- 1. 17 Century ththe Age of Baroque
2. 1600- 1800Overview In the early 1600s Rome is the leader of the Baroque style Strict classicism prevails for much of the seventeenth century in France so theBaroque style was slower to arrive there than elsewhere in Europe Eventually France emerges as a major world power and a cultural center to rivalRome This is largely due to the aims of the French monarchs, particularly Louis XIV, whocalled on architects, painters, and sculptors, to represent the court in peerlesssplendour The French Revolution- the latter half of the period has France as the seat of theEnlightenment, a major intellectual movement that asserts the power of reason andmobilizes a widespread dissatisfaction with contemporary social and political ills thatresults, later in the century, in revolution. Rococo style rises as the tale end of the Baroque With the Enlightenment comes a renewed veneration of antiquity and a Neoclassicalmovement in the arts; this gives way, at the end of the period, to Romanticism 3. Chronology 1615 Cervantes begins Don Quixote 1618 The beginning of the 30 Year War 1619 Harveys discovered the circulation of the blood 1630 The building of the Taj Mahal begins 1635 The foundation of the Academie Francaise 1642 Rembrandt paints The Night Watch 1661 The building of Versailles palace begins 1666 Stradivarius makes his first violin 1675 The Greenwich Observatory is built 1682 The Accession of Peter the Great of Russia 1683 Newton expounds his theory of gravity 1714 Fahrenheit invents the mercury thermometer 4. 17th Century1600 -1700 The reformation had been succeeded by theCounter-Reformation Artists and architects benefited from therenewed strength of the Catholic Church Pope Sixtus V replanned Rome in magnificentstyle with churches, fountains and palaces atfocal points in the city. Noble families rivalled each other as patrons Rome became the Artistic capital of the world 5. Artists came from Spain, France, England andFlounders for commissions Painters embraced the challenge to createintegrated environments (un bel composto)meant to heighten religious experience A bohemian artists colony which still survivestoday grew up around the Spanish Steps Members of this colony led the way in creatingnew art styles and ideas which spread throughout Europe 6. Baroque1600- 1770s Early Baroque 1540s to 1600s High Baroque 1620s onwards Reaction against the artificiality of the 16thcentury Mannerism Realism was again in fashion, althoughinterpreted in different ways Two most important groups of EarlyBaroque were the Naturalists andClassicists 7. Naturalism Based on extreme realism Details are naturalistic and painted inbright clear colours As a rule painted directly on the canvas 8. Jan van GoyenRiver Landscape with Lime Kilns 1640s 9. Salomon van Ruysdael A WoodedLandscapes withCattle and Droves on a Ferry 1663 10. Other characteristics ofNaturalism Religious stories told in contemporaryidiom ie: the apostles no longer heroes but rough-looking fishermen Extreme foreshortening 11. Peter Paul Rubens Two Saints 12. CarravagioTable at Emmaus 13. Classicism Looked to realism of High Renaissance Painting and classical sculpture for inspiration Worked from preliminary drawings Monumental figures Glowing sensuous colours 14. Nicolas PoussinThe Triumph of David c.1631-3 15. Harmensz van Rijn RembrandtSelf Portrait 1658 16. Jan VermeerGirl with the PearlEarring c.1665-6 17. High Baroque From 1620s second phase of Baroque Characterized by exuberant sensualityand magnificence Feeling of movement 18. Emphasis on clarityof expression andgestureBerniniEcstasy of St Theresa 19. The Abduction of the Sabine Women, probably 163334Nicolas Poussin 20. View of La Crescenza, 164850Claude Lorrain (Claude Gelle) 21. DidoCarthage by, 1813 22. TurnerCarthage 23. Jean Vincent Millet The Cheese- maker Introduction of a new form of painting (realism) began topaint scenes from everyday life 24. Georges de la TourThe Newborn Child late 1640s 25. Van DyckThomas Wentworth 26. ThomasGainsboroughPortrait of David Garrick c1770 27. Venus and Adonis, mid- or late 1630sPeter Paul Rubens 28. Francois BoucherLa Cible dAmour ( The Target of Love)1758 29. Jean- HonoreFragonard Les Hazardsheureux delescarpolette(The Swing) 1767 30. 