Click here to load reader

Bones, Muscles and Skin Chapter 1...muscles and are attached to the bones of your skeleton and provides the force that moves your bones. • Muscle cells contract when they receive

  • View
    15

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Text of Bones, Muscles and Skin Chapter 1...muscles and are attached to the bones of your skeleton and...

  • BELL RINGER

    • Welcome Back!

    • Please take out your new

    packet of notes (Bones,

    Muscles and Skin)

    • Once you find your new seat

    put your card on my front desk.

    • Pick up a Body System Text

    book by the emergency

    window and tell Ms. Mello your

    textbook number

  • BONES, MUSCLES AND SKIN

    CHAPTER 1

  • BODY ORGANIZATION

    •The human body is organized by the different components that work together to

    perform all of the functions your body does.

    •Going from the smallest to the largest, put these terms in order:

    _____ Organs

    _____ Tissues

    _____ Cells

    _____ Organ systems

    1. The _____________ is the basic unit of structure and function in a living thing.

    2. ______________ are a group of similar cells that perform the same function. There are four types:

    • _______________________ composed of muscle cells and can contract or shorten

    • _______________________ directs and controls electrical messages between the brain and body

    • _____________________ provides support for the body and connects all its parts (ex. Bone & fat)

    • _____________________ covers the surfaces, inside & out of your body for protection

    1

    2

    3

    4

    Cell

    Tissues

    Muscle tissue

    Nervous tissue

    Connective tissue

    Epithelial tissue

  • BODY ORGANIZATION

    •The human body is organized by the different components that work together to

    perform all of the functions your body does.

    •Going from the smallest to the largest, put these terms in order:

    _____ Organs

    _____ Tissues

    _____ Cells

    _____ Organ systems

    3. An ____________ is a structure that is composed of different kinds of tissue.

    An organ performs a specific job. (ex. Heart, lungs, brain, stomach, skin etc…)

    4. An ______________________ is a group of organs that work together to

    perform a major function. For example your esophagus, stomach, intestines, and

    colon are parts of the Digestive System.

    1

    2

    3

    4

    Organ

    Organ system

  • ORGAN SYSTEMSOn your white boards write down what organ system matches each number

    Digestive =

    Nervous =

    Skeletal =

    Respiratory =

    Muscular =

    Endocrine =

    Excretory =

    Circulatory =

    1 23

    4

    5

    6

    7

    8

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    8

  • ORGAN SYSTEMS

    Digestive- Breaks down food and absorbs nutrients

    Nervous- Detects information from the environment and controls body functions.

    Skeletal- Supports and protects the body.

    Respiratory- Takes in oxygen and eliminates carbon dioxide.

    Muscular- Enables movement of the body and internal organs.

    Endocrine- Controls many body processes by means of chemicals.

    Excretory- Removes wastes.

    Circulatory- Transports materials to and from cells.

    Brain pop bodysystems

    https://www.brainpop.com/health/bodysystems/humanbody/

  • HOMEOSTASIS

    •All of the body systems work together to maintain homeostasis which is the

    body’s tendency to keep an internal balance.

    •Homeostasis is the process by which an organisms internal environment is kept

    stable in spite of changes in the external environment.

    •What examples of homeostasis can you think of that your body does?

    Brain pop homeostasis

    https://www.brainpop.com/health/bodysystems/homeostasis/

  • BELL RINGER

    -Good morning, please take out your body

    system homework, note packet and science

    journal

    -Answer the following questions in your science

    journal

    1. Put the following in order from smallest to

    largest:

    Tissues, cells, organelles, organ systems,

    organs, nucleus, chromosome, gene

    2. Which organ system matches this definition:

    “Transports materials to and from cells”.

    3. How is exercise an example of homeostasis?

    4. How do you think the skeletal and muscular

    system works together?

  • THE SKELETAL SYSTEM

    •What is the purpose of the skeletal system?

