Unit 8 Absolute Monarchs Chapter 19 Section 4, Chapter 20 Sections 1 & 2 – England.

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<ul><li><p>Unit 8Absolute MonarchsChapter 19 Section 4, Chapter 20 Sections 1 &amp; 2 England</p></li><li><p>TudorsCame into power in late 1400sStarted centralizing monarchys powerTudors become ruling family after winning the War of the Roses defeating the Lancaster's</p><p>Henry VII First king - 1485-1509Made England stable and prosperous</p><p>Henry VIII 1509-1547Established new religion Anglican Church</p><p>Edward VI 1547-1553Never married, Named Lady Jane Grey as heir.Privy Council had her removed 9 days inWas later executed, age 16.</p><p>Mary I 1553</p></li><li><p>TudorsMary I 1553 - 1558Devoted CatholicDaughter of Catherine of AragonHenry VIIIs first wife, CatholicRelative of Charles V of SpainProtestants outraged when she married Philip II of SpainTried to destroy the Anglican ChurchHad more than 300 people burned at stake, started rebellionGains nick name Bloody MaryUltimately failed to destroy Protestantism in EnglandDies in 1558, Philip II?</p></li><li><p>Elizabeth IWas Mary Is half sisterMother was Anne Boleyn, Henry VIIIs 2nd wife.ProtestantWas a good politicianNever married, had no childrenMary Queen of Scots Next in line to RuleClosest heir (relative) Mary Stuart, Queen of Scotland, and a CatholicCame to England in 1568 to escape problems in Scotland, and was put in prison by ElizabethPlotted with Philip II to kill Elizabeth Elizabeth had Mary be-headed</p></li><li><p>Elizabeth IPhilip II angryMary I Thought he should be kingElizabeth declines proposalMary StuartHead Chopped off planning plotEnglish concerned with Netherlands RevoltQueen Elizabeth feared an invasion if Philip wonSupported the Dutch</p></li><li><p>Philip Attacks EnglandEnglish - Undeclared war on SpainSeadogs - Francis Drake - Stole lots of Spanish treasurePhilip wanted him punished, Liz makes him a knightPhilip gets angrier.</p><p>Plans invasion of England</p></li><li><p>Philip Attacks England1588 - Assembled the Armada to invade England130 armed vessels, 19,000 soldierssent to English Channel.English fleet is smaller and swifterBetter long range cannons.forced the Armada into the North Sea.Caught in storms.... Destroyed what was left of them.Protestant Winds</p></li><li><p>ResultsGave England confidenceEnded threat of the Spanish ArmadaAllowed other countries to start to explore the Americas.Spain suffered a defeat but still had great wealth (colonial interests) to retain some power in the region</p></li><li><p>Religion &amp; ParliamentElizabeth still had 2 main problems1 - ReligionPuritans Didnt think Henry VIII went far enough in removing Catholic traditions from the churchWanted England united under one religionPersecuted all other religionsHad to pay finesElizabeth refused to change the church any moreRelatively tolerant2 ParliamentMade of representatives from all over the country</p></li><li><p>Religion &amp; Parliament1530s Parliament starts to become more powerfulMost people viewed Parliament as a check to the monarchys power.Made of 2 houses.House of Lords Nobles and ClergyHouse of Commons Gentry and BurgessesGentry landowners, position but no title, no inheritanceBurgesses merchants &amp; professionals</p></li><li><p>Religion &amp; ParliamentElizabeth I handled Parliament wellConsulted them, gave appearance of taking their adviceUsually got what she wanted from themWhen Elizabeth dies - 1603Left no heirJames Stuart nearest relative, son of Mary StuartAlready King James VI of ScotlandBecame James I King of England 1603England and Scotland did not unite until 1707Still have same ruler</p></li><li><p>James IA Stuart, not a TudorIntelligent but lacked common sense with money and diplomacyBelieved in idea of Divine Right puts him at odds with ParliamentBig supporter of the Anglican ChurchPuts him at odds with Puritans who still want change.Did agree to new translation of BibleKing James Version</p></li><li><p>James IBiggest question How much power should parliament have.Problem getting tax moneyDivine Right, wanted absolute powerHad to gain money by selling titles and monopolies</p><p>Left problems that the next King would have to deal with.Tensions between a Stuart king and the people of England</p><p>After James I dies (1625), his son Charles I comes to power.