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AKS 44: Industrialization, Nationalism, and Imperialism CHAPTER 24.3 – PAGES 692-697 CHAPTER 25 – PAGES 717-741 CHAPTER 28.2 – PAGES 810-813

AKS 44: Industrialization, Nationalism, and Imperialism 44 Industrialization... · AKS 44: Industrialization, Nationalism, and Imperialism CHAPTER 24.3 – PAGES 692-697 CHAPTER 25

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Page 1: AKS 44: Industrialization, Nationalism, and Imperialism 44 Industrialization... · AKS 44: Industrialization, Nationalism, and Imperialism CHAPTER 24.3 – PAGES 692-697 CHAPTER 25

AKS 44: Industrialization, Nationalism, and Imperialism

CHAPTER 24.3 – PAGES 692-697 CHAPTER 25 – PAGES 717-741 CHAPTER 28.2 – PAGES 810-813

Page 2: AKS 44: Industrialization, Nationalism, and Imperialism 44 Industrialization... · AKS 44: Industrialization, Nationalism, and Imperialism CHAPTER 24.3 – PAGES 692-697 CHAPTER 25

Industrialization in England Contributing Factors:

• Agricultural Revolution: – Wealthy bought more land experimentation

– Results: • Tried new agricultural

methods • Small farmers forced to

become tenant farmers or give up farming & move to cities

– Ex: Jethro Tull invented seed drill

Jethro Tull’s Seed Drill

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• Crop Rotation: – Improved medieval 3-field

system

– Ex: • Year 1: Wheat (exhausted soil

nutrients)

• Year 2: Root crop like turnips (restore nutrients)

• Year 3: Barley

• Year 4: Clover

Industrialization in England Contributing Factors:

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• Why Britain?: – Natural Resources:

• Water power & coal – fuel machines

• Iron ore – construct machines, tools, buildings

• Rivers – inland transportation

• Harbors – merchant ships set sail

Industrialization in England Contributing Factors:

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• Why Britain?: – Economic Expansion:

• Investment in new inventions

• Highly developed banking system

• Growing trade, economic prosperity, climate of progress increased demand for goods

Industrialization in England Contributing Factors:

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• Why Britain?: – Political Stability:

• No wars on British soil

• Positive attitude

• Laws to encourage business

• Britain had factors of production (land, labor, and capital)

Industrialization in England Contributing Factors:

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Industrialization in Germany Contributing Factors:

Natural Resources: – Obstacle = political disunity

– Coal-rich Ruhr Valley

– Led to importation of British equipment, engineers

– Sent children to England to learn industrial management

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• Railroads: – Built linking manufacturing cities to Ruhr

Valley

Industrialization in Germany Contributing Factors:

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• Meiji Reform: – Meiji = “enlightened rule”

– Mutsuhito – symbolized pride & nationalism

– Took over gov’t after Tokugawa shogun stepped down

Industrialization in Japan Contributing Factors

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• Transportation: – James Watt – improved steam engine

– Robert Fulton – put steam engine in steamboat

– England – canals built – slashed cost of transporting goods

– Improved roads where wagons would not sink when it rained

– Steam-powered locomotives

Industrialization in England Process:

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• Rise of Cities: – Growth of factory system city building

and people shift toward cities (urbanization)

– Built near sources of energy (coal & water)

– London most important

Industrialization in England Process:

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• Living & Working Conditions: – No development plans, sanitary & building codes

– Lacked housing, education – Sickness widespread – Avg. worker = 14 hrs/day, 6 days/wk – Factories not clean or safe – no aid in case of injury

– Coal mines most dangerous – children and women employed here b/c they were cheap

Industrialization in England Process:

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• Transportation: – See above

• Economy & Military: – Economic strength spurred ability to

become military power

Industrialization in Germany Process:

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Industrialization in Japan Process:

• Transportation: – Followed industrialization

– Early 1900s = modern economy

– Built railroads

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Industrialization in Japan Process:

• Westernization: – To counter western influence = modernize

– Diplomats sent to Europe, N. America to study Western ways

– Chose best & adapted

– Modernized military

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• Modernization: – Coal production grew

– Built thousands of factories

– Expanded unique production (tea & silk)

– Shipbuilding to be competitive with west

Industrialization in Japan Process:

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Industrialization Working Conditions:

• Industry created many new jobs

• Factories were dirty, unsafe, dangerous

• Factory bosses exercised harsh discipline

• Long-Term Effect: – Workers won ↑ wages, shorter hours, better conditions

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Industrialization Social Classes: • Factory workers – overworked, underpaid • Overseers & skilled workers rose to lower

middle class. Factory owners & merchants formed upper middle class.

