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This presentation premiered at WaterSmart Innovations · Concept Overview Implementation Guidelines Pilot Program. Overarching Goals • Increase understanding of environmental water

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  • This presentation premiered at WaterSmart Innovations



  • Inspiring Water Conservation through Recognition of

    Environmental Water Needs WaterSmart Innovations

    October 7, 2010

    Joanna [email protected]


    College of Agriculture and Life Sciences

    mailto:[email protected]

  • Overview

    Environmental Water Needs AssessmentProject Goals & TimelineProducts: Assessment and GuidebookInventory & Analysis

    Conserve to EnhanceConcept OverviewImplementation GuidelinesPilot Program

  • Overarching Goals

    • Increase understanding of environmental water needs in Arizona on the part of water professionals, policymakers, and the public.

    • Help place the environment “at the table” as a water using sector in Arizona water planning.


  • Need for this Project

    Source: ADWR, 20094

    ToTal DemanD: 6.7 maF

  • Project Objectives

    – Incorporate environmental water needs into future water planning,

    – Increase public awareness about environmental water needs,

    – Assist decision makers in understanding the science used in environmental flow studies,

    – Support decision making for addressing environmental water needs within Arizona, and

    – Facilitate efforts to address information gaps about environmental water needs in Arizona.


  • General Project Timeline• One-year Assessment

    – Spring-Fall 2010 – Assemble and analyze information from environmental flow studies

    – Fall-Winter 2010 –Review of draft report and guidebook – Early 2011 - Guidebook and report publicly available

    • Second year - Actively disseminate findings through:– Geographically focused bulletins– Outreach presentations– Participation in water planning efforts, as appropriate– Stakeholder workshops


  • Main Products

    Technical and Spatial Assessment of Studies of Environmental Flow Needs

    Guidebook of Existing Methodologies

    Identification of Information Gaps


  • Assessment Outline

    1. Introduction2. Summary of Studies

    1. Types of Studies2. Spatial Coverage3. Findings4. Information Gaps

    3. Research Agenda

  • Guidebook Outline

    1. Classification of Methodologies2. Evaluation of Methodologies

    1. On Evaluation Criteria 2. Decision Tree 3. Tie to Information Gaps

    3. Detailed Description of Methodologies1. Reference to Specific Studies and Experts

  • Advisory Committee

    • 11 Members• U.S. FWS, AZGFD, Reclamation, Sierra

    Club, Audubon, The Nature Conservancy, University of Arizona, Arizona Land & Water Trust, Arizona State University

    • Provides guidance on sources and interpreting results

    • Collaboration efforts


  • Study Categories

    • Study Type• Geographic Extent: River Basin(s)• Biological Elements: Vegetation, Animal,

    Macroinvert• Hydrologic Focus: Riparian, Aquatic• Methods Classification• Use of Field Data or Expert Opinion• Output Dynamics


  • Summary of Studies

    Aquatic Only Riparian Only Aquatic/Riparian TOTAL

    Multiple Study Syntheses

    5 10 11 26

    Review of Multiple Studies

    0 10 6 16

    Single Study 17 35 11 63

    TOTAL 22 55 28 105

    105 studies in database

    67 give quantitative information about flow needs or responses20 of these have limited description of methods used

  • Summary of Studies

    105 studies in database

    67 give quantitative information about flow needs or responses20 of these have limited description of methods used

    Quantified Flow Needs…

    Single Species Multiple Species Community

    TOTAL 5 27 15

  • Methodology Classification

    Arizona’s studies utilize methods that:

    I. Quantify environmental water needs-for aquatic elements-for riparian elements

    II. Describe environmental water needs (not quantitatively)

    III. Value environmental water needs

  • Methodology Evaluation

    All Studies in Inventory

    Methods Categories

    Published Literature,

    Expert Opinion



    Quality of Findings


  • Methodology Evaluation

    Methodology Specific Use/PurposeHydraulic rating

    Wetted Perimeter or Maximum Depth of Flow

    Static minimum flow prescriptions; Scenario-based decision making and water allocation; Informs short term and local operational rules; Validate instream flow rate requests greater than median flow rates

    Habitat simulation

    Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM)

    Tradeoffs analysis in decision making; Instream flow prescriptions; Mitigation plan development

    Correlation of flow attributes/ water quality with biological characteristics

    Predict biological response to flows/analyze management scenarios in stream where developed; Flow recommendation in conjunction with management objectives

  • Opportunities

    Adapted from: Brown, Carmony,and Turner (1981); TNC’ State-wide Freshwater Assessment (2005)

  • Projects Funded by U.S. Bureau of Reclamation

    • Environmental enhancement projects need funds to secure water supplies (Megdal et al, 2006 “Projects to Enhance Arizona’s Environment”, Gerlak, et al., Water Policy, 2009)

    • Public interest in preserving and enhancing riparian areas (Katz, 2006)

    • Connect water conservation to environmental concerns (Schwarz and Megdal, 2007, 2008; Megdal and Bate, 2009)

