Animal Diversity Animal Diversity Exploring the Categorization of Animal Species Exploring the Categorization of Animal Species

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  • Animal Diversity Exploring the Categorization of Animal Species

  • The Tree of LifeThe three domains of life represent the earliest branches in evolutionary history

  • Characteristics of Animals EukaryoticMulticellularHeterotrophicMost are capable of sexual reproduction.Animal cells lack a cell wall.Motile during some stage of their lifeRespond to external stimuli as a result of nerve and/or muscle action

  • Classification SchemeKingdomPhylumClassOrderFamilyGenusSpeciesAnimaliaChordataMammaliaFelidaeCarnivoraFelissylvestrisPrimatesHominidaeHomosapiensAnimaliaChordataMammalia

  • Ways to Distinguish Between Animal Groups

  • Body symmetry

  • Phylum PoriferaSponges AsymmetricalLoosely structured collection of cellsCell specializationLack tissuesNon-motile as adults Filter feeders

  • Phylum CnidariaCoral, Hydra, Anemones and Jellyfish Radial symmetryCells organized into two tissue layersLack true organsNerve network and contractile tissueBody plans Polyp- attached Medusa- motileMouth and anus are same openingAsexual and sexual reproduction

  • Body Cavities Coelom: body cavity lined on all sides by a layer of mesodermal cells

  • Phylum PlatyhelminthesTapeworms, Flukes , Flatworms Bilateral symmetryAcoelomateThree tissue layersExcretory and Reproductive Organs Move by use of nerve cells, gangliaMany are free-living; some are parasitic

  • Phylum NematodaRoundworms Bilateral symmetryPseudocoelomateThree tissue layers Tubular gastrovascular cavity; two openingsGanglionic BrainGas exchange by diffusionA few species are parasitic

  • Phylum Annelida: Segmented Worms Bilateral symmetry Coelomate, fluid filled cavity allows movementThree tissue layers Segmented bodyClosed circulatory system: 5 pairs of heartsExcretory organs: nephridiaDigestive system with specialized areas Segmented muscles for movement

  • Phylum Mollusca Bilateral symmetry CoelomateThree tissue layers Soft body in a calcium containing shell3-chambered heart, blood vessels Ciliated digestive tractExcretory organs: nephridiaHead-foot has sensory and motor organsGills for oxygen absorptionTooth-bearing strap: radula

  • Classes of Phylum MolluscaClass Bivalviaclams, mussels, oysters, scallops Class Gastropodasnails, slugsClass Cephalopodasquid, octopusClass Polyplacophorachitons (ancestral)eight plates on back

  • Phylum Arthropoda Bilateral symmetry CoelomateThree tissue layers Distinct body regions: head, thorax, abdomenjoint-footedExoskeleton, moved at joints by muscles Open circulatory systemComplex nervous system, compound eyeEfficient gas exchange system

  • Classes of Phylum ArthropodaClass Arachnidaspiders, ticks, scorpionsClass Crustaceacrabs, lobsters, shrimpClass InsectainsectsClass Diplopodamillipedes 2 pairs of legs/segmentClass Chilopodacentipedes 1 pair of legs/segmentClass Meristomatahorseshoe crabs

  • Protostome: mouth forms first during embryonic developmentDeuterostome: anus forms first and then mouth forms

  • Phylum Echinodermata Radial symmetry, 5-part body plan CoelomateDeuterostomeThree tissue layers Spiny SkinModified coelom forms a water vascular system to move tube feet Nervous system: central nerve ring with branches

  • Classes of Phylum EchinodermataClass Asteroideasea starsClass Echinoideasea urchins, sand dollarsClass Holothuroideasea cucumbersClass Ophiuroideabrittle stars

  • Phylum Chordata Bilateral symmetry CoelomateDeuterostomeThree tissue layers Four common featuresNotochordDorsal, hollow nerve cordPharyngeal gill slitsPost-anal tail

  • Sub-Phylum VertebrataNotochord replaced by vertebral column EndoskeletonDevelopment of brainClosed circulatory system, heart with 2 or more chambersUse of gills, skin or lungs to obtain oxygenwaste removal by kidneysSeparate sexes, internal or external fertilization

  • Classes of Sub-Phylum VertebrataClass Agnathajawless fishes

    Class Condrichhthyes cartilaginous fish

    Class Osteichthyesbony fish

  • Classes of Sub-Phylum VertebrataClass Amphibiafrogs, toads, salamanders

    Class Avesbirds

    Class Reptilia lizards, snakes, turtles, alligators

  • Classes of Sub-Phylum VertebrataClass Mammaliamost bear live youngmilk from mammary glandshairendothermsmonotremes: egg layingplatypusmarsupialskangarooplacentals bat, rabbit, dog, cattle, whale, human

  • Worksheet Complete pages 125-126 from lab manualRecord your answer and reasoning for any 8 specimens, making sure to write the answer on the line that matches the specimen number Be sure your instructor checks your completed worksheet before you leave the lab.

  • CLEAN UP!

    Leave animal specimens and their skeletons in orderly arrays

    Thank you!