    1. To provide shape and support

    2. Allow you to move

    3. Protects your organs

    4. Produces blood cells

    5. Stores minerals and other materials for when your body needs them

    • A newborn has about 275 bones while an

    adult has 206 bones

    • Where do these bones go?

    • As we grow some of the bones in our bodies fuse

    together like our skull

  • JOINTS OF THE SKELETON•Joints allow bones to move in different ways. There are immovable

    and movable joints.

    •Immovable joints- connect bones in a way that allows little to no

    movement

    •Moveable joints are held together by connective tissues called

    ligaments and cartilage. Cartilage covers the ends of bones and

    keep them from rubbing against each other.

    • Types of Moveable joints

    1. Hinge- forward and backward motion

    2. Ball-and-Socket- greatest range of motion, can swing freely

    3. Pivot- allows for one bone to rotate around another

    4. Gliding- one bone to slide over another

    Joints

    https://www.brainpop.com/health/bodysystems/joints/

  • TRY THESE MOVEMENTS!

    1.Move your arm in a circle =

    2.Lift a book from your desk =

    3.Kneel down =

    4.Wave your hand =

    5.Twist your head from side to side =

    Ball-and socket joint

    Hinge jointHinge joint

    Hinge and gliding joint

    Pivot joint

  • BONE INJURIES1.Fracture- a break in the bone. Simple fractures the bone may be cracked

    or completely broken into two or more pieces. Complex fractures is when

    the bone sticks out through the skin.

    2.Dislocation- When the end of a bone comes out of its joint.

    3.Sprain- when ligaments are stretched too far and tear in places. Ankle

    sprains are most common. Swelling may occur.

    4.Osteoporosis- Mineral loss in the bones as people age which makes the

    bones weak and easily broken. More common in women than in men. A

    calcium rich diet can help avoid mineral loss.

  • THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

    There are about 600 muscles in

    your body. Muscles are divided into

    those that are involuntary and those

    that are voluntary.

    •Involuntary muscles are ones that

    we are not in conscious control of.

    Some examples are the involuntary

    muscles that control breathing and

    digesting food.

    •Voluntary muscles are ones that we

    are in conscious control of. For

    instance smiling and standing up

    use voluntary muscles.

  • BELL RINGER

    -Good morning, please take out your note packet and science journal-Answer the following questions in your science journal

    1. Put the following in order from smallest to largest:

    Tissues, cells, organelles, organ systems, organs, nucleus, chromosome, gene

    2. Which organ system matches this definition:“Controls many body processes by means of chemicals.”

    3. Give an example of voluntary muscle?

    4. Where is cardiac muscle found?

  • 7TH PERIOD BELL RINGER

    -Good afternoon please take out your note packet

    -Answer the following questions on a scrap piece of paper found at your squad.

    When you are done make sure your name is on it and turn it into the bin. These

    will be graded!

    1. Put the following in order from smallest to largest:

    Tissues, cells, organelles, organ systems, organs, nucleus, chromosome, gene

    2. Which organ system matches this definition:

    “Controls many body processes by means of chemicals.”

    3. Give an example of voluntary muscle?

    4. Where is cardiac muscle found?

  • THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

    Your body has three types of muscle

    tissue.

    1. Skeletal Muscle- these are voluntary

    muscles and are attached to the bones

    of your skeleton and provides the force

    that moves your bones.

    • Muscle cells contract when they receive messages from the nervous

    system. Muscles work with skeleton to allow movement and coordination

    2. Smooth Muscle- these are

    involuntary muscles and work

    automatically. They react more slowly to

    control the movements of internal

    organs and blood vessels

    3. Cardiac Muscle – this is involuntary

    muscle found only in your heart.

  • THE SKIN!What is the largest organ in the human body?• If your skin was stretched out flat it would cover an area larger than 1.5 m^2

    which is about the size of a twin mattress.

