Power and political behavior !

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  • 1. Power and Political Behavior By : edhole http://www.edhole.com

2. Learning Goals Describe the nature of power in organizations and ways to build power Discuss the relationship between power and politics in organizations Describe the bases of power and ways of building power in organizations Understand political strategies and political tactics http://www.edhole.com 3. Learning Goals (Cont.) Do a political diagnosis Describe international differences in political behavior in organizations Discuss the ethical issues surrounding organizational politics http://www.edhole.com 4. Chapter Overview Introduction Power Political behavior International aspects of political behavior in organizations Ethical issues about political behavior in organizations 5. Introduction Power Dark and gloomy? Bright and cheery? How do you perceive power? 6. Introduction (Cont.) Political Behavior How do you perceive political behavior? 7. Introduction (Cont.) Political behavior pervades organizational life Focuses on developing and using power in an organization Often gives power to people who do not have it from their organizational position 8. Power Power: ability to get something done the way a person wants it done Includes the ability to gather physical and human resources and put them to work to reach a goal Essential to leadership and management functions 9. Power (Cont.) More than dominance: a capacity to get something done in an organization Central feature of political behavior Unavoidable presence in organizations 10. Power (Cont.) Facets of power Potential power: one party perceives another party as having power and the ability to use it Actual power: the presence and use of power Potential for power: person or group has control of resources from which to build power 11. Power (Cont.) Power relationships: moments of social interaction where power manifests itself Dimensions of power relationships Relational: social interaction between people and groups Dependence Reliance of one party on another party High power when valued results not available elsewhere Sanctioning: use of rewards or penalties 12. Power (Cont.) Power and authority Different concepts although a person can have both Authority usually flows from a persons position in an organization Power can accrue to people at any level 13. Power (Cont.) Reporting relationships Lateral relationships Cross-functional relationships Power flows 14. Power (Cont.) Power dynamics Dynamic not static; rises and falls for people and groups Shifts in environment can change power of person or group Marketing: successful product--power goes up; lose market share--power goes down Technology: as it increases in importance, people who know it become more powerful. The opposite happens as importance of technology drops 15. Bases of Power Bases of power: aspects of formal manage- ment position and personal characteristics Organizational bases of power: sources of power in formal management position Personal bases of power: sources of power in a managers personal characteristics Accumulate to a total power base See text book Figure 15.1 16. Bases of Power (Cont.) Organizational bases of power Legitimate power Derives from position Decision authority Reward power Tie positive results to a persons behavior Organizations reward system and policies 17. Bases of Power (Cont.) Organizational bases of power (cont.) Coercive power Tie negative results to a persons behavior Organizations reward system and policies Information power Information control Information distribution 18. Bases of Power (Cont.) Organizational bases of power (cont.) All management positions have some organizational basis of power Minimally have legitimate power Reward and coercive power depend on organi- zational policies about rewards and sanctions Assume the power in the position but it stays after person leaves the position 19. Bases of Power (Cont.) Personal bases of power Referent power: positive feelings about the leader. Related to charisma Expert power: technical knowledge and expertise Flow from the attributes and qualities of the person Strongly affected by attribution processes 20. Power, Leadership, and Management Essential to leadership and management Much more than dominance Capacity to get things done 21. Power, Leadership, and Management (Cont.) Behavior of powerful leaders and managers Delegate decision authority See peoples talents as a resource Can change peoples working conditions Get resources and information for work group Take risks 22. Power, Leadership, and Management (Cont.) Behavior of powerful leaders and managers (cont.) Press for innovations Share power widely Help develop people Results Highly effective Increases total power of the work group Increases peoples promotion opportunities 23. Power, Leadership, and Management (Cont.) Behavior of powerless leaders and managers Supervise closely Do not delegate decision authority Often distrust subordinates See peoples talents as a threat Stick to the rules 24. Power, Leadership, and Management (Cont.) Behavior of powerless leaders and managers (cont.) Do not take risks Strongly focus on the work Protect his or her territory Results Ineffective Low total power of work group Decreases peoples promotion opportunities 25. Which do you prefer: powerful or powerless leader or manager? Power, Leadership, and Management (Cont.) 26. Building Power Six major sources of power Sources are related to bases of power described earlier Political diagnosis, described later, is an important step in building power 27. Building Power (Cont.) Knowledge, skill, reputation, professional credibility (expert and information power) Political network Formal or informal Often based on position in a communication channel Important in lateral relationships Create perception of dependence: control of scarce resources 28. Building Power (Cont.) Work activities (legitimate power) Extraordinary Visible Successful at high-risk activities Charisma (referent power). Especially important in lateral relationships 29. Building Power (Cont.) Power base of the work unit Coping with uncertainty Unique function Changes in external environment Centrality in work flow Human resource management departments that become expert in affirmative action, equal employment opportunity, and workforce diversity can increase their power. 30. Attribution of Power Ascribing power to people at any level May not be same as actual power Attribution based on Personal characteristics Context of the person 31. Attribution of Power (Cont.) Personal characteristics Formal position: status and authority Technical knowledge Central position in a communication network Context of the person Physical context Group or project membership Member of a coalition 32. Political Behavior Getting, developing, and using power to reach a desired result Often appears in situations of uncertainty or conflict over choices Often happens outside accepted channels of authority 33. Political Behavior (Cont.) Unofficial, unsanctioned behavior to reach a goal Build bases of power Use political behavior Affect decisions Get scarce resources Earn cooperation of people outside direct authority 34. Political Behavior (Cont.) Ebbs and flows with the dynamics of power Two characteristics: power and influence Directed at reaching organizational goals or individual goals Plays an important role in lateral relationships Rarely have formal authority in such relationships 35. Political Behavior (Cont.) Power Influence Political process Characteristics of political processes 36. Political Behavior (Cont.) Political behavior and lateral relationships Line-staff Many entry positions Marketing Human resource management Information systems Competition for resources: money, people, equipment, office space Interdependence in work flow. Especially modern manufacturing 37. Political Maneuvering in Organizations Political maneuvering Political strategy Plan to reach a goal using specific political tactics Goal: organizational or personal Political tactics Builds power base Uses power 38. Political Maneuvering in Organizations (Cont.) Political strategy Specifies combinations and sequences of political tactics Includes plan for responding to changes in the political context People at all levels can develop and use a political strategy Not written; usually tacit 39. Political Maneuvering in Organizations (Cont.) Political strategy (cont.) Used in Resource allocation Choice of senior managers Career decisions Performance appraisals Pay increase decisions 40. Political Maneuvering in Organizations (Cont.) Political tactics Decision making processes Selectively emphasize decision alternatives Influence decision process in favor of self or work unit Use outside expert or consultant. Power is equal but wants to shift another level Control the decision making agenda: often done when person does not want change 41. Political Maneuvering in Organizations (Cont.) Political tactics (cont.) Build coalitions Form around people inside and outside the organization Those believed important to persons position Co-optation: get support by putting possible opponents on a task force or advisory board 42. Political Diagnosis Help understand the loci of power Identify type of political behavior likely to happen in an organization Usually done unobtrusively by observing behavior and making subtle inquiries 43. Political Diagnosis (Cont.) Areas of diagnosis Individuals Identify powerful people and politically active people Assess amounts of power Assess ways they likely will use their power Assess their political skills 44. Political Diagnosis (Cont.) Areas of diagnosis (cont.) Coalitions Allia