18 Centuryth1700 - 1800 The Rococo Neoclassical Romantic Era 31. The Rococo style was fashionable in theearly 18th century Neoclassical succeeded around 1793 Romantic style then succeeded in theearly 19th century (1812) 32. Chronology 1717 The first inoculation against smallpox 1720 Johann Sebastian Bach completes his first Brandenburgconcerto 1735 Linnaeus completes a new system for the classification ofplants 1745 The building of Sans Souci palace in Berlin begins 1752 Benjamin Franklin invents the lightning conductor 1755 A great earthquake in Lisbon 1756 The beginning of the Seven Years War 1765 James Watt invents the steam engine 1770 Goethe starts work on Faust 1776 The American Declaration of Independence 1781 Kant publishes Critique of Pure Reason 1787 Mozart appointed Chamber Musician to Emperor Joseph II 1789 The storming of the Bastille leads to the outbreak ofrevolution in France 1804 Napoleon Bonaparte becomes French Emperor 33. DavidThe Coronation of Napoleon,1804 34. Rococo 1760s France was one of the first countrieswhere Rococo became popular Rococo was a reaction against pomp andgrandeur of the court of Louis XIV 35. RigeudLouis XIV1781 36. Rococo was associated with his successorLouis XV Colours are light with a lot of white andsilver, others colours favoured were: dusty rose, pale lemon, misty blue, andturquoise not much gold as it was too heavy S- curves and C- curves frequentlyappear in composition 37. VenSuzanna and the Elders 38. Favourite subject stories from the OldTestament or ancient history With a much more light-heartedapproach 39. PoussinThe Nurture of Jupiter 1640 40. Rococo was regarded as the last phaseof Baroque due to similarities such asillusionist ceiling paintings of fabulousfantasy worlds 41. Rococo Ceiling 42. Neoclassicism In total contrast to the Rococo was Neoclassicism Demand for heroism and civic virtues (Goethe) The Paris Salon art should be governed by rationalrules and not uncontrolled feelings Rococo was seen and hedonistic and self-indulgent Neoclassical art used spare but precise outlinepreliminary drawings Figures are posed parallel instead of diagonal to thepicture plane 43. The Classical Ideal Increasing influence of classical antiquity inthe second half of the eighteenth century inEurope The achievements of the Renaissance sparkeda renewed interest in harmony, simplicity, andproportion In the midst of a grand gallery, students copy thegreat works of antiquity. Neoclassical style arose from such first-handobservation and reproduction of antique worksand came to dominate European architecturepainting, sculpture, and decorative arts. 44. Jean-Auguste- Dominique IngresJupiter and Thetis 1811 45. In Baroque and Rococo contours are formed byshading, in Neoclassical they are formed byunbroken lines, not interrupted by light orshadow Even light A sense of order prevails everywhere Portraits are half or full length 46. Princesse deBroglie,185153Jean-Auguste-DominiqueIngres 47. MadameJacques-Louistienne Reizet17821850, 48. The Lictors Returning to Brutus the Bodies of His Sons, 1789Jacques-Louis David (French, 17481825) 49. Monks in theCloister of theChurch of Ges eMaria, RomeFranois-MariusGranet(French, 17751849) 50. The Rape of the Sabines, ca. 163738Nicolas Poussin (French, 15941665) 51. Confirmation, ca. 163740 Nicolas Poussin (French, 15941665) 52. The Sortie Made by the Garrison of Gibraltar, 1789John Trumbull (American, 17561843) 53. The American School, 1765 Matthew Pratt (17341805)American 54. Romanticism1800- 1850s Romanticism, gained momentum as an artistic movement in Franceand Britain in the early decades of the nineteenth century andflourished until mid-century. With its emphasis on the imagination and emotion, Romanticismemerged as a response to the disillusionment with the Enlightenmentvalues of reason and order in the aftermath of the FrenchRevolution of 1789. Though often posited in opposition to Neoclassicism, earlyRomanticism was shaped largely by artists trained in Davids studio,including Ingres This blurring of stylistic boundaries is best expressed in IngresApotheosis of Homer and Eugne Delacroixs Death ofSardanapalus which polarized the public at the Salon of 1827 inParis. 