Human Computer InteractionLecturer: Sumaira Hussain
chapter 2the computer
The Computera computer system is made up of various elements
each of these elements affects the interactioninput devices text entry and pointingoutput devices screen (small&large), digital papervirtual reality special interaction and display devicesphysical interaction e.g. sound, haptic, bio-sensingpaper as output (print) and input (scan)memory RAM & permanent media, capacity & accessprocessing speed of processing, networks
Interacting with computersto understand humancomputer interaction need to understand computers!
what goes in and outdevices, paper,sensors, etc.
what can it do?memory, processing,networks
A typical computer systemscreen, or monitor, on which there are windowskeyboardmouse/trackpad
the devices dictate the styles of interaction that the system supportsIf we use different devices, then the interface will support a different style of interaction
How many computers in your house?hands up, none, 1, 2 , 3, more!!
computers in your pockets?
are you thinking PC, laptop, PDA ??
How many computers in your house?
PCTV, VCR, DVD, HiFi, cable/satellite TVmicrowave, cooker, washing machinecentral heatingsecurity system
can you think of more?in your pockets?
PDAphone, camerasmart card, card with magnetic strip?electronic car keyUSB memory
try your pockets and bags
Interactivity?Long ago in a galaxy far away batch processingpunched card stacks or large data files preparedlong wait .line printer output and if it is not right
Now most computing is interactiverapid feedbackthe user in control (most of the time)doing rather than thinking
Is faster always better?
text entry deviceskeyboards (QWERTY et al.)chord keyboards, phone padshandwriting, speech
KeyboardsMost common text input deviceAllows rapid entry of text by experienced users
Keypress closes connection, causing a character code to be sentUsually connected by cable, but can be wireless
layout QWERTYStandardised layoutbut non-alphanumeric keys are placed differentlyaccented symbols needed for different scriptsminor differences between UK and USA keyboards
QWERTY arrangement not optimal for typing layout to prevent typewriters jamming!Alternative designs allow faster typing but large social base of QWERTY typists produces reluctance to change.
alternative keyboard layoutsAlphabetickeys arranged in alphabetic ordernot faster for trained typistsnot faster for beginners either!
Dvorakcommon letters under dominant fingersbiased towards right handcommon combinations of letters alternate between hands10-15% improvement in speed and reduction in fatigueBut - large social base of QWERTY typists produce market pressures not to change
special keyboardsdesigns to reduce fatigue for RSIfor one handed usee.g. the Maltron left-handed keyboard
Chord keyboardsonly a few keys - four or 5letters typed as combination of keypressescompact size ideal for portable applicationsshort learning time keypresses reflect letter shapefast once you have trained
BUT - social resistance, plus fatigue after extended useNEW niche market for some wearables
phone pad and T9 entryuse numeric keys withmultiple presses2 a b c6 - m n o3 - d e f7 - p q r s4 - g h i8 - t u v5 - j k l9 - w x y zhello = 4433555[pause]555666surprisingly fast!
T9 predictive entrytype as if single key for each letteruse dictionary to guess the right wordhello = 43556 but 26 -> menu am or an
Handwriting recognitionText can be input into the computer, using a pen and a digesting tabletnatural interaction
Technical problems:capturing all useful information - stroke path, pressure, etc. in a natural mannersegmenting joined up writing into individual lettersinterpreting individual letterscoping with different styles of handwriting
Used in PDAs, and tablet computers leave the keyboard on the desk!
Speech recognitionImproving rapidly
Most successful when:single user initial training and learns peculiaritieslimited vocabulary systems
Problems withexternal noise interferingimprecision of pronunciationlarge vocabulariesdifferent speakers
Numeric keypadsfor entering numbers quickly:calculator, PC keyboardfor telephones
not the same!!