• Upper middle class resented those in middle class who became wealthier than they were.

• Long-Term Effect: – Standard of living rose

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Industrialization Size of Cities:

• Factories brought job seekers to cities

• Urban areas doubled, tripled, or quadrupled in size

• Many cities specialized in certain industries

• Long-Term Effect: – Suburbs grew as people fled crowded cities

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Industrialization Living Conditions: • Cities lacked

sanitary codes or building controls

• Housing, water, & social services were scarce

• Epidemics swept through the city

• Long-Term Effect: – Housing, diet, & clothing improved

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Impact of Industrialization Rise of Global Inequality:

• Widened wealth gap b/w industrialized & non-industrialized countries

• Industrialized saw poor countries as markets for manufacturing products

• Began seizing colonies for economic resources imperialism

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• Industrialization = tremendous economic power

• Population, health, wealth rose dramatically in all industrialized countries

• Development of middle class – education & democratic participation social reform

Impact of Industrialization Transformation of Society:

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Important Writings Adam Smith:

• Basic Ideas: – Economic liberty

guaranteed economic progress

– Government need not interfere in the economy

• Wrote “Wealth of Nations”

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Important Writings Karl Marx:

• Predicted destruction of the capitalist system & creation of a classless communist state in which the means of production would be owned by the people

• Wrote “Communist Manifesto”

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Impact of Urbanization on Women Mixed Blessing:

• Good: Factory work = higher wages than work done at home

• Bad: Women usually made 1/3 the amount men made

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• Women formed unions in women-dominated fields

• Served as safety inspectors in women-dominated factories

Impact of Urbanization on Women Reform Movements:

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• Ran a settlement house to provide social services to residents of a poor neighborhood

Impact of Urbanization on Women Jane Adams:

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Nationalism Unification of Germany:

• Led by Prussia

• Otto von Bismarck – Prime Minister under Wilhelm I – Policy of Realpolitik:

• Tough power politics - no idealism

• Issues not decided by resolutions, but by “blood and iron”

• Allowed him to expand Prussia & achieve dominance

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Germany Seven Weeks’ War (1866) • Bismarck provoked Austria to declare war

on Prussia • Prussia (superior training & equipment)

humiliated Austria • Austrians lost Venetia – given to Italy • Had to accept Prussian annexation of more

German territory • Prussia took control of N. Germany – for

1st time, E & W Prussia joined

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Germany Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) • Bismarck manufactured “incident” that

caused France to declare war on Prussia • Final stage in German unification • S. Germans (Catholic) accepted Prussian

(Protestant) leadership • King Wilhelm I crowned “Kaiser” – emperor

– Called empire “Second Reich” (HRE was the 1st)

• Bismarck achieved Prussian dominance by “blood and iron”

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Nationalism Unification of Italy: • Led by Sardinia • Camillo di Cavour – Prime Minister under King Victor Emmanuel II – Worked to expand

Sardinian Empire – Succeeded through war,

alliances, & help of nationalist rebels

– Unified Italy in process

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Germany & Italy - Similarities

• Leaders were aristocrats

• Nations united by nationalism

• One state led unification

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Japan Modernization Pays Off for Japan

• By 1890, Japan had: – Several dozen warships

– 500,000 well-trained, well-armed soldiers

– Became strongest military power in Asia

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Japan Japan Gains Western Favor as a Nation-State

• Constitution & legal codes similar to European nations

• Wanted to eliminate extraterritorial rights of foreigners

• 1894 – foreign powers accepted it

• Strength & feeling of equality rose

• Became more imperialistic

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Reaction to Foreign Domination Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905):

• Causes: – Russia refused to

stay out of Korea

– Japanese led surprise attack on Russian navy anchored off coast of Manchuria

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Reaction to Foreign Domination Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905):

• Results: – Destruction of Russian navy

– Territorial gains for Japan

– Withdrawal of Russia from Manchuria & Korea

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Reaction to Foreign Domination Young Turks: • Progressive group that believed in

liberalism, constitutionalism, materialism, centralized government, and nationalism

• Opposed imperialism

• Impact: – Tradition of dissent shaped political and

intellectual life in late Ottoman period

– State was instrument for social/political change

– Ideals helped form early modern Turkish state

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Forces of Imperialism Motives:

