiesincluding on Bt cotton in India by IARI and in a study by Australian university Bt toxins were foundin the soils for significant time (more than 45 days)

    In the case of Bt Brinjal if the reports are saying no Bt toxin was detected, the methodologiesneed to be rechecked. the data presented shows variations between microbial profiles betweensoils growing Bt brinjal and non-brinjal but no statistical analysis was done to say whether it issignificant.

    similarly, at 30 DAT sampling point the collembolla population was a little more, & at 60 DAT

    sampling point it was quit low as compared to the other time points, and argues that it is an anisolated instance.

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    Brinjal Fruit and shoot borer

    Adult lays about 250 eggs singly on leafunderside, stems, flower buds and base oftender fruits

    New born larvae bores into tender shoots orfruits

    Make their way out and pupate in the debris

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    Brinjal Fruit and Shoot Borer

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    Non PesticidalManagement

    Ecological approach to pest management using knowledge and skill based practicesto prevent insects from reaching damaging stages and damaging


    by making best use of local resources, natural processes and

    community action

    Uses a set of practices which include

    Monitoring methods-trap crops, pheromone traps etc, light traps,

    Preventive measures-border rows, sticky plates, resistantvarieties, mixed crops etc

    Control measures-hommade biopesticides, mass trapping

    Evolved based on experiences from working with small andmarginal farmers in AP

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    NPM for Brinjal FSB

    Continuous cropping of brinjal on the samepiece of land should be avoided.

    Deep summer ploughing before the season oronce the crop is harvested to expose the resting

    pupae in soil. Bon-fires with the onset of first showers

    Potato, voluntary brinjal plants (those brinjalplants which are germinated on their own) and

    other wild brinjal plants act as alternate hostshave to be removed.

    Intercropping with coriander reduces incidenceby more than 50 %

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    Mass trapping

    Mass trapping of adults using pheromone trapsreduce the chances of female moths finding a mate

    Research by AVRDC suggests that female L. orbonalisonly mate once and from otherresearch we know thateven delayed mating can significantly reduce thenumber of viable eggs female moths can produce(fecundity)

    A range of designs of traps has been found to besuitable for Leucinodes orbonalis.

    Water traps prepared from plastic bottles arerecommended (40 pheromone traps(5m apart) peracre kept 1 ft above the crop height and the lureshave to be changed at 20 days interval

    If it is taken on community basis, the number of

    pheromones by each farmer could be reduced.

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    Brinjal FSB management As soon as the insect is detected, the affected parts should be clipped

    along with the insect and destroyed

    Fruits showing any boring symptoms should be picked and destroyed.

    Spraying neem oil @25ml per litre of water during vegetative stage willprevent the moth laying eggs on the crop. This may be taken when thepheromone catch is observed.

    To prevent neonate larvae boring into the fruit or shoot, Neem seed kernelextract (NSKE) 5% or agniastra may be sprayed.

    Chilli-garlic extract may be used to control shoot and fruit borer; but this

    has to be used only twice during crop period. 5 days after using chilli-garlicextract, cowdung-urine solution has to be used

    These sprays are necessarily be done in the evening times.

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    Yenabavi -Organic Villa

    Entire village (55 farmers 228 acres) organic for

    last five years Most of the inputs internalised into farming Land Productivity increased, crop yields

    maintained In SRI paddy 44 bags were also recorded Recently awarded Krishi Gaurav Award by Baba

    Ramdevs Patanjali Trust for their role inpromoting organic farming

    More than 30 thousand farmers visited thevillage in last three years

    Community Managed Sustainable

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    aiming to reach 100 lakh acres across crops in all districts of AP in by 2014

    Community Managed SustainableAgriculture


    CSA handholding support

    NGOs technical support at field level

    SHG groups ind. handling

    RKVY fundsRs. 167 Cr.

    for 5 yr

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    Area under different crops(2007-08)

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    NPM vs conventional pestmanagement

    Strategy Genotype No. of chemicalsprays

    Cost ofcultivation(Rs/acre)



    Net returns(Rs/acre)

    NPM Non Bt 0 6524 889 18036 11512

    NPM Bt 0 6222 888 17469 11247

    Control Non Bt 5.0 6555 835 16500 9945

    Control Bt 3.8 7235 897 17786 10551

    omparative economics in cotton

    urce: Study by CRIDA in WWF project on Sustainable Cotton production, Warangal, 2007

    Di i i h d i i

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    Distinguished visitors

    Dr. V L Chopra,

    Member Planning Commission

    Jairam Ramesh, Honble Minister for Commerce

    T. Nandakumar

    Secretary AgricultureGOI

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    NPM Scaling up in AndhraPradesh

    CSA worked with SERP in promoting Nonpesticidal Management designed the systemand provided handholding support for 4 years

    2004-05 started with 225 acres in one distand reached 7 lakh acres in 2007-08 in 18dist. today the prog covers 20 lakh acres in 18dist

    National Mission on Sustainable Agriculture isconsidering this model

    World Bank says this is a good tool for povertyeradication




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  • 8/14/2019 Bt Brinjal and Alternatives 2.0


    hank you


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