Human-computer interaction (HCI) is the study of interaction between people (users) and computers. It is an interdisciplinary subject, relating computer science with many other fields of study and research. Interaction between users and computers occurs at the user interface (or simply interface), which includes both hardware (i.e. peripherals and other hardware) and software (for example determining which, and how, information is presented to the user on a screen).
A. ASPEK INTERDISIPLINERAesthetic, Antropology, Artificial Intelligence, Cognitive science, Design,Ergonomics, Human factors, Library and Information Sciences, Psychology, Social psychology dan SociologyB. TUJUANA basic goal of HCI is to improve interaction between user and computers, by making computers more user-friendly and easier to use. More broadly, HCI is also concerned with
methodologies and processes for designing interfaces techniques for evaluating and comparing interfaces developing new interfaces and interaction techniques developing descriptive and predictive models and theories of interactionA long term goal of HCI is to design computers that can be exploited to their fullest potential as instruments that enhance human creativity, liberate the human mind, and improve communication and cooperation between humans (see CSCW).
A user in computing context is one who uses a computer system. To use it, they have an account, and a user name, and peruse the user interface.A computer is a device or machine for making calculations or controlling operations that are expressible in numerical or logical terms. Computers are made from components that perform simple well-defined functions. The complex interactions of these components endow computers with the ability to process information. If correctly configured (usually by programming) a computer can be made to represent some aspect of a problem or part of a system. Usability is a term used to denote the ease with which people can employ a particular tool or other human-made object in order to achieve a particular goal. Usability can also refer to the methods of measuring usability and the study of the principles behind an object's perceived efficiency or elegance.
Usability is the degree to which the design of a particular user interface takes into account the human psychology and physiology of the users, and makes the process of using the system effective, efficient and satisfying. Kaitan dengan a. mental model, b. human action cycle, c. usability testingA mental model is an explanation in someone's thought process for how something works in the real world. It is a kind of internal symbol or representation of external reality, hypothesised to play a major part in cognition.
The human action cycle is a psychological model which describes the steps humans take when they interact with computer systems The three stages of the human action cycle (goal formation, execution and evaluation). The model is divided into three stages of seven steps in total, and is (approximately) as follows: Goal formation stage1. Goal formation. Execution stage2. Translation of goals into a set of (unordered) tasks required to achieve the goal. 3. Sequencing the tasks to create the action sequence. 4. Executing the action sequence. Evaluation stage5. Perceiving the results after having executed the action sequence. 6. Interpreting the actual outcomes based on the expected outcomes. 7. Comparing what happened with what the user wished to happen.
Time on Task -- How long does it take people to complete basic tasks? (For example, find something to buy, create a new account, and order the item.) Accuracy -- How many mistakes did people make? (And were they fatal or recoverable with the right information?) Recall -- How much does the person remember afterwards? Emotional Response -- How does the person feel about the tasks completed? (Confident? Stressed? Would the user recommend this system to a friend?)
Usability is a part of usefulness and is composed of:Learnability Efficiency of use Memorability Few and noncatastrophic errors Subjective satisfaction Usability includes considerations such as:Who are the users, what do they know, and what can they learn? What do users want or need to do? What is the general background of the users? What is the context in which the user is working? What has to be left to the machine? What to the user? Answers to these can be obtained by conducting user and task analysis at the start of the project and by user-focused requirements analysis, building user profiles, and usability testing.
Aesthetic, Antropology, Artificial Intelligence, Cognitive science, Design, Ergonomics, Human factors, Library and Information Sciences, Psychology, Social psychology dan Sociology Modern AI is concerned with producing useful machines to automate human tasks requiring intelligent behavior.
Cognitive Science is the scientific study of the mind and brain and how they give rise to behavior.
Ergonomics (or human factors) is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and contribute to the design and evaluation of tasks, jobs, products, environments and systems in order to make them compatible with the needs, abilities and limitations of people (IEA, 2000).
Human factors is an umbrella term for several areas of research that include human performance, technology, design, and human-computer interaction. It is a profession that focuses on how people interact with products, tools, procedures, & any processes likely to be encountered in the modern world.
Psychology does not necessarily refer to the brain or nervous system and can be framed purely in terms of phenomenological or information processing theories of mind. Increasingly, though, an understanding of brain function is being included in psychological theory and practice, particularly in areas such as artificial intelligence, neuropsychology, and cognitive neuroscience.
Social psychology is the study of the nature and causes of human social behavior, with an emphasis on how people think towards each other and how they relate to each other. As the mind is the axis around which social behavior pivots, social psychologists tend to study the relationship between mind(s) and social behaviors..
HCI vs CHI. The acronym CHI (pronounced kai), for computer-human interaction, now refer to their field of study as HCI (pronounced as an initialism), which perhaps rose in popularity partly because of the notion that the human, and the human's needs and time, should be considered first, and are more important than the machine's. The field of human-centered computing has emerged as an even more pronounced focus on understanding human beings as actors within socio-technical systems. Usability vs Usefulness. Design methodologies in HCI aim to create user interfaces that are usable, i.e. that can be operated with ease and efficiency. However, an even more basic requirement is that the user interface be useful, i.e. that it allow the user to complete relevant tasks. Intuitive and Natural. Software products are often touted by marketeers as being "intuitive" and "natural" to use, often simply because they have a graphical user interface. Data Density and Information Absorption. The rapid growth in the density of computer screen real estate has created an opportunity to accelerate "information absorption" to much higher levels. Interfaces such as virtual reality will give further growth the potential density of information presented.
USER INTERFACEThe user interface is the aggregate of means by which people (the users) interact with a particular machine, device, computer program or other complex tool (the system). The user interface provides means of:A. Input, allowing the users to control the system B Output, allowing the system to inform the users (also referred to as feedback)
The term computer supported cooperative work (CSCW) "how collaborative activities and their coordination can be supported by means of computer systems." Groupware are synonyms. Ellis (1993) defines groupware as "computer-based systems that support groups of people engaged in a common task (or goal) and that provide an interface to a shared environment." On the other hand, different authors claim that while groupware refers to real computer-based systems, CSCW focuses on the study of tools and techniques of groupware as well as their psychological, social, and organizational effects. CSCW Support different time and place. == A lot of confusion in the field of CSCW raises from the different interpretations of the terms collaboration and cooperation. The concept of cooperation is often used in relation to the concepts of coordination and communication.
Examples : Videoconferencing, Messaging (Instant messaging, Email)
Untuk mewujudkan konsepsi komputer sebagai pengolah data untuk menghasilkan suatu informasi, maka diperlukan sistem komputer (computer system) yang elemennya terdiri dari hardware, software dan brainware. Ketiga elemen sistem komputer tersebut harus saling berhubungan dan membentuk kesatuan. Hardware tidak akan berfungsi apabila tanpa software, demikian juga sebaliknya. Dan keduanya tiada bermanfaat apabila tidak ada manusia (brainware) yang mengoperasikan dan mengendalikannya. A. Hardware atau Perangkat Keras: peralatan yang secara fisik terlihat dan bisa djamah. B. Software atau Perangkat Lunak: program yang berisi instruksi/perintah untuk melakukan pengolahan data. C. Brainware: manusia yang mengoperasikan dan mengendalikan sistem komputer