• Economic competition for markets & raw materials

• National pride

• Racism

• Missionaries' desire to Christianize & “civilize” non-European peoples

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• Superior weapons

• Railroads, cables, steamships

• Quinine (drug) to protect from malaria

Forces of Imperialism Technological Advantages over Africa:

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• Africans’ great diversity of languages and cultures

• Ethnic rivalries

• Lower level of technology, including weapons

Forces of Imperialism Factors Making Africa Vulnerable:

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Division of Africa Berlin Conference of 1884 & 1885:

• Agreement among 14 European nations about how to divide Africa among European countries

• Outcomes: – Random distribution of African ethnic & linguistic groups among European nations

– Transformation of the way of life of Africans

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“From Cairo to Cape Town”

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• Zulus – Shaka – created large centralized state – Successors unable to keep together against British

superior arms – British invaded 1879 – Fell to British control in 1887

• Boers (Dutch) – a.k.a. Afrikaners – 1st Europeans to settle in S. Africa

• British – Took over Cape Colony in early 1800s – clashed

with Boers over British policy regarding land & slaves

Division of Africa Clash in South Africa:

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• Diamonds/gold discovered in 1860s & 1880s

• Boers launched commando raids & used guerilla tactics

• British burned farms & imprisoned women & children

• Britain finally won

• Outcome: – Creation of self-governing Union of South Africa

controlled by British

Division of Africa Boer War (1899-1910):

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French Control of Indochina How Brought Under Control:

• Missionaries were killed

• French army invaded Vietnam

• Combined it with Laos and Cambodia

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• Direct control – French themselves filled all important positions in gov’t

French Control of Indochina Method of Control:

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• Discouraged local industry

• Rice became major export crop

French Control of Indochina Economic Policies:

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• Imposed French culture

• All schools, courts, & businesses followed French models

• ↓ of local industries

• Less food for peasants

French Control of Indochina Colonial Impact:

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Japanese in Asia War with China (Sino-Japanese War) (1894-1895):

• How it started: – Rebellion broke out against Korea’s king, who

asked China for military help – Chinese troops marched into Korea – Japan protested violation of agreement & sent its

troops to fight the Chinese • Consequences:

– Destruction of Chinese navy – Beginning of Japanese colonial empire – Change to world’s balance of power – Emergence of Russia & Japan as major powers

(& enemies) in Asia

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• Annexed Korea – brought under control

• Ruled Korea harshly

• Established very repressive gov’t that denied rights to Korea

• Inspired Korean nationalist movement

Japanese in Asia Occupation of Korea:

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Interaction with Westerners Opium War (China):

• Setting the Stage: – China self-sufficient, little

trade w/ west favorable balance of trade

– Europeans wanted to find product Chinese would buy in large quantities found it in opium

– Many Chinese became addicted

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• Causes: – Chinese emperor wanted trade stopped

Britain refused to stop

Interaction with Westerners Opium War (China):

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• Results & Effects: – Chinese defeat & humiliation

– Cession of Hong Kong to Britain (Treaty of Nanjing (Nanking)

– Continuation of opium trade

– Extraterritorial rights for foreign citizens

– Chinese resentment against foreigners

Interaction with Westerners Opium War (China):

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• Setting the Stage: – Population provided major challenge growing

30% in only 60 years

Interaction with Westerners Taiping Rebellion (China):

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• Causes: – Hunger/starvation caused by inability to

feed enormous population

– Increasing opium addiction

– Poverty

Interaction with Westerners Taiping Rebellion (China):

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• Results & Effects: – Rebellion put down

– Restoration of Qing to power (with help of British and French forces)

– 20 million people died

Interaction with Westerners Taiping Rebellion (China):

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• Perry Arrives in Tokyo: – Arrives with letter from U.S.

President Fillmore

– Letter politely asked shogun to allow free trade

– Perry gave threat that he would return with larger fleet in one year to get Japanese reply

– Purpose: shock & frighten Japanese into accepting trade with U.S.

Interaction with Westerners Commodore Matthew Perry (Japan):

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• Treaty of Kanagawa (1854): – Japan opened two ports where ships could

take supplies

Interaction with Westerners Commodore Matthew Perry (Japan):

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• Benefits to U.S.A.: – Gained rights to trade at those two ports

– Opened door for other W powers

Interaction with Westerners Commodore Matthew Perry (Japan):

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Effects of Imperialism Colonization:

• Europeans control land and people in areas of Africa, Asia, and Latin America

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• Europeans control trade in the colonies and set up dependent cash-crop economies

Effects of Imperialism Colonial Economics:

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• Christianity is spread to Africa, India, and Asia

Effects of Imperialism Christianization: