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Imperialism and Industrialization in China and Japan 1800-1914 Chapter 12

Imperialism and industrialization in japan and china

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Imperialism and Industrialization in China and Japan1800-1914Chapter 12

CHINA RESISTS OUTSIDE INFLUENCE

Section 1

China Resists Outside Influence

• Chinese traditionally looked down on all foreigners• 1793 Chinese emperor sent letter to King George of

England saying they did not need their goods

• China could reject Western goods because they were largely self-sufficient

• Basis of self-sufficiency was agricultural productivity• They developed a quick growing strain of rice and had

imported sweet potatoes, corn and peanuts

• This allowed the Chinese to effectively feed their growing population

• China also had mining and manufacturing industries • They also produced silks and porcelain that were

desired by Europeans • Foreigners could only do business in the port city of

Guangzhou• The balance of trade (earned more exporting than

spending on importing ) was in China’s favor

China Resists Outside Influence

• Tea- Opium Connection• Opium was one product that the Chinese would buy in large quantities,

trade it for tea• Opium was a habit forming narcotic that had been used for centuries a

pain reliever• By the late 1700s it was being smuggled into China for non-medicinal

use• By 1835 as many as 12 million Chinese were addicted to the drug

• The British were responsible for selling much of the opium in China because it was grown and processed in British India

• The Qing Emperor wanted the British to stop selling the drug • Opium War

• 1839 battles, mostly at sea, took place between the British and Chinese • Britain's better, more advanced navy easily defeated the Chinese and • 1842 the Treaty of Nanjing ended the war• The British received the island of Hong Kong because of the treaty

• 1844 Foreign citizens were granted extraterritorial rights in Guangzhou and other Chinese ports

• The foreigners were not subject to Chinese law in these areas• This led to resentment by the Chinese toward foreigners

China Resists Outside Influence

• Growing Internal Problems• In the first half of the 1800s China’s population expanded by 30% to over 450 million

• Food production barely increased and there was famine• Opium addiction was growing • People began to rebel against the Qing Dynasty

Taiping Rebellion• Late 1830s a movement began in Southern China called the Taiping Rebellion • The goal to share China’s wealth and no one would live in poverty• By the 1850s an army of peasants took control of large areas of southern China and they

declared Nanjing their capital• 1860s The leaders began to feud among themselves• Combination of Qing Imperial troops, British and French forces put down the rebellion• By the time the rebellion was over at least 20 million Chinese were dead

China Resists Outside Influence

• Foreign Influence Grows

• Some reformers in in the government wanted to adopt Western ways, some wanted to maintain a traditional way of life

• Person in command at the Imperial Palace was the Dowager Empress Cixi

• She held power from 1862-1908

• She supported some reform (education, military, industrial) with mixed results

China Resists Outside Influence

• European countries and Japan took advantage of the situation in China

• Many gained “spheres of influence” areas where foreign nations controlled trade and investment

• Americans worried that these nations would divide up China and leave out US traders

• 1899 US declared the Open Door Policy for China to be open to all merchants of all nations

• This protected US economic interests and protected China from becoming a colony

China Resists Outside Influence

An Upsurge in Chinese Nationalism• Many Chinese wanted stronger reforms• Frustration erupted into violence• Boxer Rebellion• Many resented special privileges given to foreigners and resented Chinese

Christians• They formed a secret organization called the Society of the Righteous and

Harmonious Fists (Boxers) to fight against the Dowager Empresses’ rule and foreigner privilege

• Spring 1900 the Boxers surrounded the European section of Beijing • In August the Boxers were defeated by a multinational force of troops

China Resists Outside Influence

Results of the Boxer Rebellion

1. The rebellion was the beginning of Chinese nationalism

2. They realized that they needed to resist foreign intervention

3. Many wanted the government to be more responsive to the needs of the people

• Chinese officials went on a world tour to see how different governments operated

• They suggested that China become a constitutional monarchy and have a national assembly

Modernization in JapanSection 2

Modernization in Japan

• Before the 1800s Japan had very little contact with the outside world

• They were ruled by the Tokugawa Shoguns that gave out land to daimyo

• Peasant farmers worked for these daimyo and were protected by the samurai

• This feudal system kept Japan relatively peaceful and prosperous

• The Japanese did trade with China and Dutch merchants from Indonesia

Modernization in Japan

Japan Ends Isolation• By the early 1800s many other countries wanted

the Japanese to open their ports for trade and Japan refused to allow it

• 1853 the U.S. sends four warships into Tokyo Harbor and the Tokugawa Shoguns realized he had no choice but to receive them

• A letter from the president of the US asked the Japanese to open trade

• One year later the US navy returned and Japan signed the Treaty of Kanagawa• Japan opened two ports where the US could trade

and take on supplies

• Other Western powers soon followed• By 1860 Japan allowed foreigners from many

countries permission to trade at several ports and it extended extraterritorial rights to many nations

Modernization in Japan

• Japanese were angry that the country was opened to foreigners and the Tokugawa shogun stepped down

• This ended the military dictatorship that had lasted for 500 years

• The new emperor was Mutsuhito, his reign lasted for 45 years and was called the Meiji Era

• The Meiji emperor knew that Japan had to modernize• He sent officials to other countries to find western ways

that could be adopted• Led reform of the government, military and education

systemI. Japan began to industrializeII. Built railroadsIII. Developed Silk and tea processing industries to give

them unique products to trade

• Developed other industries to make them competitive with European countries

Modernization in Japan

Imperial Japan• By 1890 Japan had the strongest military in Asia• As they gained economic, political and military strength

they wanted to get rid of the extraterritorial rights of foreign countries

• 1894 all extraterritorial rights were abolished • Japan become more imperialistic and national pride

increased• 1876 Japan attacked Korea to force Korea to open ports to

foreign trade• 1885 Japan and China signed an agreement to keep both

of their armies out of Korea• 1894 China breaks the agreement• Japan sends troops to Korea• The Sino Japanese War lasted only a few months and the

Japanese were the victors• Japan destroyed the Chinese navy, gained a foothold in

Manchuria and gained colonies in Taiwan

Modernization in JapanRusso-Japanese War

• Russia and Japan were the two major powers in East Asia

• 1903 the countries went to war over Manchuria (a region in northeast China)

• 1904 Japan launched a surprise attack on the Russian navy

• Japan defeated Russian troops and destroyed most of their navy

• 1905 the Treaty of Portsmouth gave Japan Manchuria and forced the Russians out of the region

Modernization in Japan

• After defeating Russia Japan took more control over Korea

• 1907 the Korean king gave up control of the country and disbanded the army

• 1910 Japan officially annexed Korea (put the country under their control)

• Japan shut down newspapers and replaced the Korean language with Japanese in schools

• They encouraged Japanese businesses and forbid Koreans to go into business for themselves