    Aravaipa Canyon, Arizona

    Verde River, Arizona


  • Water saved through water conservation

    Water delivered to riparian restoration sites

    Conserve to Enhance

  • 20

    Program Objectives• Provide water to environmental

    enhancement projects• Increase water conservation • Link individual conservation to

    environmental benefits• Create a simple accounting

    mechanism • Create a reliable funding

    source• Raise awareness about water

    conservation and river restoration

    Aravaipa Canyon, Arizona

    Verde River, Arizona

  • 21

    Conserve to Enhance

    • Voluntary reductions in water consumption• Water savings translate into money savings • Savings translated into donations for water for

    environmental enhancement projects

  • 22

    • Purchase of water– Reclaimed water/Effluent– Groundwater

    • Lease water• Secure instream flows• Acquire easements and

    retire pumping• Recharge groundwater• Other

    Donations Can Go Toward…

  • 23

    • Outreach efforts have included roundtables, presentations, workshops, one-on-one meetings, and surveys with:– Utilities– City and county officials– Environmental groups– Homeowners/residents– Professors– Hydrologists – Water conservation professionals

    Stakeholder Involvement

  • 24

    Check-box donation programs– Exists in three communities– Does not connect donations to conservation

    actions– Demonstrates support for environmental water

    supply– May be useful for first phase of project– Limited billing system modifications

    A Simpler Mechanism

  • Water Restoration Certificates (Bonneville Environmental Foundation)

    • Certificate represents 1,000 gallons of water & costs $1

    • Linked to allow people to offset water use– National Average– Dollar Amount– Gallons Used– Personalized Calculator

    • Used to support NFWF-approved projects


    A Similar Mechanism

  • Starting a Program• Build partnerships• Identify funding sources• Share the concept• Evaluate interest • Implement pilot programs

    – Accounting mechanism– Recruit participants– Oversight body– Receiving projects

    Esperanza Ranch, Arizona

    Verde River, Arizona (Jeanmarie Haney, TNC)


  • Tucson Pilot Program Partners




  • Focus on Water Harvesting

  • 29

    • Advisory Board formed– Oversight body – Represents local organizations, government entities – Has defined criteria for receiving sites– Solicited proposals from restoration

    project managers

    Esperanza Ranch, Arizona

    Managing Funds

  • • Existing restoration project• Needs supplemental water• Water source identified• Publicly accessible • Located within the Tucson

    Water service area• Has other funding sources

    Verde River, Arizona (Jeanmarie Haney, TNC)


    Criteria for Selecting Projects

  • Evaluation: Elements to Evaluate

    Program Development


    Participant Water Behavior

    Environmental Benefits

  • Evaluation Tools• Participant Survey• Water Use Tracking Tool: “Conservation

    Calculator”• Excel-based• Web-based

    • Restoration Site Reporting• Progress Report

  • Websitehttp://www.cals.arizona.edu/azwater/


  • Next Steps

    Environmental Water Needs Assessment• Complete technical & spatial analysis of

    studies• Obtain external review of materials• Share Assessment and Guidebook

    Conserve to Enhance• Identify partners for implementing C2E

    pilot programs• Evaluate pilot programs


  • 35

    Conserve to EnhanceReferences:

    Megdal, Dr. Sharon B., Bate, Joanna, and Andrew Schwarz. June 2009. Securing Water for Environmental Purposes: Establishing Pilot Programs, Intl. Journal of Environmental, Cultural, Economic and Social Sustainability 5.*

    Gerlak, Andrea, Eden, Susanna, Megdal, Dr. Sharon B., Lacroix, Kelly Mott, and Schwarz, Andrew. 2009. Restoration and river management in the arid southwestern USA: exploring project design trends and features. Water Policy 11: 461–480.*

    Schwarz, Andrew and Dr. Sharon B. Megdal. January 2008. Conserve to Enhance,Journal of the American Water Works Association 100 (1): 42-53.

    Megdal, Dr. Sharon B. Jan-Feb 2008. Conserve to Enhance, Arizona Water Resource Public Policy Review.*

    Schwarz, Andrew and Dr. Sharon B. Megdal. 2007. Water Conservation Banking: Municipal Water Conservation to Support Environmental Enhancement. WRRC and US Bureau of Reclamation, Tucson, AZ.*

    Megdal, Dr. Sharon B., Lacroix, Kelly Mott, and Andrew Schwarz. 2006. Projects to Enhance Arizona’s Environment: An Examination of Their Functions, Water Requirements, and Public Benefits. WRRC and US Bureau of Reclamation, Tucson, AZ.*

    *Available on WRRC website: http://cals.arizona.edu/azwater/publications.php


    2010 cover pageSlide Number 1Slide Number 2

    1040- Joanna Nadeau- Inspiring Water Conservation through Recognition of Environmental Water Needs� Inspiring Water Conservation through Recognition of Environmental Water Needs OverviewOverarching GoalsNeed for this ProjectProject ObjectivesGeneral Project TimelineMain ProductsAssessment OutlineGuidebook OutlineAdvisory CommitteeStudy CategoriesSummary of StudiesSummary of StudiesMethodology ClassificationMethodology EvaluationMethodology EvaluationOpportunitiesProjects Funded by �U.S. Bureau of ReclamationConserve to EnhanceProgram ObjectivesConserve to EnhanceDonations Can Go Toward…Stakeholder InvolvementA Simpler MechanismA Similar MechanismStarting a ProgramTucson Pilot Program PartnersFocus on Water HarvestingManaging FundsCriteria for Selecting ProjectsEvaluation: Elements to EvaluateEvaluation ToolsWebsiteNext StepsConserve to Enhance

    WSI Cover Sheet.pdfSlide Number 1