    Functions of the skin

    • Covers and protects the body from injury, infection and water loss

    • Regulates body temperature (blood vessels enlarge when hot and get smaller

    when cold. Also through sweating)

    • Eliminates wastes (through sweating)

    • Gathers information about the environment (nerves detect pain, pressure, and

    temperature).

    • Produce vitamin D (when absorbing sunlight, required for Calcium absorption).

  • THE EPIDERMIS•The first layer of skin is called the epidermis and is the outermost layer.

    •There are no nerves of blood vessels in this layer.

    •Many of the cells on the epidermis are dead and every time you rub your hands

    together, you lose thousands of dead skin cells and any bacteria on them.

    •Some cells in the epidermis produce melanin, the pigment or colored

    substance that give skin its color. Melanin protects the skin from burning.

  • THE DERMIS

    •The dermis is the inner and second layer of the skin. It is below the epidermis but

    above a layer of fat.

    •The dermis contains nerves and blood vessels, sweat glands, hairs, and oil glands.

    •Sweat glands produce perspiration, which reaches the skins surface through

    openings called pores. Strands of hair grow within the dermis in structures called

    follicles.

  • 2 POINT DISCRIMINATION

    -You are going to test the sensitivity of your skin on your inner arm and hands!

    - You will take two paper clips and move one away slowly by picking it up and putting

    it down again on the skin. When you finally feel two different “points” you will use a

    ruler to measure the distance

  • CHAPTER 2

    THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

  • BELL RINGER

    How does your teeth and saliva work together to digest food.

  • THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

    1.Break down food into

    molecules the body can

    use

    2.The molecules are

    absorbed into the blood

    and carried throughout the

    body

    3.Wastes are eliminated

    from the body

    TC

    There are three primary

    functions for the

    digestive system

    Metabolism- the sum of all of the chemical

    processes in the human body

  • THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM•Digestion- the process by which

    your body breaks down food into

    small nutrient molecules. There are

    two kinds of digestion

    • How do you digest food?

    TC

    •Mechanical Digestion- when

    you bite and chew food

    •Chemical Digestion –

    chemicals produced by the

    body break foods into smaller

    chemical building blocks

    • Absorption- is the process by which nutrient

    molecules pass through the wall of your

    digestive system into your blood

  • THE DIGESTIVE JOURNEY

    •The mouth- both mechanical and

    chemical digestion begin in the mouth.

    •Mechanical digestion in the mouth is

    performed by your

    ____________________

    •Chemical digestion in the mouth is

    performed by your

    ______________________.

    •Saliva is an enzyme which are proteins

    that speed up chemical reactions in

    the body.

    Teeth

    Saliva

    TC

  • THE DIGESTIVE JOURNEY

    •As you swallow the epiglottis

    closes off your windpipe,

    preventing food from entering.

    •The food then enters the

    esophagus which is a muscular

    tube that connects the mouth to

    the stomach. Food remains in

    the esophagus for only about 10

    seconds.

    •After food enters the

    esophagus, it pushes the food

    toward the stomach.

    TC

  • THE DIGESTIVE JOURNEY

    •In the stomach mechanical

    and chemical digestion occur

    •Mechanical digestion-

    the smooth muscle in the

    stomach contracts to

    produce a churning

    motion and mixes the

    food with fluids

    •Chemical digestion- The

    stomach contains

    digestive juice that

    contains the enzyme

    pepsin and hydrochloric

    acid

    TC

  • FINAL DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION

    •After the liquid leaves the

    stomach it enters the small

    intestine where most

    chemical digestion takes

    place.

    •Almost all chemical

    digestion and absorption of

    nutrients takes place in the

    small intestine and the

    nutrients from food will

    eventually enter the

    bloodstream.

