3. READING APPROACHES. A series of stages that proceed in a fixed order from sensory input to comprehension BOTTOM - UP INTERACTIVE VIEW Combination of both. TOP - DOWN Continuum process of changing hypothesis about the incoming information
4. TOP - DOWN Prior knowledge Purpose for reading But HOW Writing conventions Interpretation/ Understanding BOTTOM - UP Language knowledge Reading strategies
5. Is this text about advantages or disadvantages? Television viewers gradually become passive in their action. Television may be a splendid media of communication, but it prevents us from communicating with each other or with the outer world. The world seen through television is only the restricted one: It separates us from the real world. The reader of this text must be able to recognize some of the key words and their exact meanings in order to understand the point being made by the author. ( passive, communication, restricted) http://www.studymode.com/essays/Advantages-And- Disadvantages-Of-Tv-199809.html
6. WRITING AS COMMUNICATION Writing Reader Decontextualized Distant Production Receptor Time Place Writing Speaking Considers and accommodates an absent reading audience to his or her ideas Reads and comprehends
7. The Reader based Approach to Writing Developed by Bereiter and Scardamalia in 1987. Views writing as aiming to produce a text that can be read successfully. The writer has the responsibility of creating a text that accommodates to the potential reader. The writer has to be fully committed both to the content and to the form of the written text. The writer must develop evaluation and reformulation strategies in the writing process.
8. WRITING FOR A READER-MATCHING THE WRITERS AND READERS SCHEMATA The Reader Consideration Process involves The reader (the audience) and his/ her needs Background Knowledge Potential content schemata USE ELABORATION SKILLS TO CREATE A COMPREHENSIBLE AND COMMUNICATIVE TEXT Being Sensitive to...
9. kkkjj THE INTERACTIONIST APPROACH TO WRITING Reader and Writer develop a deeper understanding of the process through shared experience with various texts Intertextuality Cycle of Activities A preparatory stage A first draft Evaluative dialogues A rewriting of the text An editing process
10. THE COMPOSING PROCESS Berlins Model Grices Maxims Writer (Knower) The Audience (Reader) Reality Language of a written text Top Down Bottom up Quantity Quality Relevance Manner Top Down Bottom up
11. The Effective Reader
12. Information Gap
13. Should I read this text? Do I see where the argument seems to be going? How could I improve my reading skill, to read faster and better?
14. reliance on content, context and organization. recognition of words and expressions
15. Difficulties Encountered by Readers While Reading
16. Global Processing Difficulties Mismatch between the readers view of the world and the view presented in the text. A reader who approaches the text with preconceived expectations might misread the message. A reader who may not understand some of the key words.
17. Where did the text appear and what do we know about the book where it appeared? Who is the author and what do we know about him/her ? When was the article or text published and what were the issues of concern at that time ? Teachers can help students to recognize some of the features related to the interaction between global coherence and local coherence by asking these questions. Strategies that combine top-down processing with scanning the text for key sentences can help the reader construct the overall coherence of the text. ? ?
18. Grammatical Features that cause Reading Difficulties NOUN PHRASE ADJECTIVAL CLAUSES A Noun Phrase may be due to a multiple modifiers, relative clauses with deleted relative pronouns and compound modifier in prenominal position. The complexity of the resulting structure may cause readers difficulties recognizing the head noun, affecting the processing of the text. Adjectival Clause with deleted subjects may interfere with the identification of the modifier and the head. The grammatical form of the participles may mislead readers into thinking that such a construction is a verb phrase.
19. On one hand, Linguistic competence is necessary in order for a reader to successfully recognize the internal connections within the text and be able to relate old to new information. On the other hand, General knowledge of the world is necessary to connect ones background to the ideas presented in a written text.
20. Indications of Reference The Pronoun System The Article System Demonstratives
21. Ambiguity Redundant elements, such as case and gender are not always available.
22. Use of Tense and Aspect Markers Intersentential Cohesion Simple Past Tense Historical Present Variant Progressive Aspect Main Events Main Actions To set the scene within which the main event is about to occur.
23. Simple Past Vs. Past Progressive When I walked into the office, several people were busily typing, some were talking on the phones, the boss was yelling directions, and customers were waiting to be helped. One customer was yelling at a secretary and waving his hands. Others were complaining to each other about the bad service. Historical Present At the end of the story, Luke becomes a Jedi and defeats Darth Vader.
24. Lexical Accessibility The readers combine: Personal Knowledge + Textual Information to guess the meaning of unfamiliar words, only when the context provides them with immediate clues for guessing.
25. The optimal level of textual support should be derived from: 1) The readers general schemata or general knowledge structures extending beyond the text. 2) The readers familiarity with the overall context of the text. 3) Semantic information provided in the paragraph within which the lexical item appears. 4) Semantic information in the same sentence. 5) Struc