</p></li><li><p>Charles IBelieved in idea of Divine RightKeeps him out of touch with his publicMarries a French Catholic PrincessFrench AND a CatholicCharles always needed moneyTries to force people to lend him moneyPuts them in prisonParliament does not like these actionsRefused to give him money until he signed Petition of Right</p></li><li><p>Charles IPetition of Right - King agreed to four thingsCould not tax people w/o Parliaments consentCould not declare martial lawCould not board soldiers in private homes during peace timeCould not imprison subjects without causeCharles agreed, but ignoredWhen Parliament protested, he dismissed ParliamentParliament gone for 11 years.</p><p>Still importantIdea that law was higher than the kingContradicted idea of Absolute monarchy</p></li><li><p>Charles ICharles keeps raising taxes and fines to get moneyAngers many, trying to impose Absolute Control</p><p>Charles offendsUpheld rituals and formal Anglican prayer bookTired to force Scot Presbyterians (Protestant) to accept Anglican prayer book</p><p>Wanted both kingdoms (England and Scotland) to follow same religionScots Rebelled, loyalty to Church before CrownCharles sent troops to invadeNeeds more money to continue the fightCalled Parliament to session (2 times)Chance for Parliament to oppose himWant to address complaints about the King first</p></li><li><p>Long Parliament1640 - Met on and off for 20 years.Charles needed money to put down Scottish rebellionParliament says no.Parliament passes two laws to limit kings powerEnds kings power to dissolve ParliamentRequires Parliament to meet at least every 3 yearsWanted to makes changes to the Anglican ChurchPublic against that</p></li><li><p>Long ParliamentRebellion starts in Ireland 1641England controlled parts of IrelandIrish Catholics had been treated harshly, like conquered peopleHad few rights and freedoms, lived in constant fearBloody rebellion Irish Catholics vs. English</p><p>Parliaments wants control over ArmyCharles says no leads troops into Parliament to arrest themStarts a Civil War in England 1642</p><p>Charles escapes to north to build army of supporters</p><p>Civil War 1642 1649</p></li><li><p>English Civil War &amp; CromwellKing supported by Anglicans, Roman Catholics, nobles</p><p>Parliament supported by.Puritans and other non-protestants</p><p>No side had advantage until.1644 Puritans found Oliver CromwellGeneral who could winFollowing year, captured king, tried for treasonFound guilty, sentenced to death Beheaded in 1649 Never before had a monarch faced a public trial and executionCromwell takes control of England, abolished monarchy</p></li><li><p>Cromwells CommonwealthCromwell was a devout PuritanBut also fairly tolerantRuled from 1653 1658Basically a military dictatorWanted a parliamentary republicTried twice, too much resistanceStarts rebuilding economyEncouraged trade and manufacturing</p></li><li><p>Cromwells CommonwealthCromwell and Puritans wanted to reform societyMade laws that promoted moralityAbolished things thought to be sinfulGoing to the theatre, etc.Cromwell favored religious toleration for all Christians except CatholicsEven welcomed back JewsCromwell eventually dissolves Parliament</p></li><li><p>End of the RevolutionRuled till death in 1658After Cromwells death, son Richard becomes leaderWeak leader, lost support of army1660 RestorationParliament voted to ask oldest son of Charles I to rule England1660 Reign of Charles II begins, legitimate heir to the throne</p></li><li><p>Restoration Charles II restored.Theatre, sporting events and dancingArts flourishedHe avoided fights with ParliamentDidnt want to end up like his fatherBold commercial polices led to wars with the Dutch and gained some territoryNew Amsterdam renamed New YorkTried to increase toleration of Catholics</p></li><li><p>RestorationPolitical