Reading and Writing By Ximena Schneider. Reading Next and Writing Next

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Reading and Writing By Ximena Schneider Slide 2 Reading Next and Writing Next Slide 3 The reading and writing report from the Alliance for Excellent Education by Giana Biancarosa and Catherine Snow research on literacy for adolescent students has made some recommendations to improve literacy in adolescences. Carnegie Foundation's Reading Next and Writing Next Slide 4 Recommendations For Reading This report provides fifteen elements designed at improving middle and high school literacy 1. Direct, explicit comprehension 2. Effective instructional principles embedded in content 3. Motivation and self-directed learning 4. Text-based collaborative learning, 5. Strategic tutoring 6. Diverse texts 7. Intensive writing 8. A technology component 9. Ongoing formative assessment of students 10. Extended time for literacy 11. Professional development 12. Ongoing summative assessment of students and programs 13. Teacher teams 14. Leadership 15. A comprehensive and coordinated literacy program Slide 5 Recommendations # 1 and # 2 #1Effective comprehension instruction requires purposeful and explicit teaching: A teacher needs to: know what the students cognitive needs to be clear needs to have a purpose provide scaffolded instruction in research- tested strategies to model the strategy and to allow students to use them Strategies: Previewing the text and predicting Chunking the text Read Aloud and think aloud Review, retelling, summarizing Graphic sources, organizers (graphic organizers), visual images Attending to text structure #2Effective reading instruction embedded in content A teacher needs to Provide interactions that support the understanding of all the subjects uses a range of techniques of specific texts is clear about the types of texts provides discussions provides writing in response to reading Discussions: Student-led discussions Balanced level of questions Blooms Taxonomy Slide 6 Recommendations # 3 and # 4 #3 Motivation and self-directed learning Effective reading comprehension instruction starts with motivation and attitude A teacher needs to: help the student to become aware of their unique learning strengths show motivation her/himself provide the students with opportunities to choose reading materials/type provide opportunities for success emphasize progress rather than performance allow students to have some control over the choices of text #4 Effective reading instruction offers Text-based collaborative learning A teacher needs to: provide a rage of concepts and techniques for enhancing the value of student-student interaction promote reading across the curriculum encourage small group participation promote interaction beyond discussion encourage decentralized learning Builders of motivation: Presence of different genres Books with different levels of reading difficulty Goal: to enjoy and learn rather than a grade Independent reading time Collaborative learning: Positive interdependence: what helps one helps all Individual accountability Processing group interaction: time, number of members in a group Heterogeneous and homogeneous grouping Slide 7 Recommendations #5 and #6 # 5 Strategic tutoring Needs to provide students with intense individualized reading, writing, and content instruction as Tutoring needs to provide Intense and individualize instruction focus on specific area of reading (within the 5) be offered during the school day # 6 Effective reading instruction offers a diversity of texts A teacher needs to: provide a rage of concepts and techniques for enhancing the value of student-student interaction promote reading across the curriculum encourage small group participation promote interaction beyond discussion encourage decentralized learning Five areas of reading instruction: Phonemic awareness Decoding Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension Weave a web of connections within lessons, across lessons, and to students lives in and out of school. Slide 8 Recommendations # 7 and # 8 # 7 Effective reading instruction offers Intensive writing Reading to Writing activities Dialogue journals Debate Thematic units Writing to Reading activities Writing as a pre-reading activity Writing during reading activity Writing as a post reading activity # 8 A technology component Needs to use: Technology as both an instructional tool and an instructional topic Technology as a facilitator of literacy and a medium of literacy Needs to be use in different way or stages of literacy Computer applications for instruction: supplementary applications to used along with other forms of instruction; and stand-alone applications that are used by students with minimal teacher input The connection: Reading and writing are natural partners One cannot be done without the other Writers write so their work can be read Software packages and Internet can provide literacy instruction to support a self-paced, stand-alone reading and writing