GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS ARE GOOD FOR MANKIND..IT NEED TO BE COMMERCIALIZED IN INDIA TO FEED THE HUNGRY PEOPLE.,LOWER THE PESTICIDE USE.
- 1. THE CONFUSION ABOUT BT BRINJAL BY KUTUBUDDINMOLLA CSIR JRF PLANT MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY LABORATORY DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY UNIVERSITY OF CALCUTTA
2. PAST SCENARIO
- Bengal famine in 1943around 4 million people died in hunger of eastern India.
- Green revolution made India self sufficient of food grains by 1978 through the adoption of dwarf high yielding hybrid wheat & rice variety.
- It was possible due to the use of genetically improved seeds (wheat-rht gene ; rice-sd1 gene )
3. PRESENT SCENARIO
- Population is increasing in a very high rate.
- Production is not increasingstagnant.
- Several problems came out in recent days.
- Our crop is unable to cope up with these new stresses because they did not face such before.
- Thats why traditional breeding is unsuccessful.
4. ANOTHER WORLDWIDE FAMINE IS WAITING FOR US.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
- So we need a second green revolution.
- The Process by which we can increase the yield of a particular crop.
- For using genes from non rice sources we have to go for genetic engineering..
- Even traditional breeding use the technology(genetic engineering) unknowingly.
5. 6. 7. SO IN PRESENT SCENARIO FOR A SECOND GREEN REVOLUTION WE HAVE TO GO FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY& GENETIC ENGINEERING 8. BRINJAL CULTIVATION IN INDIA 9. MAJOR PROBLEMS 10. FSB DAMAGE 11.
- 50 - 90% of damage is caused by fruit and shoot borer
Shoot damage Fruit Damage 12. Fruit borerDamage asidentifiedby theconsumer 13. WHY WE NEED BT BRINJAL ??
- No natural resistance in germplasm
- Limited success with traditional management strategies
- Huge use of pesticides results in
- development of resistance in insects
- Harmful effects on environment, health of farmer and consumers
- Bt brinjal has potential to provide economic and health benefits
14. Speculation aboutBtorBt -Brinjalis like The unscientific comments about Bt-Brinjal often reminds us of the six blind men and the elephant who guessed the tail as rope, legs as pole, trunk as wall, ear as fan and the trunk as hose 15. WE SHOULD KNOW THE ACTUAL & TRUE FACTWHICH IS SCIENTIFIC. 16. WHAT ISBACILLUS THURINGIENSIS (BT) TMM Bt cotton EM view of a purified inclusion body EM view ofBtwith spores and crystals Endospore Crystal
- Soil bacterium; ubiquitous
- Different strains produce theirown insecticide proteins.
- The protein is called as cry protein for its crystal form.
- Eachcryprotein selectivelyaffects insects belonging to aparticular order (eg.,Lepidoptera,Coleoptera, Diptera, etc) attheir very early larval stage
17. HISTORY OF SAFE USE AS A SPRAY
- Since 1938, used extensively as a spray all over the world to control a variety of lepidopteron pests and also mosquito larvae.
TMM Bt cotton IN INDIA IN THAILAND IN CALIFORNIA IN INDIA IN AUSTRALIA 18. GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOPESTICIDES, 2005-06 - $260M TMM Bt cotton 62% Other bacteria$32m Source: CPL Business Consultants, July 2006 Btspray dominated with 62%. Used in all countries, including the European Union (16.5%), and by all farmers including organic farmersBt$159m Virus $18m Fungus$37m Nematode$15m 19. HOW BT BRINJAL DEVELOPED?
- Bt brinjal is a genetically improved brinjal developed by inserting acry1Acgene into brinjal genome
- The Cry1Ac protein gives the brinjal plant in-built resistance against lepidopteran insects likeBrinjal Fruit and Shoot Borer
- Use of Bt as insecticide not new farmers using it for over 50 years as a spray
20. PLR1 Non-Bt Bt 21. SHOOT DAMAGE Non Bt Bt 22. FRUIT DAMAGE Non bt brinjal Bt brinjal 23. Bt -Cotton Approved 26 March 2002: A Landmark in India Indias first transgenic crop 24. Bt Cotton Bt-cotton area & cotton production in India 620 Bt-cotton hybrids & 1 Bt variety have been released so far New HybridsBt Cotton area lakh ha 25. India: Raw Cotton Imports and Exports1991-2009 26. Insecticide usage in IndiaIRM Bt Cotton Bollworm insecticides Rs 600 crores in 2002 Bollworm Insecticides Rs 260 crores in 2008 27. NET RESULT OF BT COTTON APPROVAL
- INDIA WAS ANIMPORTEROF COTTON BEFORE BT COTTON DEVELOPED.. NOW INDIA IS ANEXPORTER .
- INDIA IS NOW THE SECOND LARGEST COTTON PRODUCER IN THE WORLD
- THE NET INCOME DERIVED BYBT FARMERSWASRS.26,406(US$600.13)/HA WHILE IT WASRS.9,059(US$205.88)/HA FOR THENON-BT FARMERS .
