Human Computer Interaction HCI

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Human Computer InteractionLecturer: Sumaira Hussain

chapter 2the computer

The Computera computer system is made up of various elements

each of these elements affects the interactioninput devices text entry and pointingoutput devices screen (small&large), digital papervirtual reality special interaction and display devicesphysical interaction e.g. sound, haptic, bio-sensingpaper as output (print) and input (scan)memory RAM & permanent media, capacity & accessprocessing speed of processing, networks

Interacting with computersto understand humancomputer interaction need to understand computers!

what goes in and outdevices, paper,sensors, etc.

what can it do?memory, processing,networks

A typical computer systemscreen, or monitor, on which there are windowskeyboardmouse/trackpad


the devices dictate the styles of interaction that the system supportsIf we use different devices, then the interface will support a different style of interaction


How many computers in your house?hands up, none, 1, 2 , 3, more!!

computers in your pockets?

are you thinking PC, laptop, PDA ??

How many computers in your house?

PCTV, VCR, DVD, HiFi, cable/satellite TVmicrowave, cooker, washing machinecentral heatingsecurity system

can you think of more?in your pockets?

PDAphone, camerasmart card, card with magnetic strip?electronic car keyUSB memory

try your pockets and bags

Interactivity?Long ago in a galaxy far away batch processingpunched card stacks or large data files preparedlong wait .line printer output and if it is not right

Now most computing is interactiverapid feedbackthe user in control (most of the time)doing rather than thinking

Is faster always better?

Richer interaction

sensorsand deviceseverywhere

text entry deviceskeyboards (QWERTY et al.)chord keyboards, phone padshandwriting, speech

KeyboardsMost common text input deviceAllows rapid entry of text by experienced users

Keypress closes connection, causing a character code to be sentUsually connected by cable, but can be wireless

layout QWERTYStandardised layoutbut non-alphanumeric keys are placed differentlyaccented symbols needed for different scriptsminor differences between UK and USA keyboards

QWERTY arrangement not optimal for typing layout to prevent typewriters jamming!Alternative designs allow faster typing but large social base of QWERTY typists produces reluctance to change.

QWERTY (ctd)

alternative keyboard layoutsAlphabetickeys arranged in alphabetic ordernot faster for trained typistsnot faster for beginners either!

Dvorakcommon letters under dominant fingersbiased towards right handcommon combinations of letters alternate between hands10-15% improvement in speed and reduction in fatigueBut - large social base of QWERTY typists produce market pressures not to change

special keyboardsdesigns to reduce fatigue for RSIfor one handed usee.g. the Maltron left-handed keyboard

Chord keyboardsonly a few keys - four or 5letters typed as combination of keypressescompact size ideal for portable applicationsshort learning time keypresses reflect letter shapefast once you have trained

BUT - social resistance, plus fatigue after extended useNEW niche market for some wearables

phone pad and T9 entryuse numeric keys withmultiple presses2 a b c6 - m n o3 - d e f7 - p q r s4 - g h i8 - t u v5 - j k l9 - w x y zhello = 4433555[pause]555666surprisingly fast!

T9 predictive entrytype as if single key for each letteruse dictionary to guess the right wordhello = 43556 but 26 -> menu am or an

Handwriting recognitionText can be input into the computer, using a pen and a digesting tabletnatural interaction

Technical problems:capturing all useful information - stroke path, pressure, etc. in a natural mannersegmenting joined up writing into individual lettersinterpreting individual letterscoping with different styles of handwriting

Used in PDAs, and tablet computers leave the keyboard on the desk!

Speech recognitionImproving rapidly

Most successful when:single user initial training and learns peculiaritieslimited vocabulary systems

Problems withexternal noise interferingimprecision of pronunciationlarge vocabulariesdifferent speakers

Numeric keypadsfor entering numbers quickly:calculator, PC keyboardfor telephones

not the same!!

