of 20 /20
Bones - Skeleton

Bones - Skeleton

  • Upload
    lise

  • View
    46

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

Bones - Skeleton. Early Life. During development of the embryo, the human skeleton is made up of cartilage and fibrous membranes, but most of these early supports are soon replaced by bone. Think about the body position in utero during development, and the first few years of child’s life. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Citation preview

Page 1: Bones - Skeleton

Bones - Skeleton

Page 2: Bones - Skeleton

Early Life

• During development of the embryo, the human skeleton is made up of cartilage and fibrous membranes, but most of these early supports are soon replaced by bone.

• Think about the body position in utero during development, and the first few years of child’s life.

Page 3: Bones - Skeleton

• Most bones stop growing during adolescence.

• Some facial bones, especially those of the nose and lower jaw, continue to grow almost to no end throughout life.

(example of change of facial structure in elderly)

Page 4: Bones - Skeleton

Skeleton

• divided into the axial and appendicular• Together comprise 206 bones in the human

body

Page 5: Bones - Skeleton

axial skeleton

• These bones form the vertical axis of the body. They function in protection and support of the body and body parts.

• skull bones• vertebral column• rib cage

Page 6: Bones - Skeleton

Axial Skeleton

Page 7: Bones - Skeleton

Appendicular Skeleton

• These bones comprise the upper and lower limbs of the body, and the bones that connect limbs to the axial skeleton. They function in movement.

• clavicles• pelvis• Arms and hands• Legs and feet

Page 8: Bones - Skeleton

Appendicular Skeleton

Page 9: Bones - Skeleton

Function of Bones

• -Protection of vital organs• -Support & maintenance of posture• -Providing attachment points for muscles• -Storage & release of minerals (calcium &

phosphorus)• -Blood cell production (haemopoiesis)• -Storage of energy (lipids in yellow bone

marrow)

Page 10: Bones - Skeleton

bone classifications (types)

Long bones: longer than they are wide; have a shaft with 2 ends. Movement bones: including femur, metatarsals & clavicleShort bones: small & cube-shaped. Include carpals & tarsalsFlat bones: thin, flat and often curved. Including the sternum, scapula, ribs and skull bonesIrregular bones: have specialized & complicated shapes, including sacrum, coccyx & vertebrae

Page 11: Bones - Skeleton

Bone classifications

Page 12: Bones - Skeleton

Bone Textures

• Bones are made up of 2 layers that differ in texture and function:

• - Compact bone: external layer of the bone that is very dense, filled with passageways for nerves, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels.

• - Cancellous bone: internal layer of the bone that looks spongy; has an irregular latticework structure.

Page 13: Bones - Skeleton

Long Bone: structure

• Long bones are mainly comprised of a shaft, 2 ends and membranes.

Diaphysis: the shaft; constructed of compact bone and envelopes a marrow cavity. In adults, this cavity stores yellow marrow (fat)

Epiphyses: the bone ends of a long bone; constructed of compact bone externally and spongy bone internally. Blood cell production occurs here

Page 14: Bones - Skeleton

Con’t

• Articular Cartilage: thin layer of cartilage covering the ends of the bone where joints are formed. They reduce friction & absorb shock

• - Periosteum; thin shiny white membrane; important for bone growth, repair, nutrition and attachment of ligaments/tendons.

• - Medullary Cavity: space within the diaphysis where yellow bone marrow is stored.

• -Nutrient Foramen: where blood vessels pass into the bone.

Page 15: Bones - Skeleton

Diagram of Long Bone

Page 16: Bones - Skeleton

Vertebral column

• 33 Vertebrae in the body• Strong and flexible• Cervical: 7 vertebrae; the smallest & have the most

movement• Thoracic: 12 vertebrae; less mobile due to the ribs

attached to them• Lumbar: 5 vertebrae; biggest & strongest; weight

bearing• Sacral: 5 vertebrae (fused); transmit weight to the

legs/pelvis• Coccygeal: 4 vertebrae (fused)

Page 17: Bones - Skeleton

Vertebrae

Page 18: Bones - Skeleton

Vertebrae• The vertebral foramen; (hole) in each

vertebrae line up to house the spinal cord.• -Intervertebral discs: located between the

body of each vertebrae; fibrocartilage on the outside & gel like in the middle; give the vertebral column flexibility; shock absorbers

Page 19: Bones - Skeleton

Spinal column4 curves of the spine increase strength, help maintain upright balance & absorb shock

Page 20: Bones - Skeleton

Sources

“Human Anatomy & Physiology, Pearson International Edition, Eighth Edition.” Marieb and Hoehn. 2010

McGraw-Hill Companies. www.mcgraw-hill.com/

National Library of Medicine and International Osteoporosis Foundation.

www.nlm.nih.gov/ Nucleus Communications, Inc. 2003.

www.nucleusinc.com

Visual Dictionary Online. www.visualdictionaryonline.com

http://tw.aisj-jhb.com/dslattery/files/2013/05/bones.pdf