Welcome To Animal Diversity!
Lecture slides available as PDF (and Mac-formatted PowerPoint) files on Blackboard a day before lecture.
*Please print SYLLABUS from Blackboard important info here!
LECTURE: Dr. Kevin Dixon Office: 3020 King Bldg. Office hours: TW 1-2 PM, or by appt. E-mail: email@example.com Phone: 645-8813
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PLEASE REFER TO THE SYLLABUS FOR FULL COURSE DETAILS. (syllabus is posted on Blackboard)
Course objective: To gain exposure to the diversity of animal life on the planet Two guiding principles throughout: 1. Form and function (bio-engineering, bio-physics) 2. New ways of solving problems (variations on a theme; evolution)
Texts for the course: Lecture text
Not this! Get the new 5th edition!
Hickman, Roberts, Keen, Larson & Eisenhour
Tschinkel et al.Not this! Get the new edition!
Guidelines to optimize your experience/performance in class
1) Show up to lectures. *beginning next Tuesday
2) Prepare summary charts comparing features among phyla. *****see Blackboard for examples*****3) Prepare vocabulary flashcards or random word lists soon after each lecture. *****see Study Tips document on Blackboard***** 4) Form a study group. 5) STAY ON TOP OF THE MATERIAL!
Academic Honor Code
Students are expected to uphold the Academic Honor Code published in The Florida State University Bulletin and the Student Handbook. The Academic Honor System of The Florida State University is based on the premise that each student has the responsibility:
(1) to uphold the highest standards of academic integrity in the student's own work, (2) to refuse to tolerate violations of academic integrity in the university community, and (3) to foster a high sense of integrity and social responsibility on the part of the university community.http://www.fsu.edu/Books/Student-Handbook/codes/honor.html
Animal Diversity: The Diversity of Life
How do animals fit into the larger picture of the diversity of life?
Most of animal diversity is made up of arthropods
and vertebrates comprise only ~5% of the known diversity of life on the planet and mammals comprise at most only ~0.4 %!
So another course goal is simply to instill a better appreciation of all the other animals out there.
Current estimates suggest ~37 phyla of animals
(nearly half of them worms!)PARAZOAPorifera Placozoa [sponges] Acanthocephala Sipuncula [vertebrate gut parasitic worms] [peanut worms]
Ecdysozoa EUMETAZOA RadiataCnidaria Ctenophora [sea anemones,etc.] [comb jellies] Kinorhyncha Priapulida Loricifera Nematoda Nematomorpha Onychophora Tardigradia Pycnogonida Uniramia Chelicerata Crustacea [snout movers] [phallus worms] [brush heads] [round worms] [horsehair worms] [velvet worms] [water bears] [sea spiders] [insects, centipedes +] [spiders, mites, etc.] [crabs,barnacles,etc.]
Bilateria Protostomia LophotrochozoaMesozoa Platyhelminthes Nemertea Pogonophora Echiura Annelida Brachiopoda Phoronida Entoprocta Bryozoa Mollusca Chaetognatha Rotifera Gastrotricha [small parasitic worms] [tape worms and flukes] [ribbon worms] [gutless worms] [spoon worms] [segmented worms] [lamp shells] [lophophore worms] [nodding heads] [moss animals] [snails, clams, etc.] [arrow worms] [wheel animals] [unsegmented worms]
DeuterostomiaEchinodermata Hemichordata Urochordata Chordata [sea stars, etc.] [acorn worms] [sea squirts] [fish, frogs, birds, humans, etc.]
UNDETERMINED AFFINITIESGnathostomulida Cycliophora [interstitial worms] [discovered in 1995]
The exact evolutionary relationships among groups is still an ongoing and active area of research. 500 million years ago in the Cambrian, nearly 100 phyla had already evolved (the Cambrian explosion) representing nearly all major modern body plans. Many of the fossil forms are so weird we cant classify them i.e., Hallucigenia. Most of these ancient phyla are now extinct.