ATM like phone
positioning, pointing and drawingmouse, touchpadtrackballs, joysticks etc.touch screens, tabletseyegaze, cursors
the MouseHandheld pointing devicevery commoneasy to use
Two characteristicsplanar movementbuttons(usually from 1 to 3 buttons on top, used for making a selection, indicating an option, or to initiate drawing etc.)
the mouse (ctd)Mouse located on desktoprequires physical spaceno arm fatigue
Relative movement only is detectable.Movement of mouse moves screen cursorScreen cursor oriented in (x, y) plane,mouse movement in (x, z) plane
an indirect manipulation device.device itself doesnt obscure screen, is accurate and fast.hand-eye coordination problems for novice users
How does it work?Two methods for detecting motion
MechanicalBall on underside of mouse turns as mouse is movedRotates orthogonal potentiometersCan be used on almost any flat surface
Opticallight emitting diode on underside of mousemay use special grid-like pad or just on deskless susceptible to dust and dirtdetects fluctuating alterations in reflected light intensity to calculate relative motion in (x, z) plane
Even by foot some experiments with the footmousecontrolling mouse movement with feet not very common :-)
but foot controls are common elsewhere:car pedalssewing machine speed controlorgan and piano pedals
Touchpadsmall touch sensitive tabletsstroke to move mouse pointerused mainly in laptop computers
good acceleration settings importantfast strokelots of pixels per inch movedinitial movement to the targetslow strokeless pixels per inchfor accurate positioning
Trackball and thumbwheelsTrackballball is rotated inside static housinglike an upsdie down mouse!relative motion moves cursorindirect device, fairly accurateseparate buttons for pickingvery fast for gamingused in some portable and notebook computers.
Thumbwheels for accurate CAD two dials for X-Y cursor positionfor fast scrolling single dial on mouse
Joystick and keyboard nippleJoystickindirectpressure of stick = velocity of movement buttons for selection on top or on front like a triggeroften used for computer gamesaircraft controls and 3D navigation
Keyboard nipplefor laptop computersminiature joystick in the middle of the keyboard
Touch-sensitive screenDetect the presence of finger or stylus on the screen.works by interrupting matrix of light beams, capacitance changes or ultrasonic reflectionsdirect pointing device
Advantages:fast, and requires no specialised pointergood for menu selectionsuitable for use in hostile environment: clean and safe from damage.
Disadvantages:finger can mark screenimprecise (finger is a fairly blunt instrument!)difficult to select small regions or perform accurate drawinglifting arm can be tiring
Stylus and light penStylussmall pen-like pointer to draw directly on screenmay use touch sensitive surface or magnetic detectionused in PDA, tablets PCs and drawing tables
Light Pennow rarely useduses light from screen to detect location
BOTH very direct and obvious to usebut can obscure screen
Digitizing tabletMouse like-device with cross hairs
used on special surface - rather like stylus
very accurate- used for digitizing maps
Eyegazecontrol interface by eye gaze directione.g. look at a menu item to select ituses laser beam reflected off retina a very low power laser! mainly used for evaluation (ch x)potential for hands-free controlhigh accuracy requires headsetcheaper and lower accuracy devices availablesit under the screen like a small webcam
Cursor keysFour keys (up, down, left, right) on keyboard.Very, very cheap, but slow. Useful for not much more than basic motion for text-editing tasks.No standardised layout, but inverted T, most common
Discrete positioning controlsin phones, TV controls etc.cursor pads or mini-joysticksdiscrete left-right, up-downmainly for menu selection
display devicesbitmap screens (CRT & LCD)large & situated displaysdigital paper
bitmap displaysscreen is vast number of coloured dots
resolution and colour depthResolution used (inconsistently) fornumber of pixels on screen (width x height)e.g. SVGA 1024 x 768, PDA perhaps 240x400density of pixels (in pixels or dots per inch - dpi)typically between 72 and 96 dpiAspect ratioration between width and height4:3 for most screens, 16:9 for wide-screen TVColour depth:how many different colours for each pixel?black/white or greys only256 from a pallete8 bits each for red/green/blue = millions of colours
anti-aliasingJaggiesdiagonal lines that have discontinuities in due to horizontal raster scan process.
Anti-aliasingsoftens edges by using shades of line colouralso used for text
Cathode ray tubeStream of electrons emitted from electron gun, focused and directed by magnetic fields, hit phosphor-coated screen which glowsused in TVs and computer monitors
Health hazards of CRT !X-rays: largely absorbed by screen (but not at rear!)UV- and IR-radiation from phosphors: insignificant levelsRadio frequency emissions, plus ultrasound (~16kHz)Electrostatic field - leaks out through tube to user. Intensity dependant on distance and humidity. Can cause rashes.Electromagnetic fields (50Hz-0.5MHz). Create induction currents in conductive materials, including the human body. Two types of effects attributed to this: visual system - high incidence of cataracts in VDU operators, and concern over reproductive disorders (miscarriages and birth defects).