ATM like phone



positioning, pointing and drawingmouse, touchpadtrackballs, joysticks etc.touch screens, tabletseyegaze, cursors

the MouseHandheld pointing devicevery commoneasy to use

Two characteristicsplanar movementbuttons(usually from 1 to 3 buttons on top, used for making a selection, indicating an option, or to initiate drawing etc.)

the mouse (ctd)Mouse located on desktoprequires physical spaceno arm fatigue

Relative movement only is detectable.Movement of mouse moves screen cursorScreen cursor oriented in (x, y) plane,mouse movement in (x, z) plane

an indirect manipulation device.device itself doesnt obscure screen, is accurate and fast.hand-eye coordination problems for novice users

How does it work?Two methods for detecting motion

MechanicalBall on underside of mouse turns as mouse is movedRotates orthogonal potentiometersCan be used on almost any flat surface

Opticallight emitting diode on underside of mousemay use special grid-like pad or just on deskless susceptible to dust and dirtdetects fluctuating alterations in reflected light intensity to calculate relative motion in (x, z) plane

Even by foot some experiments with the footmousecontrolling mouse movement with feet not very common :-)

but foot controls are common elsewhere:car pedalssewing machine speed controlorgan and piano pedals

Touchpadsmall touch sensitive tabletsstroke to move mouse pointerused mainly in laptop computers

good acceleration settings importantfast strokelots of pixels per inch movedinitial movement to the targetslow strokeless pixels per inchfor accurate positioning

Trackball and thumbwheelsTrackballball is rotated inside static housinglike an upsdie down mouse!relative motion moves cursorindirect device, fairly accurateseparate buttons for pickingvery fast for gamingused in some portable and notebook computers.

Thumbwheels for accurate CAD two dials for X-Y cursor positionfor fast scrolling single dial on mouse

Joystick and keyboard nippleJoystickindirectpressure of stick = velocity of movement buttons for selection on top or on front like a triggeroften used for computer gamesaircraft controls and 3D navigation

Keyboard nipplefor laptop computersminiature joystick in the middle of the keyboard

Touch-sensitive screenDetect the presence of finger or stylus on the by interrupting matrix of light beams, capacitance changes or ultrasonic reflectionsdirect pointing device

Advantages:fast, and requires no specialised pointergood for menu selectionsuitable for use in hostile environment: clean and safe from damage.

Disadvantages:finger can mark screenimprecise (finger is a fairly blunt instrument!)difficult to select small regions or perform accurate drawinglifting arm can be tiring

Stylus and light penStylussmall pen-like pointer to draw directly on screenmay use touch sensitive surface or magnetic detectionused in PDA, tablets PCs and drawing tables

Light Pennow rarely useduses light from screen to detect location

BOTH very direct and obvious to usebut can obscure screen

Digitizing tabletMouse like-device with cross hairs

used on special surface - rather like stylus

very accurate- used for digitizing maps

Eyegazecontrol interface by eye gaze directione.g. look at a menu item to select ituses laser beam reflected off retina a very low power laser! mainly used for evaluation (ch x)potential for hands-free controlhigh accuracy requires headsetcheaper and lower accuracy devices availablesit under the screen like a small webcam

Cursor keysFour keys (up, down, left, right) on keyboard.Very, very cheap, but slow. Useful for not much more than basic motion for text-editing tasks.No standardised layout, but inverted T, most common

Discrete positioning controlsin phones, TV controls etc.cursor pads or mini-joysticksdiscrete left-right, up-downmainly for menu selection

display devicesbitmap screens (CRT & LCD)large & situated displaysdigital paper

bitmap displaysscreen is vast number of coloured dots

resolution and colour depthResolution used (inconsistently) fornumber of pixels on screen (width x height)e.g. SVGA 1024 x 768, PDA perhaps 240x400density of pixels (in pixels or dots per inch - dpi)typically between 72 and 96 dpiAspect ratioration between width and height4:3 for most screens, 16:9 for wide-screen TVColour depth:how many different colours for each pixel?black/white or greys only256 from a pallete8 bits each for red/green/blue = millions of colours

anti-aliasingJaggiesdiagonal lines that have discontinuities in due to horizontal raster scan process.

Anti-aliasingsoftens edges by using shades of line colouralso used for text

Cathode ray tubeStream of electrons emitted from electron gun, focused and directed by magnetic fields, hit phosphor-coated screen which glowsused in TVs and computer monitors

Health hazards of CRT !X-rays: largely absorbed by screen (but not at rear!)UV- and IR-radiation from phosphors: insignificant levelsRadio frequency emissions, plus ultrasound (~16kHz)Electrostatic field - leaks out through tube to user. Intensity dependant on distance and humidity. Can cause rashes.Electromagnetic fields (50Hz-0.5MHz). Create induction currents in conductive materials, including the human body. Two types of effects attributed to this: visual system - high incidence of cataracts in VDU operators, and concern over reproductive disorders (miscarriages and birth defects).

