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THE “CREATING FRIENDLY CLASSROOMS” PROGRAM AND

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  • THE CREATING FRIENDLY CLASSROOMS PROGRAM

    AND CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT

    Amitya Kumara1 Birlanti Novita Sari2 Dinni Asih Febriyanti2 Husna Ika Putri Sari2

    ABSTRACT

    This is is a joint research that aims at viewing influences of trainings on the Creating Friendly Classrooms Program toward increased capability on classroom management and teachers competencies in building a secure and comfortable classroom, decreased aggresiveness and raised pro social behaviour toward kindergarten students. Implementing the Creating Friendly Classroomes Program is one of the efforts to prevent any bullying acts. The subjects of the research are teachers and students in two kindergartens in Sleman.

    The research uses untreated control group design with pre-test and post-test quasi experiment design. Seven activities are carried out in seven days. Every day, teachers will apply one action that takes around 30 minutes. Before the program starts, teachers of the experiment group will receive trainings on backgrounds, basis ideas, and program implementation procedures. Variables of the research will be measured before and after the program implementation. Trainings and program modules are based onThe Anti Bullying and Teasing Program for Preschool Classroom manual.

    The result of the research reveals that teachers trainings on the Creating Friendly Classrooms Program can improve teachers abilities in classroom management and their competencies in setting up a secure and convenient classroom. In addition, program application is able to lower students aggresiveness and raise their pro social behaviors in kindergartens.

    Keywords: classroom management, teachers competencies,

    aggressiveness, pro social, kindergartens, the Creating Friendly Classroomes Program

  • INTRODUCTION

    a. Background Data from the fields show aggressive behaviors are often found in

    kindergartens. A survey discloses that most of the total 123 teachers in 20

    kindergartens report on the kind of behavior. As many as 48.78% from the total

    figures say certain students often become victims of aggressive behaviours from their

    mates (Kumara, and friends, 2010). The occurance of specific pupils as victims of

    aggressiveness indicates bullying behaviors. Bullying is a sub part of aggressive

    behaviour that can be characterized by two additional points, which are (1) an

    imbalance power that shows aggressive behaviors from a stronger party to weaker

    one, and (2) behaviour repetitions (Olweus, 1993; Perren, 2000).

    Thus far, teachers overcome problems emerging in classrooms by changing

    studentsbehaviors through reward and punishment method application. However,

    there is an approach, called social constructive, that is more effective to alter pupils

    behaviors and is able to reach about 85% of the whole students in one environment.

    A treatment approach regards teaching as abehavior construction that recognizes

    affirmation influences on behaviour and students learning while social construction

    approach views teaching as a meaning making stimulation where social processes

    coming out in joint activities during classes have impacts on children learning

    activities (Kumara, and friends, 2010b).

    There are four factors that pose as the background of the social constructive approach

    toward behaviour approach (Palincasr, 1998): Factor 1) cognitive working

    distribution, 2) reciprocal teaching, 3) thinking alouds or voicing what is on minds,

    and 4) language production.

    One of the programs that can make the goals of the social constructive

    approach a reality is The Anti-Bullying And Teasing Program for Preschool

    Classroom by Sprung, and friends (2005). Creating a mutual caring environment is

    believed to be able to reduce childrens needs to say what they want through negative

  • actions, like bullying and teasing. This program modifies classroom environment

    microsystem, from class activities, teachers roles in classes, to students interaction

    patterns. The system recommends classroom activities application that aim at

    stimulating pro social behaviors, such as helping each other, complying regulations,

    accepting, sharing, and cooperating with others. Teachers roles in bullying acts

    handling during studying in classes are strenghtened with six recommended strategies

    that make it easier for teachers to overcome conflicts among pupils, help emotional

    students, pass values on, put playing ground in a good order, and trigger discussions.

    Finally, the system suggests teachers behaviors in paying attention and helping each

    other as role models for students.

    From bio ecology theory perspective, environmental factos may influence

    human behaviours (Brofenbrenner & Evans, 2000). Increased bullying acts can be

    discovered in children who often watch television, lack of supports from teachers,

    former bullying victims, have bad school environment, receive emotional support

    from their peers, and have low expectations from teachers and parents on their

    achievements at schools (Barboza, Schiamberg, Oehmke, Korzeniewski, Post, &

    Heraux, 2009). Limiting watching duration, increasing students capabilities to have

    strong family supports, and repairing school climate, have potencies to hamper

    bullying behaviors from happening.

    Many school-based programs have been developed to help schools in

    preventing the occurances of bullying acts, violance, and aggressive actions. In a

    systematic review, at least 65 researches have been recorded to test the programs

    effectiveness (Hahn, and friends, 2007). Part of the programs focus on information

    availability about violence problems and its avoidance approaches, other part uses

    behavior approaches to change self concept, and the remaining part applies social

    learning approach, like modeling, to develop children competencies in empathy,

    social problems solving, and impulse controls.

  • Although there have been many bullying prevention programs at schools,

    most of them are suitable for school students and teenagers, who have different

    characters with those studying at kindergartens. Only six out of 65 program

    researches target kindergarten pupils, far smallers than 34 reviews for students at

    elementary schools. In other reviews that evaluate 42 programs similar with meta-

    analysis method, there is no program for students at kindergartens (Ferguson, Miguel,

    Kilburn, & Sancez, 2007). In Indonesia, there has not been any researches that tested

    the effectiveness of the anti-bullying programs in kindergartens despite the fact that

    bullying should have been handled seriously in kindergartens (Perren, 2000) as this

    brings significant implications for children.

    Most experienced teachers share similar opinions that teachers poor skills in

    classroom management will cause to fruitless program implementations no matter

    how great the programs are (Moore, 2003). This should be taken into account given

    how influential media in students lives is. Throughout a week, students may have

    lack of concentration and less attention on their learning should they always stick on

    the use of handphones, televisions, and films. Therefore, a class may turn into a

    chaos, such as violance in classrooms either among students or between teachers and

    students, should teachers fail to manage the place. It may be possible that pupils

    regard classes as boring and monotone teathers that do not motivate them to study.

    They may even think classes as empty lives.

    The most essential aspect for a successful class is teachers abilities in

    classroom management that refers to their skills in handling various kinds of

    students behaviors and their needs, and motivating students through the

    implementation of The Anti Bullying and Teasing Program for Preschool

    Classroom(Sprung, Froschl, & Hinitz, 2005), to result in an effective classroom.

    In a book called The Anti-Bullying and Teasing Program for Preschool

    Classroom, there are four major themes, --- community, feeling, friendship, teasing,

    and bullying. The research will use community theme that aims at improving students

    behaviors quality and creating a friendly classroom environment. Therefore, the title

  • of the program is adjusted to the theme purpose which is Creating Friendly

    Classrooms.

    The research is conducted to test the effectiveness of the Creating Friendly

    Classrooms program to improve teachers skills in classroom management at

    kindergartens. The tested program is Creating Friendly Classrooms. This is chosen

    based on three considerations, which are (1) having preventive characters applicable

    in large extend, (2) possesing a focus on classroom activities that can stimulate

    positive climate in classrooms as an important factor that can influence bullying

    (Barboza, Schiamberg, Oehmke, Korzeniewski, Post, & Heraux, 2009), and (3) are

    applicable in kindergartens classrooms to prevent early bullying acts.

    Several references show strong evidence that classroom management play big

    roles in students discipline and motivation. Discipline is different with punishment.

    Punishment is a teachers reactions toward disobeyance, while discipline is a

    preventive step to avoid any violations (Moore, 2003). Experienced teachers must be

    capable of managing classes by doing preventive and curative acts to student

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