Health hints do not sit too close to the screendo not use very small fontsdo not look at the screen for long periods without a breakdo not place the screen directly in front of a bright windowwork in well-lit surroundings
Take extra care if pregnant.but also posture, ergonomics, stress
Liquid crystal displaysSmaller, lighter, and no radiation problems.
Found on PDAs, portables and notebooks, and increasingly on desktop and even for home TV
also used in dedicted displays:digital watches, mobile phones, HiFi controls
How it works Top plate transparent and polarised, bottom plate reflecting.Light passes through top plate and crystal, and reflects back to eye. Voltage applied to crystal changes polarisation and hence colourlight reflected not emitted => less eye strain
special displaysRandom Scan (Directed-beam refresh, vector display)draw the lines to be displayed directlyno jaggieslines need to be constantly redrawnrarely used except in special instrumentsDirect view storage tube (DVST)Similar to random scan but persistent => no flickerCan be incrementally updated but not selectively erasedUsed in analogue storage oscilloscopes
large displaysused for meetings, lectures, etc.technologyplasma usually wide screenvideo walls lots of small screens togetherprojected RGB lights or LCD projectorhand/body obscures screenmay be solved by 2 projectors + clever software back-projectedfrosted glass + projector behind
situated displaysdisplays in public placeslarge or smallvery public or for small groupdisplay onlyfor information relevant to locationor interactiveuse stylus, touch sensitive screemin all cases the location mattersmeaning of information or interaction is related to the location
small displays beside office doorshandwritten notes left using stylusoffice owner reads notes using web interface
Hermes a situated display
small displaysbesideoffice doorshandwrittennotes leftusing stylusoffice ownerreads notesusing web interface
Digital paperwhat?thin flexible sheetsupdated electronicallybut retain display
how?small spheres turnedor channels with coloured liquidand contrasting spheresrapidly developing area
virtual reality and 3D interactionpositioning in 3D spacemoving and graspingseeing 3D (helmets and caves)
positioning in 3D spacecockpit and virtual controlssteering wheels, knobs and dials just like real!the 3D mousesix-degrees of movement: x, y, z + roll, pitch, yaw data glovefibre optics used to detect finger positionVR helmetsdetect head motion and possibly eye gazewhole body trackingaccelerometers strapped to limbs or reflective dots and video processing
pitch, yaw and roll
pitchyawrollup/down angle (called pitch)left/right orientation (called yaw) the amount it is twisted about its own axis (called roll)
3D displaysdesktop VRordinary screen, mouse or keyboard controlperspective and motion give 3D effectseeing in 3Duse stereoscopic visionVR helmetsscreen plus shuttered spectacles, etc.
also see extra slides on 3D vision
VR headsetssmall TV screen for each eyeslightly different angles3D effect
VR motion sicknesstime delaymove head lag display movesconflict: head movement vs. eyesdepth perceptionheadset gives different stereo distancebut all focused in same planeconflict: eye angle vs. focusconflicting cues => sicknesshelps motivate improvements in technology
simulators and VR cavesscenes projected on wallsrealistic environmenthydraulic rams!real controlsother people
physical controls, sensors etc.special displays and gaugessound, touch, feel, smellphysical controlsenvironmental and bio-sensing
dedicated displaysanalogue representations:dials, gauges, lights, etc.
digital displays:small LCD screens, LED lights, etc.
head-up displays found in aircraft cockpitsshow most important controls depending on context
Soundsbeeps, bongs, clonks, whistles and whirrs
used for error indications
confirmation of actions e.g. keyclick
also see chapter 10
Touch, feel, smelltouch and feeling importantin games vibration, force feedbackin simulation feel of surgical instrumentscalled haptic devices
texture, smell, tastecurrent technology very limited
BMW iDrivefor controlling menusfeel small bumps for each itemmakes it easier to select options by feel uses haptic technology from Immersion Corp.
physical controlsspecialist controls needed industrial controls, consumer products, etc.
large buttonsclear dials
tiny buttonsmulti-functioncontroleasy-cleansmooth buttons
Environment and bio-sensingsensors all around uscar courtesy light small switch on doorultrasound detectors security, washbasinsRFID security tags in shopstemperature, weight, location
and even our own bodies iris scanners, body temperature, heart rate, galvanic skin response, blink rate
paper: printing and scanningprint technologyfonts, page description, WYSIWYGscanning, OCR
Printingimage made from small do...