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Industrialization & Imperialism: The Making of the European Global Order Chapter 24 Modern Age: 1750 - 1914

Industrialization & Imperialism: The Making of the European Global Order

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Industrialization & Imperialism: The Making of the European Global Order. Chapter 24 Modern Age: 1750 - 1914. European Expansion. PRE-INDUSTRIAL EXPANSION Search for precious metals Purchase luxury products (silks, spices) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Industrialization & Imperialism: The Making of the European Global Order

Industrialization & Imperialism: The Making of the European Global OrderChapter 24Modern Age: 1750 - 1914

European ExpansionPRE-INDUSTRIAL EXPANSIONSearch for precious metalsPurchase luxury products (silks, spices)Fears of Muslim kingdoms in the Middle East, North Africa

Western Europe experienced huge population jump after about 1730Population pressure drove many people into the working-class proletariatProto-industrialization: employment of laborers who worked at home but in a capitalist system dependent on urban merchantsDutch & British East India companies not very interested in acquiring colonial territories in 17th century

European ImperialismIMPERIALISM FOLLOWING INDUSTRIALIZATIONSearch for markets for manufactured productsColonies in interior of Africa, AsiaSearch for raw materials to keep factories busy

Shift from pre-industrial to imperialism in mid 1800s

Overseas agents of Dutch & British East India companies, without directors permission, began acquiring land empires in Asia in 18th centuryJava was first place

Dutch in JavaDutch were content in 1620s to be vassals of the Sultan of MataramUsing mercenary forces recruited from the people of Java, the Dutch intervened in succession disputes in return for grants of land

British in IndiaAlso used mercenaries recruited from local peoples to get into IndiaBritish global imperial rivalry with France made it different here1757 - British win battle of Plassey, defeating a combined force of Indians and FrenchRobert Clive, British commanderBritish gain control of BengalAs British gained territory, Mughal Empire of India collapsed

British in IndiaMadras, Bombay, Calcutta administrative centers of 3 presidencies in IndiaIndian princes found it hard to defend their kingdoms because: *lack of national identity, *willingness of Indians to serve in British armies, *continued warfare among princesIndia: pivot of British Empire, because *size of Indian land army, *utility of Indian ports for British sea power, * raw materials for British industries

Compare Dutch & British both content to leave social systems of Java & India intact (prior to 1850)Mixed marriages common between European males & indigenous females, acceptednabobs = representatives of British East India Company who went out to secure sudden wealth, often through corruption

ReformLord Cornwallis: led reforms in India in 1790sEvangelical: English religious movement important to social reformsUtilitarianism: led by Jeremy Bentham & James Mill, a philosophical movement supporting social reform in the coloniesFrance granted citizenship to educated colonists

Empires1870s - European countries made much of Africa, Asia, & Pacific its colonial possessionsEarly 19th century - Britain dominated overseas trade & empire buildingSpain did NOT enter competitive race for colonial empire & industrial supremacy after 1870Germany, Belgium, France joined Dutch & British in the race

MotivesMotives for expansion, late 19th century: *pressure of public opinion, *release pressure of unemployed workers & surplus goods, * influence of political leaders in European countries, * ensure supply of raw materialsPublic opinion is a major factor: *jingoistic press, *extension of the vote to lower middle & working classesQuarrels over division of colonial spoils used to justify arms buildup & general militarism

AfricaAfricans & Asians often fiercely resisted colonial rule, without chances of successBy 1914, all of Africa had fallen to European countries, except EthiopiaBattle of Isandhlwana, 1879, Zulus defeated BritishBefore 1902, South Africa was a contested settler colonyEducational systems differed from Java & India: depended more on religious missionaries than state support

Other Coloniestropical dependencies = colonies where small numbers of Europeans ruled large numbers of non-Western peoplesExample of a White Dominion = AustraliaEuropeans exploited longstanding ethnic & cultural divisions between indigenous peoples

ColoniesGrowing size of European communities in foreign nations & increased number of women in European settlements = critical in growing tensions between colonizers & local African & Asian middle classesIncentives to greater production: imposing head or hut tax payable in commoditiesFood crops did NOT increase in colonies; mining, manufacturing, transportation did increase as a result of European economic exploitation of coloniesColonial economies steadily reduced to dependence on European dominated global market

South Africa & Australia similarTemperate climate to grow crops & raise livestock familiar to EuropeansDisease environment in which they could surviveColonists began to move to interior

Boer Colony: South AfricaAnnexation by British, 1815, set Boer colony on a different path than White DominionsTransvaal: republic founded by Boers in 1850s

New ZealandNew Zealand native = MaoriContact with Europeans, 1790s, caused: *spread of alcoholism & prostitution, * firearms in Maori warfare, *European diseases such as smallpoxIntermarriage with Europeans NOT common among Maori

HawaiiCaptain James Cook opened Hawaii to the WestKamehameha Hawaiian prince who created a united kingdom, 1810, with aid of British weapons & advisors