55. Francisco GoyaThe Clothed Maja c. 1800-05 56. Landscapes had traditionally been used tofill in the background of a painting As techniques improved they becamemore important to artists The public still wanted a subject andartists had to comply 57. In Romantic art, naturewith its uncontrollable power, unpredictability, and potentialfor cataclysmic extremesoffered an alternative to the ordered world ofEnlightenment thought. The violent and terrifying images of nature conjured byRomantic artists recall the eighteenth-century aesthetic of the Sublime. As articulatedby the British statesman Edmund Burke in a 1757 treatise and echoed by the Frenchphilosopher Denis Diderot a decade later, "all that stuns the soul, all that imprints afeeling of terror, leads to the sublime." In French and British painting of the lateeighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, the recurrence of images of shipwrecks (2003.42.56) and other representations of mans struggle against the awesome powerof nature manifest this sensibility. Scenes of shipwrecks culminated in 1819 withThodore Gericaults strikingly original Raft of the Medusa (Louvre), based on acontemporary event. In its horrifying explicitness, emotional intensity, andconspicuous lack of a hero, The Raft of the Medusa became an icon of the emergingRomantic style. Similarly, J. M. W. Turners 1812 depiction of Hannibal and his armycrossing the Alps (Tate Britain, London), in which the general and his troops aredwarfed by the overwhelming scale of the landscape and engulfed in the swirlingvortex of snow, embodies the Romantic sensibility in landscape painting. Gericaultalso explored the Romantic landscape in a series of views representing differenttimes of day; in Evening: Landscape with an Aqueduct (1989.183), the dramatic sky,blasted tree, and classical ruins evoke a sense of melancholic reverie. 58. Casper DavidFriedrichThe Wanderer Above theSea of Clouds1818 59. If artists did paint landscapes it was for their ownpleasure and often in Italianate style Another facet of the Romantic attitude toward natureemerges in the landscapes of John Constable, whose artexpresses his response to his native Englishcountryside. For his major paintings, Constable executedfull-scale sketches, as in a view of Salisbury Cathedral (50.145.8); he wrote that a sketch represents "nothing butone state of mindthat which you were in at the time."When his landscapes were exhibited in Paris at theSalon of 1824, critics and artists embraced his art as"nature itself." Constables subjective, highly personalview of nature accords with the individuality that is acentral tenet of Romanticism. 60. John ConstableLock on the Stour 61. J.M.W. TurnerFarnley Hall from above Otley 62. This interest in the individual and subjectiveat oddswith eighteenth-century rationalismis mirrored in theRomantic approach to portraiture. Traditionally,records of individual likeness, portraits became vehiclesfor expressing a range of psychological and emotionalstates in the hands of Romantic painters. Gericaultprobed the extremes of mental illness in his portraits ofpsychiatric patients, as well as the darker side ofchildhood in his unconventional portrayals of children. Inhis portrait of Alfred Dedreux (41.17), a young boy ofabout five or six, the child appears intensely serious,more adult than childlike, while the dark clouds in thebackground convey an unsettling, ominous quality. 63. Such explorations of emotional states extended into the animal kingdom,marking the Romantic fascination with animals as both forces of nature andmetaphors for human behavior. This curiosity is manifest in the sketches ofwild animals done in the menageries of Paris and London in the 1820s byartists such as Delacroix, Antoine-Louis Barye, and Edwin Landseer.Gericault depicted horses of all breedsfrom workhorses to racehorsesinhis work. Lord Byrons 1819 tale of Mazeppa tied to a wild horse captivatedRomantic artists from Delacroix to Thodore Chassriau, who exploited theviolence and passion inherent in the story. Similarly, Horace Vernet, whoexhibited two scenes from Mazeppa in the Salon of 1827 (both MuseCalvet, Avignon), also painted the riderless horse race that marked the endof the Roman Carnival, which he witnessed during his 1820 visit to Rome.His oil sketch (87.15.47) captures the frenetic energy of the spectacle, justbefore the start of the race. Images of wild, unbridled animals evoked primalstates that stirred the Romantic imagination. 64. In its stylistic diversity and range ofsubjects, Romanticism defies simplecategorization. As the poet and criticCharles Baudelaire wrote in 1846,"Romanticism is precisely situated neitherin choice of subject nor in exact truth, butin a way of feeling." 65. Eugene DelacroixLe Puits de la Casbah Tanger 66. The endFor now.