- NET GAIN IN BT COTTON CULTIVATION ISRs. 4000 CRORESIN INDIA
28. ABOUT SAFETY OF BT BRINJAL
- Questioned the safety ofBt
29. Ingestion (occurs while feeding plant tissues) Solubilization (Alkalinity) Activation (pH >9.5) Binding (Specific receptor) Insertion (Damage gut wall) Pore formation Cell lyses D e a t h Selective action ofBtin insects 30. HOW CRY PROTEINS ACT IN THE INSECT GUT
Fig. 3 Taken from de Maagd RA (2001) Trends in Genetics 17(4), 193-199 31. DETAILS MODE OF ACTION OF BT PROTEIN 32. BTHAS NO TOXIC IMPACT IN HIGHER ANIMALS (HUMAN) BECAUSE OF..
- Very low pH (1.5 in humans)
- Absence of required receptors
Btis safe to non-target organisms-HUMAN 33. NATIONAL REGULATORY SYSTEMS IN INDIA
- Ministry of Environment and forests (MoEF)
- Department of Biotechnology (DBT)
- There are six competent authorities to handle various issues viz.,
- Genetic Engineering Approval Committee (GEAC)
- Review Committee on Genetic Manipulation (RCGM)
- Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (RDAC)
- Institutional Biosafety Committee (IBSC)
- State Biotechnology Coordination Committee (SBCC)
- District Level Committee (DLC )
Two nodal agencies, Ministry of Environment and forests (MoEF) and Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Ministry of science and technology are responsible for implementation of the regulations in India. The MoEF notified the rules and procedures for the handling of genetically modified organisms (GMO) under the environment protection act 1986(EPA). 34. 35. WHAT ARE THE SAFETY CONCERNS?
- Effects on non-targetorganisms
All safety issues were addressedbefore regulatory approval was given 36. SAFETY TO NON-TARGET ORGANISMS
- Feed safety studies were conducted using high dose ofBt -cotton seed-meal / protein on:
- Mammals -goats, buffaloes, cows, rabbits
- Biological control agents
- (Lacewing, Ladybird beetles etc)
Results revealed no ill effects &Btis safe ! 37. 38. DOES IT AFFECT BIODIVERSITY??
- Any new gene incorporation in a genome increases its genetic diversity.
- In nature, every evolution of a new species is due to some gene incorporation through cross pollination..
- The idea that Bt brinjal will destroy biodiversity is nonsensical. In fact, since brinjal has no natural resistance (to pests), the introduction of Bt brinjal will help increase genetic diversity.
39. IS IT A THREAT TO OTHER VARIETIES THROUGH CROSS POLLINATION??
- Gene transfer is not an easy phenomenon. It has to be fixed in population through selection pressure. Also, there is no horizontal transfer of the gene it will not transfer to animals; there is only vertical transfer from one generation to the next within the same species.
40. WHAT ARE THEBENEFITS OF BT-BRINJAL.?
- Benefits to consumers and society:
- 1) Consumers will have a choice to buy non-infested, undamaged and good quality brinjal fruits.
- 2) High levels of pesticide residues are present in a large number of vegetables that we eat daily.Bt brinjal will offer consumers fruits with almost no or significantly reduced level of pesticide residues, well within the prescribed MRL.
- 3) It is expected that Bt brinjal may improve marketable yield manifold resulting in availability of more brinjal in the market at affordable price. Krishna and Qaim (2007) predicted a 15% decrease in market price of brinjal at maximum technology adoption.
- 4) The Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR) showed that Bt brinjal would help stabilize the market price (IIHR, 2008).
41. BENEFITS TO FARMERS
- Farmers are expected to benefit at multiple levels. Some of these include:
- 1) Considerable reduction in cost of production by saving on cost of insecticides and lower labor cost as a result of reduced spraying.
- 2) Manifold increase in yield per unit area by saving fruits from damage caused by FSB.
- 3) Significant improvement in marketable fruits thereby increasing income per unit area.
- 4) Reduction in direct exposure to insecticides leading to lesser health problems.
42. BENEFITS TO ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT
- 1) Reduction in pesticide residues in soil and water in brinjal fields.
- 2) Lesser pollution of air and local environment due to decreased use of insecticides.
- 3) Protection of naturally occurring predators and parasitoids and other beneficial organisms due to reduced use of insecticides.
- 4) Reduction in soil and ground-water contamination.
- 5) Safeguarding soil microflora and invertebrates from damage caused by unintended and excessive use of insecticides.
- Protesting is their ROTI,, KAPRA aur MAKAN..
- Thats why every morning they arise question on a new issue.
NOW SOME PEOPLEHASCHOOSEN A NEW PROFESSION- -----------PROTESTING 44. STRANGE!!
- The opponentsseem to suggest thatBt-Brinjalkills everything else except FSB the target pests!!.....
45. SMT . PRATIBHA DEBISINGH PATIL, THE PRESIDENT OF INDIA Efforts towards sustainable agriculture can be greatly augmented with the help of space technology and biotechnology advances 46. DR. MANMOHAN SINGH, THE PRIME MINISTER OF INDIA
- We need to use the potential of biotechnology to meet the requirements of hungry people.
47. MR. P. CHIDAMBARAM, THE UNION HOME MINISTER
- Bt cotton has made India a cotton exporting country. We thought of ourselves as exporters of wheat and rice, but today we import wheat. No country as large as India can survive on imports for its food needs,..The success achieved in cotton must be used to make the country self sufficient in rice, wheat, pulse and oil seed production.
- The scientists & students should come together and speak in one voice.
- Silence is not gold. Silencing is!
50. THANK YOU HAVE A NICE DAY