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  • Messages about FoodWhat messages have you received (from parents, peers, media, etc.) about food? What is the Philippine standard of being healthy? How did this affect you?

    *Ask participants to get in small groups (4-5 people) and brainstorm messages theyve received about food or eating. In each group, someone should volunteer to keep a list of the messages. Examples of messages: People who eat too much have no self-control. Carbohydrates are bad. Sweets are bad. You have to be careful of the Freshman 15. etc.

    After about 3-4 minutes, ask them to discuss in their groups: How are messages about food different for women and men? (Women should watch what they eat to stay thin.)

    After 3-4 minutes, have a large group discussion of these questions.

  • Some statisticsEating disorders have

    increased threefold in the last 50 years10% of the population is

    afflicted with an eating disorder90% of the cases are young

    women and adolescent girlsUp to 21% of college women show sub-threshold symptoms61% of college women show some sort of eating pathology

  • Three Types of Eating DisordersAnorexia nervosa- characterized by a pursuit of thinness that leads to self-starvationBulimia nervosa- characterized by a cycle of bingeing followed by extreme behaviors to prevent weight gain, such as purging. Binge-eating disorder- characterized by regular bingeing, but do not engage in purging behaviors.

    Similar to bulimia, however there is no purging, fasting, or excessive dieting to compensate for the bingesSome may eat continuously throughout the daySome binge on large amounts of food at onceRelieve feelings of stress, anxiety, or depressionNot officially recognized in the DSMSignificantly overweightHistory of family obesityFrequent dieting30% of individuals in weight loss programs could be diagnosed with this disorder*

  • Anorexia NervosaBegins with individuals restricting certain foods, not unlike someone who is dieting Restrict high-fat foods firstFood intake becomes severely limited

    The fear of gaining weight

    *dropping below the 85th percentile of what is considered to be normal for a particular age and height limited to only a few select food items

    People starve themselves, subsisting on little or no food for very long periods of time

    The fear of gaining weight or becoming fat is extremely intense Rather than lessening as weight drops, this fear usually worsens

    Perceived body weight and body shape are severely distorted Even when drastically underweight most individuals with this disorder will see themselves as being overweight

  • More on anorexia nervosaMay exhibit unusual behaviors with regards to food. preoccupied with thoughts of food, and may show obsessive-compulsive tendencies related to food may adopt ritualistic behaviors at mealtime. may collect recipes or prepare elaborate meals for others.

    *such as chewing each bite of food a certain number of times.

  • DSM-VAll of the following symptoms are present: Restriction of energy intake relative to requirements, leading to significantly low body weight in the context of age, sex, development trajectory and physical health. Significantly low weight is defined as a weight that is less than minimally normal or for children and adolescents, less than minimally expected.

  • Intense fear of gaining weight or of becoming fat or of persistent behavior that interferes with weight gain, even though at significantly low weight. Disturbance in the way in which ones body weight or shape is experienced, undue influence of body weight or shape on self-evaluation or persistent lack of recognition of the seriousness of the current body weight.

  • Specify current subtype: Restricting type: During the last 3 months, the individual has not engaged in recurrent episodes of binge eating or purging behavior (self-induced vomiting or misuse of laxatives, diuretics or enemas). Weight loss is accomplished primarily through dieting, fasting and/or excessive exercise. Binge-eating/Purging type: During the last 3 months, the individual has engaged in recurrent episodes of binge eating or purging behavior.

  • Subtypes of anorexia nervosa Restricting subtype: does not regularly engage in binge eating or purging Binge eating/purging subtype: regularly engages in binge eating or purging

  • Bulimia NervosaQualitatively distinct from anorexia characterized by binge eatingA binge may or may not be plannedmarked by a feeling of being out of controlThe binge generally lasts until the individual is uncomfortably or painfully full

    *Wide rage of caloric intake- what constitutes a binge is not caloric intake, but feelings of being out of control- such as eating one cookie, or one doughnut

    may consume 2,000-10,000 calories in a single day, and will usually prefer high-calorie foods such as sweets and fast food