Health hints do not sit too close to the screendo not use very small fontsdo not look at the screen for long periods without a breakdo not place the screen directly in front of a bright windowwork in well-lit surroundings

Take extra care if pregnant.but also posture, ergonomics, stress

Liquid crystal displaysSmaller, lighter, and no radiation problems.

Found on PDAs, portables and notebooks, and increasingly on desktop and even for home TV

also used in dedicted displays:digital watches, mobile phones, HiFi controls

How it works Top plate transparent and polarised, bottom plate reflecting.Light passes through top plate and crystal, and reflects back to eye. Voltage applied to crystal changes polarisation and hence colourlight reflected not emitted => less eye strain

special displaysRandom Scan (Directed-beam refresh, vector display)draw the lines to be displayed directlyno jaggieslines need to be constantly redrawnrarely used except in special instrumentsDirect view storage tube (DVST)Similar to random scan but persistent => no flickerCan be incrementally updated but not selectively erasedUsed in analogue storage oscilloscopes

large displaysused for meetings, lectures, etc.technologyplasma usually wide screenvideo walls lots of small screens togetherprojected RGB lights or LCD projectorhand/body obscures screenmay be solved by 2 projectors + clever software back-projectedfrosted glass + projector behind

situated displaysdisplays in public placeslarge or smallvery public or for small groupdisplay onlyfor information relevant to locationor interactiveuse stylus, touch sensitive screemin all cases the location mattersmeaning of information or interaction is related to the location

small displays beside office doorshandwritten notes left using stylusoffice owner reads notes using web interface

Hermes a situated display

small displaysbesideoffice doorshandwrittennotes leftusing stylusoffice ownerreads notesusing web interface

Digital paperwhat?thin flexible sheetsupdated electronicallybut retain display

how?small spheres turnedor channels with coloured liquidand contrasting spheresrapidly developing area


virtual reality and 3D interactionpositioning in 3D spacemoving and graspingseeing 3D (helmets and caves)

positioning in 3D spacecockpit and virtual controlssteering wheels, knobs and dials just like real!the 3D mousesix-degrees of movement: x, y, z + roll, pitch, yaw data glovefibre optics used to detect finger positionVR helmetsdetect head motion and possibly eye gazewhole body trackingaccelerometers strapped to limbs or reflective dots and video processing

pitch, yaw and roll

pitchyawrollup/down angle (called pitch)left/right orientation (called yaw) the amount it is twisted about its own axis (called roll)

3D displaysdesktop VRordinary screen, mouse or keyboard controlperspective and motion give 3D effectseeing in 3Duse stereoscopic visionVR helmetsscreen plus shuttered spectacles, etc.

also see extra slides on 3D vision

VR headsetssmall TV screen for each eyeslightly different angles3D effect

VR motion sicknesstime delaymove head lag display movesconflict: head movement vs. eyesdepth perceptionheadset gives different stereo distancebut all focused in same planeconflict: eye angle vs. focusconflicting cues => sicknesshelps motivate improvements in technology

simulators and VR cavesscenes projected on wallsrealistic environmenthydraulic rams!real controlsother people

physical controls, sensors etc.special displays and gaugessound, touch, feel, smellphysical controlsenvironmental and bio-sensing

dedicated displaysanalogue representations:dials, gauges, lights, etc.

digital displays:small LCD screens, LED lights, etc.

head-up displays found in aircraft cockpitsshow most important controls depending on context

Soundsbeeps, bongs, clonks, whistles and whirrs

used for error indications

confirmation of actions e.g. keyclick

also see chapter 10

Touch, feel, smelltouch and feeling importantin games vibration, force feedbackin simulation feel of surgical instrumentscalled haptic devices

texture, smell, tastecurrent technology very limited

BMW iDrivefor controlling menusfeel small bumps for each itemmakes it easier to select options by feel uses haptic technology from Immersion Corp.

physical controlsspecialist controls needed industrial controls, consumer products, etc.

large buttonsclear dials

tiny buttonsmulti-functioncontroleasy-cleansmooth buttons

Environment and bio-sensingsensors all around uscar courtesy light small switch on doorultrasound detectors security, washbasinsRFID security tags in shopstemperature, weight, location

and even our own bodies iris scanners, body temperature, heart rate, galvanic skin response, blink rate

paper: printing and scanningprint technologyfonts, page description, WYSIWYGscanning, OCR

Printingimage made from small do...


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