    •This is completed with the

    help from the liver,

    gallbladder and pancreas. Dr Bionics Digestive System

    TC

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZBZWgrfZFbU

  • THE LARGE INTESTINE

    •Once the liquid food

    material reaches the end of

    the small intestine most of

    the nutrients have been

    absorbed. The remaining

    material moves into the

    large intestine

    • The water from the food material is absorbed into the bloodstream and the remaining material is readied for elimination from the body.

    • The large intestine ends at the rectum where waste material is compressed into solid form and is then eliminated from the body through the anus.

    TC

    Dr Bionics Digestive System

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZBZWgrfZFbU

  • PUT THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM TERMS IN ORDER

    •Esophagus

    •Mouth

    •Small intestine

    •Large intestine

    •Stomach

    •Bloodstream

    TC

  • BELL RINGERYou want to have a snack. You can either have one large

    apple or three twix minis. Which one will provide more

    energy?

    Calories = 130

    Total Fat = 0 g

    Total Carbohydrate = 34 g

    Protein = 1g

    Calories = 150

    Total Fat = 7 g

    Total Carbohydrate = 20 g

    Protein = 1g

  • FOOD & ENERGY

    •Nutrients are the substances in the food that provide the

    body with everything it needs to carry out all of its

    essential processes.

    TC

    Food provides your body with the needed materials for

    growing, repairing tissues and the energy to live.

    • There are six groups of nutrients necessary for human health• Carbohydrates• Fats• Proteins• Vitamins• Minerals• Water

  • FOOD & ENERGY

    When nutrients are used the amount

    of energy they released are

    measured in units called calories.

    Calorie- the amount

    of energy needed to

    raise the temperature

    of one gram of water

    by one degree

    Celsius

    Calorie Ted-ed

    You need to eat a certain number of Calories a day to meet your body’s energy needs. Your daily energy requirements depends on many factors• Level of physical activity• Age • Gut bacteria• Length of digestive track• Medical conditions• Gender• Metabolism

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VEQaH4LruUo

  • 6 TYPES OF NUTRIENTS

    1. Carbohydrates- Provide short acting energy and the raw materials to

    make cell parts

    2. Fats- Provide long-lasting energy as well as form part of the cell

    membrane and supports your internal organs and insulates your body.

    3. Proteins- needed for tissue growth and repair. Also they plan an important role in chemical reactions with cells

    4. Vitamins- are helpers in a variety of chemical reactions in the body.

    Example Vitamin K helps your blood to clot.

    5. Minerals- nutrients that are not made by living things. They are present in soil and are absorbed by plants through their roots… Then we eat the plants.Example calcium is needed for strong teeth and bones.

    6. Water- most important nutrient because the body’s vital processes such as the breakdown of nutrients take place in water.

    Vitamins Ted-ed

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ISZLTJH5lYg

  • FOOD LABELSBy law every food item must have listed specific nutritional information on it. This information are called food labels.

    Food Labels allow you to evaluate a single food as well as to compare the nutritional value of two different foods. There are 4 important parts to a food label.

    1. Serving Size- The size of a single serving AND the number of servings in the container.

    1.

    2.

    2. Calories- How much energy you get from one

    serving of this food including how many calories

    from fat.

    3. Percent Daily Value- How the nutritional

    content of one serving fits into the recommended

    diet for a person following 2,000 calories a day

    3.

  • FOOD LABELS

    By law every food item must have listed specific nutritional information on it. This information are called food labels.

    Food Labels allow you to evaluate a single food as well as to compare the nutritional value of two different foods. There are 4 important parts to a food label.

    4.

    4. Ingredients- are listed in order by

    weight, starting with the main ingredient.

    Here you can find if substances that you

    are allergic to or do not want to eat are in

    the food item

  • 1. FOOD LABEL

    1. How many servings of this

    food are there in the entire

    container?

    2. How many calories are

    there in two servings of this

    food?

    3. How many servings of this

    food would a person need

    to eat to get 50% of the

    recommended daily value

    of total fat?

    8 servings

    460 calories

    5 servings