    People with Bulimia do not tend to show the gross distortions (delusions) in their body image as people with anorexic do

  • DSM-VAll of the following symptoms are present:Recurrent episodes of binge eating. An episode of binge eating is characterized by both the following: Eating, in a discrete period of time (within any 2-hour period), an amount of food that is definitely larger than most people would eat during a similar period of time under similar circumstances.A sense of lack of control over eating during episode (a feeling that one cannot stop eating or control what or how much is eating)

  • B. Recurrent inappropriate compensatory behaviors in order to prevent weight gain, such as self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or other medications, fasting or excessive exercise.C. The binge eating and inappropriate compensatory behaviors both occur on average at least per week for 3 months.D. Self-evaluation is unduly influenced by body shape and weight.E. The disturbance does not occur exclusively during episodes of anorexia nervosa.

  • Subtypes of bulimia nervosa Purging subtype: regularly engages in self-induced vomiting and/or misuse of laxatives, diuretics or enemas Nonpurging subtype: the person uses inappropriate compensatory behaviors like fasting or excessive exercise but not regularly engaged in purging

  • Bulimia NervosaCommon triggers for a bingedysphoric moodinterpersonal stressorsIntense hunger after a period of intense dieting or fastingfeelings related to weight, body shape, and food are common triggers to binge eating

    *Because a binge is a way to deal with negative feelings

  • Bulimia NervosaFeelings of being ashamed after a binge are commonbehavior is kept a secret

    Tend to adhere to a pattern of restricted caloric intake usually prefer low-calorie foods during times between binges

  • More on bulimia nervosaLater age at the onset of the disorder Are able to maintain a normal weightWill not seek treatment until they are ready Most deal with the burden of hiding their problem for many years, sometimes well into their 30s

    *Anorexia in teens, bulimia in early 20sThis makes it very hard for family and friends to even notice that anything is wrong

    likely to have a more accurate perception of their body than those who are anorexic

    readily acknowledge to themselves that there is a problem with their behavior in regards to food

  • Binge-eating Disorder resembles bulimia nervosa, except that the person with binge eating does not regularly engage in purging, fasting or excessive exercise to compensate for binging

  • DSM-VRecurrent episodes of binge eating. An episode of binge eating is characterized by both of the following: Eating in a discrete period of time (within any 2-hour period) an amount of food that is definitely larger than most people would eat in a similar period of time under similar circumstances. A sense of lack of control over eating during episode (feeling that one cannot stop eating or control what or how much one is eating.)

  • B. The binge eating episodes are associated with three (or more) of the following: Eating so much more rapidly than normal. Eating until feeling uncomfortably full. Eating large amounts of food when not feeling physically hungry. Eating alone because of feeling embarrassed by how much one is eating. Feeling disgusted with oneself, depressed or over guilty afterward.

  • C. Marked with distress regarding binge eating is present.D. The binge eating occurs, on average, at least once a week for 3 months.E. The binge eating is not associated with the recurrent use of inappropriate compensatory behavior and does not occur exclusively during the course of bulimia nervosa or anorexia nervosa.

  • *Cardiovascular Complications slowness of heart hear, irregular heat beat, heat failureYellowing of the skin, Impaired taste, HypoglycemiaFluid and Electrolyte Complications Dehydration, WeaknessHematological Complications Susceptibility to bleeding, AnemiaEndocrine Complications Amenorrhea, Lack of sexual interest, ImpotenceDental problemsGastrointestinal complications

    retarded bone growth risk for developing osteoporosis. The body temperature in lowered, as well as the heart rate and blood pressure. Anemia, dry skin, and fluid retention may also be experienced. Metabolic changes make it more difficult to gain back weight in recoveryKidney disease/failure

  • Anorexia

    Risk of Death: The Deadliest of all Psychological Disorders

    *The consequences for anorexia are numerous, and as many as 20% will die from complications of malnutrition.

  • Risk Factors for developing an eating disorder

    Personality/psychological factorsFamily influenceMediaSubcultures existing within our s