Anglo saxon period-1

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  • 1. Anglo Saxon Period History

2. Historical BackgroundBC 2800 - StonehengeObservatory? Temple? Calendar?Link to video about Stonehenge: 3. 2000 - 800 BCs First people on the island came from Iberianpeninsula (Spain & Portugal).s Still used Stone Age weaponry and tools.s Most important of early conquerors were Celts(two groups).s Brythons settled on large island, Gaels on smallisland (Ireland).s The modern name of the large island, GreatBritain, evolved from the Brythons: Brython =Briton = Britain 4. 800 - 600 BCs Druids - Celtic priests withmany responsibilities.s Duty of priests tomemorize and reciteheroic poems in order topass along tribal historyand values.s They worshippedGermanic gods. 5. Druids, conts Religious, political, cultural leaders of Celtic tribess Believed all natural elements had a spirit (rocks,trees, water, etc.) Oak=power of life,Mistletoe=balancing power of deaths Came to an end with the influx of Christianity(monotheism-belief in one true god) briefly duringRoman occupation, permanently in 597 AD whenPope Gregory sent emissaries to convert Anglo-Saxon kings and establish monasteries in G.B.(Augustine was principal emissary) 6. 55 BCs In 55 BC, JuliusCaesar made ahasty invasion anddeclared land.s True Romaninvasion occurredin 45 AD. 7. Romans broughts Arts Architectures Organized religions Roadss Legal system (laws)s Latin Languages Towns/cities (London=Londinium)s Military infrastructures (Hadrians Wall-built and patrolledby Romans to keep Vikings out)Romans called home in 5th century because of continuedattacks to the territory-needed for defenses Bad news for the remaining inhabitants on G.B.! 8. Anglo-Saxon Period 449-1066 ADs Next invaders of British Isles--Anglos, Saxons, and Jutes.s This is where we get the modern term for England:Angloland = Angland = Englands Sailed from Denmark and Germany in 449--in search offarm land.s Drove Britons to west portion of island and to the smallerisland.s There were resistance groups--villagers who tried to fightoff the invasion. One such group was led by a Romandescendant by the name of Artorius who may be part ofthe basis for the fictional King Arthur. 9. Christianitys Althoughpresent since 45 A.D., notstrong until:s St. Augustine, along with 50monks, arrived in England in 597A.D., and converted King Ethelbert(King of Kent) to Christianity.s Effect: building of churches andmonasteries (educational places). 10. Conversion of England changed thelanguage in three main ways:s introducedlarge church vocabularys introduced words and ideas from asfar away as India and Chinas gave incentive for Anglo/Saxons toapply existing words to new concepts.s Also played role in unifying people--beliefs about wives, children, slaves 11. The Danish (Viking) Invasions Occurred in 793 A.D. Invaders were morebarbaric than the previous Anglo-Saxoninvaders--killing, raping, and setting fire toentire villagess Norwegians to N. Eng. and Irelands Danes to E and S Englands By 850 half of England was in hands ofDanes; it was then they turned to WessexsLink to video about Viking Invasion: 12. Barbarian InfluenceBritains inhabitants were greatly influenced by Vikingand tribal invaders eradicating any Roman influenceBarbarians lived in a tribal community structure:s King=AKA ring-givers Witan=Elders or wise men/kings advisorss Earl/thane=nobility of tribe-can trace lineage tokings familys Scop=bearer of historys Warriors=central figure of societys Freemen/Churls=independent landholderss Thralls=Slavess Women=of no importance unless queen of tribe 13. Unification of Great Britains King Alfred-871-899 AD- responsible forunifying all warring territories of Great Britains Negotiated Danelaugh (treaty name) with KingCanute, leader of the Danish Vikings-gaveEngland 50 years of peaces Intended to unify all tribes and territories throughreligion and education-encouraged writing inAnglo-Saxon language, not Latins Responsible for The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle andthe Ecclesiastical History of the English People 14. End of the Anglo-Saxon Eras In January 1066, King Edward "the Confessor" died. Hewas succeeded by the Earl of Wessex, Harold. Thisbothered a duke named William across the EnglishChannel in Normandy. The royal family at Wessex hadintermarried with royalty in Normandy. William had beenthe cousin of Edward the Confessor, and Edward hadpromised to make him his heir. William believed that hehad a right to rule in England. Link to Youtube video ofre-enactment: Harold and William, the Duke of Normandy met in battlein 1066 at the Battle of Hastingss William was victorious (only because he and his troopswere positioned on the TOP of a hill as Harold and histroops attempted to climb it to defeat William), and theAnglo-Saxon era came to an end