Olenoides serratus (1) Sidneyia (9), Waptia (17), Helmetia (13), Sanctacaris (18), Tegopelte (15), Naraoia (16), Leanchoilia (10), Canadaspis (12), Odaraia (19), Marrella (11), and Burgessia (14), as well as oddities such as Opabinia (24), Wiwaxia (26), Hallucigenia (20), Anomalocaris (28).
But, firstHow do we study diversity? -what do we mean by diversity? - where does diversity come from? - how do we organize diversity? How do animals fit into the big picture?
What does diversity mean?Genetic Diversity Geographic Variation Ecological Diversity Evolutionary Diversity
Moths in Ecuador
Insects in Tallahassee
How do we make sense of this bewildering diversity?Two guiding principles:1. Form and function ways of solving problems - various architectural-designsolutions to the basic life problems - i.e., what sort of physical constraints shape the evolution of organisms? 2. History where do the solutions come from? -evolutionary relatedness (family trees)
Lifes basic problems (life functions): Acquiring & digest food Growth (and maintenance) Reproduction Movement (internal transport of materials as well locomotion) Body form and support Detecting and responding to (environmental) stimuli Exchanging materials (O2, CO2, wastes) with environment
We will also try to gain a sense of the principle forces shaping the evolution of the observed diversity.
NOTHING IN BIOLOGY MAKES SENSE EXCEPT IN THE LIGHT OF EVOLUTION. - T. G. Dobzhansky
Describing Evolutionary Diversity
Phylogeny Describing evolutionary relationships through common ancestryClassification (Taxonomy) Partitioning organisms into formally named groups
Naming Organisms and Grouping ThemAncient Human Activity All societies assign organisms names (e.g. Robin) and then assign them into larger groups (e.g. Birds).
Classification and PhylogenyClassification Linnaeus Organized all living things into a hierarchical system of names Phylogeny Darwin, Hennig Evolutionary Family Tree
ClassicationKingdom Animalia (after this week) Phylum (Phyla) e.g. Chordata Class e.g. Mammalia Order e.g. Rodentia Family e.g. Sciuridae Genus and Species Sciurus carolinensis
PhylogenyWorking out evolutionary relationships among taxa. Darwin conceived of the idea of an evolutionary tree.
SystematicsComing up with phylogenetic hypotheses and testing them Willi Hennig (German Entomologist) devised techniques for doing this look for shared traits that evolved within the group.
How has classfication changed over time?Traditional: Plants vs. Animals
Form and Function Plants dont move, have a two part body (root and shoot). Extract water and nutrients from soil, light and CO2 from air. Animals mobile, have compact body with complex organ systems. Compact body for movement, organ systems allow surface area for biological functions.
Problems with Two Kingdom ApproachMicroscopy led to discovery of organisms (see in lab next week) that have both plant and animal characteristics Discovery of other organisms (fungi, bacteria) that did not belong to either group (added to plants) Studies of cell structure in 20th Century revealed that organisms were more diverse than previously expected. Many organisms that are similar in terms of form and function have different evolutionary origins (Convergence)
1950s Whittakers Five KingdomsAnimalia Plantae Fungi Protista Monera First three are multicellular, each clearly distinct Fifth is highly distinct Prokaryotic Cell Protista is everything else
Problems with Five KingdomsProtista is a hodgepodge of unrelated forms- some are certainly related to plants and fungi and many others were uncertain. Close relatives of animals not certain. Monera is so different from others few morphological characteristics. Carl Woese uses molecular data to look at prokaryotics phylogeny discovers the Three Domains of Life. Problem two ends up being the solution to problem one.
DNA and EvolutionEvolutionary change is change in DNA sequence DNA is like a book showing the evolutionary history of an organism (if you have a basis of comparison). Woeses work opened the door to a second great test of evolution (it passed).
Molecular data has greatly expanded our knowledge of diversityThree Domains (Archaea, Bacteria, Eukaryotes) Eukaryote Diversity Many new protist groups discovered Some new and unexpected relationships among animal phyla