Parties start to developOver royal successionJames, Roman Catholic, Charles younger brother, next in line to be kingToriesBelieved James had hereditary right to the throneEven if a CatholicSupported by Anglican ChurchWhigsClaimed right to deny the throne to James.Wanted strong Parliament &amp; opposed a Catholic leader</p></li><li><p>Glorious RevolutionCharles II dies, Brother James becomes kingRules as James IIBelieves in absolute ruleFrustrates both Whigs and Tories</p><p>Religion of his successor still an issueFirst son is raised as Catholic Daughters are ProtestantParliament wants James II to step downInvite James daughter, Mary, &amp; husband, William of Orange to rule</p></li><li><p>Glorious RevolutionWilliam of Orange lands in EnglandJames II flees to France in exileParliament gives crown to both Mary and William as co-rulersRule as William III and Mary IIGlorious Revolution - 1688Bloodless transfer of power in the English monarchy</p></li><li><p>Habeas CorpusParliament passes habeas corpusBased on Ideas of LockeImportant freedomPrisoners have right to be brought before judge, hear charges.Judge would decide if tried or set free.Protect against unfair arrest and imprisonment</p></li><li><p>English Bill of RightsRead to William and Mary before given the throne in 1689Parliament would choose who would ruleRuler must obey Parliamentary lawsCould not suspend lawsRuler could not impose taxes or maintain army in peace time without Parliaments consentRuler could not interfere with election of representatives for ParliamentGuaranteed free speech for members of Parliament</p></li><li><p>English Bill of RightsAlso protected private citizensCould not be forced to pay high or unfair bailWould not have to face cruel or unusual punishment</p></li><li><p>Toleration ActGranted some religious freedoms to Protestants who were not Anglican members (Lutherans, Calvinists, Presbyterians)</p><p>Did not protect Catholics or Jews</p><p>Barred non-Anglican church members from holding public office</p></li><li><p>Act of SettlementTo keep a Catholic off the throne</p><p>If Wm III &amp; Mary II died w/o heir, Marys sister Anne would become Queen</p><p>If Anne had no kids, throne would go to a Protestant granddaughter of James I</p></li><li><p>Parliamentary RuleFight between monarch and Parliament over Parliament emerges as the supreme powerParliament had right to chose next monarchRights of individuals and government powers had become more defined</p><p>Parliament still not representing all of the population</p></li><li><p>Parliamentary RuleEventually Parliament gains enough power that the monarchs stop trying to veto Parliaments actions</p><p>Two important institutions develop that still exist today in England.1 - CabinetOfficers of the State, advisors of the KingUsually department headsFirst representatives of both partiesLater only members of the majority party</p></li><li><p>Parliamentary Rule2 Prime MinisterLeader of majority party in Parliament heads cabinetCalled Prime MinisterStill system of government in England.</p></li><li><p>Act of Union1707Passed by Parliaments from England and ScotlandUnited both as the United KingdomMeant to strengthen England in struggles with FranceMany in Scotland opposed thisEnded up being very beneficial for all parties</p></li><li><p>Constitutional Monarchy1721-1742Whigs control House of CommonsWhigs want a strong Parliament bodyEngland becomes a Constitutional MonarchyMonarch remains head of statePowers limited by the constitutionRequired them to consult with ParliamentCertain things only Parliament can doHas changed little since then</p></li><li><p>Constitutional MonarchyHas been a model for other nations to end absolute monarchiesConstitution is not one documentMagna CartaPetition of RightsHabeas Corpus ActBill of RightsAct of SettlementAnd other acts of ParliamentCan be changed by Parliament if necessaryPrime Minister chooses member of the CabinetPlan and carry out government polices</p></li><li><p>And Finally the end!</p><p>****</p></li></ul>

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