Animal Diversity Animal Diversity Exploring the Categorization of Animal Species Exploring the Categorization of Animal Species

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  • Animal Diversity Exploring the Categorization of Animal Species

  • The Tree of LifeThe three domains of life represent the earliest branches in evolutionary history

  • Characteristics of Animals EukaryoticMulticellularHeterotrophicMost are capable of sexual reproduction.Animal cells lack a cell wall.Motile during some stage of their lifeRespond to external stimuli as a result of nerve and/or muscle action

  • Classification SchemeKingdomPhylumClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesAnimaliaChordataMammaliaFelidaeCarnivoraFelissylvestrisPrimatesHominidaeHomosapiensAnimaliaChordataMammalia

  • Ways to Distinguish Between Animal Groups

  • Body symmetry

  • Phylum PoriferaSponges AsymmetricalLoosely structured collection of cellsCell specializationLack tissuesNon-motile as adults Filter feeders

  • Phylum CnidariaCoral, Hydra, Anemones and Jellyfish Radial symmetryCells organized into two tissue layersLack true organsNerve network and contractile tissueBody plans Polyp- attached Medusa- motileMouth and anus are same openingAsexual and sexual reproduction

  • Body Cavities Coelom: body cavity lined on all sides by a layer of mesodermal cells

  • Phylum PlatyhelminthesTapeworms, Flukes , Flatworms Bilateral symmetryAcoelomateThree tissue layersExcretory and Reproductive Organs Move by use of nerve cells, gangliaMany are free-living; some are parasitic

  • Phylum NematodaRoundworms Bilateral symmetryPseudocoelomateThree tissue layers Tubular gastrovascular cavity; two openingsGanglionic BrainGas exchange by diffusionA few species are parasitic

  • Phylum Annelida: Segmented Worms Bilateral symmetry Coelomate, fluid filled cavity allows movementThree tissue layers Segmented bodyClosed circulatory system: 5 pairs of heartsExcretory organs: nephridiaDigestive system with specialized areas Segmented muscles for movement

  • Phylum Mollusca Bilateral symmetry CoelomateThree tissue layers Soft body in a calcium containing shell3-chambered heart, blood vessels Ciliated digestive tractExcretory organs: nephridiaHead-foot has sensory and motor organsGills for oxygen absorptionTooth-bearing strap: radula

  • Classes of Phylum MolluscaClass Bivalviaclams, mussels, oysters, scallops Class Gastropodasnails, slugsClass Cephalopodasquid, octopusClass Polyplacophorachitons (ancestral)eight plates on back

  • Phylum Arthropoda Bilateral symmetry CoelomateThree tissue layers Distinct body regions: head, thorax, abdomenjoint-footedExoskeleton, moved at joints by muscles Open circulatory systemComplex nervous system, compound eyeEfficient gas exchange system

  • Classes of Phylum ArthropodaClass Arachnidaspiders, ticks, scorpionsClass Crustaceacrabs, lobsters, shrimpClass InsectainsectsClass Diplopodamillipedes 2 pairs of legs/segmentClass Chilopodacentipedes 1 pair of legs/segmentClass Meristomatahorseshoe crabs

  • Protostome: mouth forms first during embryonic developmentDeuterostome: anus forms first and then mouth forms

  • Phylum Echinodermata Radial symmetry, 5-part body plan CoelomateDeuterostomeThree tissue layers Spiny SkinModified coelom forms a water vascular system to move tube feet Nervous system: central nerve ring with branches

  • Classes of Phylum EchinodermataClass Asteroideasea starsClass Echinoideasea urchins, sand dollarsClass Holothuroideasea cucumbersClass Ophiuroideabrittle stars

  • Phylum Chordata Bilateral symmetry CoelomateDeuterostomeThree tissue layers Four common featuresNotochordDorsal, hollow nerve cordPharyngeal gill slitsPost-anal tail

  • Sub-Phylum VertebrataNotochord replaced by vertebral column EndoskeletonDevelopment of brainClosed circulatory system, heart with 2 or more chambersUse of gills, skin or lungs to obtain oxygenwaste removal by kidneysSeparate sexes, internal or external fertilization

  • Classes of Sub-Phylum VertebrataClass Agnathajawless fishes

    Class Condrichhthyes cartilaginous fish

    Class Osteichthyesbony fish

  • Classes of Sub-Phylum VertebrataClass Amphibiafrogs, toads, salamanders

    Class Avesbirds

    Class Reptilia lizards, snakes, turtles, alligators

  • Classes of Sub-Phylum VertebrataClass Mammaliamost bear live youngmilk from mammary glandshairendothermsmonotremes: egg layingplatypusmarsupialskangarooplacentals bat, rabbit, dog, cattle, whale, human

  • Worksheet Complete pages 125-126 from lab manualRecord your answer and reasoning for any 8 specimens, making sure to write the answer on the line that matches the specimen number Be sure your instructor checks your completed worksheet before you leave the lab.


    Leave animal specimens and their skeletons in orderly arrays

    Thank you!