environment Game /interactive activities are mediums of learning and entertainment Slide 9 Recommendations # 9 and # 10 # 9 On going assessment for students Pre-during-post assessments Running records (keep track of progress) Results need to be accessible to those who work with the kids Make results (data) meaningful and have a purpose for testing Focus on one area of reading at the time Reading fluency: accuracy, rate, prosody Vocabulary Comprehension (It must require students to demonstrate their level of reading comprehension by completing some task) # 10 Extended time for reading Reading instruction and practice needs to happen throughout the day At least 2 to 4 hours of instruction connected to the Language Arts Time needs to be spend connecting reading and writing Reading time needs to be meaningful: quantity not always equals quality Make time for reading Assessment should be meaningful Use data to: Promote learning Plan strategically, to individualize teaching/learning Provide evidence to support decisions as to where to focus resources and teaching. I Have No Time I have no time to dream a dream Or think a splendid thought...... I need time to read! Slide 10 Recommendations # 11 and 12 # 11 Professional Development Teachers should: have on going professional development be offered to everyone that works directly with the students should use data from research studies attend inservice of specific and non- specific content areas (to sharpen cross- curriculum instruction) seek professional development that is tied to the school, district, and state goals (curriculum and standards) for student achievement Reflect on students need to seek the right inservice Professional development can promote a positive school environment, Improve individual teacher skills, team work, and student achievement. # 12 Ongoing summative Assessment of Students and Programs Summative assessments are typically used to evaluate the effectiveness of instructional programs and services at the end of an academic year or at a pre-determined time determine each student's ability are used to identify instructional areas that need additional attention are used to determine if students have mastered specific abilities Formative AssessmentsSummative Assessments Anecdotal recordsFinal exams Quizzes and essaysStatewide tests (ISAT, DWA) Diagnostic testsNational tests (SAT and ACT) AR tests, selection tests Slide 11 Recommendations # 13 and # 14 # 13 Teacher teams Teams need: to be properly fashioned and managed to be diverse (strengths, abilities, experience, expertise) need to distribute obligations and resources to last for prolonged period of time (to grow effectively into productive teams) to have accountability as a team to have informative assessments to report to principal/supervisor # 14 Leadership Entitles a principal and staff with a collective vision a principal and commitment and enthusiasm a school with a defined mission statement, a vision and goals and objectives a principal with knowledge of students strengths and learning needs teachers who are capable to assume a leadership role in teams or committees Two (or more) heads are better than one! Leadership is not magnetic personalitythat can just as well be a glib tongue. It is not "making friends and influencing peoplethat is flattery. Leadership is lifting a person's vision to higher sights, the raising of a person's performance to a higher standard, the building of a personality beyond its normal limitations. Peter F. Drucker Slide 12 Recommendation # 15 # 15 A comprehensive and Coordinated Literacy Program A program that: requires teachers to work and coordinate instruction encourages interdisciplinary teams promotes reading and writing teachers support and help content-area teachers teachers to share writing and reading skills to support other subjects reaches or initiates collaborations with our-of-school organizations displays motivation, enthusiasm, commitments to learning and reflects these to the students The achievements of an organization are the results of the combined effort of each individual. Vincent Lombardi Slide 13 One cannot be done without the other! Reading and Writing Slide 14 ReadingWriting Shared readingShared writing TEACHER May read aloud, ask students to predict, infer, conclude Helps students fine tune ideas, make suggestions, ask questions, clarify STUDENT Respond to questions Partner reading with peer, cross age tutor Accept responsibility for fleshing out ideas, using personal experiences, illustrations. Pattern writing style after another author ReadingWriting Guided readingGuided writing TEACHER Does reciprocal teaching before, during and after reading Offers techniques, strategies Uses reciprocal teaching techniques to guide writing, fine tuning writing STUDENT Accepts more responsibility for reading when reading materials at their instructional level Accepts responsibility for writing, looks for guidance from teacher or "more literate other" (peer, family member, etc. Slide 15 READINGWRITING