THE CREATING FRIENDLY CLASSROOMS PROGRAM
AND CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
Amitya Kumara1 Birlanti Novita Sari2 Dinni Asih Febriyanti2 Husna Ika Putri Sari2
This is is a joint research that aims at viewing influences of trainings on the Creating Friendly Classrooms Program toward increased capability on classroom management and teachers competencies in building a secure and comfortable classroom, decreased aggresiveness and raised pro social behaviour toward kindergarten students. Implementing the Creating Friendly Classroomes Program is one of the efforts to prevent any bullying acts. The subjects of the research are teachers and students in two kindergartens in Sleman.
The research uses untreated control group design with pre-test and post-test quasi experiment design. Seven activities are carried out in seven days. Every day, teachers will apply one action that takes around 30 minutes. Before the program starts, teachers of the experiment group will receive trainings on backgrounds, basis ideas, and program implementation procedures. Variables of the research will be measured before and after the program implementation. Trainings and program modules are based onThe Anti Bullying and Teasing Program for Preschool Classroom manual.
The result of the research reveals that teachers trainings on the Creating Friendly Classrooms Program can improve teachers abilities in classroom management and their competencies in setting up a secure and convenient classroom. In addition, program application is able to lower students aggresiveness and raise their pro social behaviors in kindergartens.
Keywords: classroom management, teachers competencies,
aggressiveness, pro social, kindergartens, the Creating Friendly Classroomes Program
a. Background Data from the fields show aggressive behaviors are often found in
kindergartens. A survey discloses that most of the total 123 teachers in 20
kindergartens report on the kind of behavior. As many as 48.78% from the total
figures say certain students often become victims of aggressive behaviours from their
mates (Kumara, and friends, 2010). The occurance of specific pupils as victims of
aggressiveness indicates bullying behaviors. Bullying is a sub part of aggressive
behaviour that can be characterized by two additional points, which are (1) an
imbalance power that shows aggressive behaviors from a stronger party to weaker
one, and (2) behaviour repetitions (Olweus, 1993; Perren, 2000).
Thus far, teachers overcome problems emerging in classrooms by changing
studentsbehaviors through reward and punishment method application. However,
there is an approach, called social constructive, that is more effective to alter pupils
behaviors and is able to reach about 85% of the whole students in one environment.
A treatment approach regards teaching as abehavior construction that recognizes
affirmation influences on behaviour and students learning while social construction
approach views teaching as a meaning making stimulation where social processes
coming out in joint activities during classes have impacts on children learning
activities (Kumara, and friends, 2010b).
There are four factors that pose as the background of the social constructive approach
toward behaviour approach (Palincasr, 1998): Factor 1) cognitive working
distribution, 2) reciprocal teaching, 3) thinking alouds or voicing what is on minds,
and 4) language production.
One of the programs that can make the goals of the social constructive
approach a reality is The Anti-Bullying And Teasing Program for Preschool
Classroom by Sprung, and friends (2005). Creating a mutual caring environment is
believed to be able to reduce childrens needs to say what they want through negative
actions, like bullying and teasing. This program modifies classroom environment
microsystem, from class activities, teachers roles in classes, to students interaction
patterns. The system recommends classroom activities application that aim at
stimulating pro social behaviors, such as helping each other, complying regulations,
accepting, sharing, and cooperating with others. Teachers roles in bullying acts
handling during studying in classes are strenghtened with six recommended strategies
that make it easier for teachers to overcome conflicts among pupils, help emotional
students, pass values on, put playing ground in a good order, and trigger discussions.
Finally, the system suggests teachers behaviors in paying attention and helping each
other as role models for students.
From bio ecology theory perspective, environmental factos may influence
human behaviours (Brofenbrenner & Evans, 2000). Increased bullying acts can be
discovered in children who often watch television, lack of supports from teachers,
former bullying victims, have bad school environment, receive emotional support
from their peers, and have low expectations from teachers and parents on their
achievements at schools (Barboza, Schiamberg, Oehmke, Korzeniewski, Post, &
Heraux, 2009). Limiting watching duration, increasing students capabilities to have
strong family supports, and repairing school climate, have potencies to hamper
bullying behaviors from happening.
Many school-based programs have been developed to help schools in
preventing the occurances of bullying acts, violance, and aggressive actions. In a
systematic review, at least 65 researches have been recorded to test the programs
effectiveness (Hahn, and friends, 2007). Part of the programs focus on information
availability about violence problems and its avoidance approaches, other part uses
behavior approaches to change self concept, and the remaining part applies social
learning approach, like modeling, to develop children competencies in empathy,
social problems solving, and impulse controls.
Although there have been many bullying prevention programs at schools,
most of them are suitable for school students and teenagers, who have different
characters with those studying at kindergartens. Only six out of 65 program
researches target kindergarten pupils, far smallers than 34 reviews for students at
elementary schools. In other reviews that evaluate 42 programs similar with meta-
analysis method, there is no program for students at kindergartens (Ferguson, Miguel,
Kilburn, & Sancez, 2007). In Indonesia, there has not been any researches that tested
the effectiveness of the anti-bullying programs in kindergartens despite the fact that
bullying should have been handled seriously in kindergartens (Perren, 2000) as this
brings significant implications for children.
Most experienced teachers share similar opinions that teachers poor skills in
classroom management will cause to fruitless program implementations no matter
how great the programs are (Moore, 2003). This should be taken into account given
how influential media in students lives is. Throughout a week, students may have
lack of concentration and less attention on their learning should they always stick on
the use of handphones, televisions, and films. Therefore, a class may turn into a
chaos, such as violance in classrooms either among students or between teachers and
students, should teachers fail to manage the place. It may be possible that pupils
regard classes as boring and monotone teathers that do not motivate them to study.
They may even think classes as empty lives.
The most essential aspect for a successful class is teachers abilities in
classroom management that refers to their skills in handling various kinds of
students behaviors and their needs, and motivating students through the
implementation of The Anti Bullying and Teasing Program for Preschool
Classroom(Sprung, Froschl, & Hinitz, 2005), to result in an effective classroom.
In a book called The Anti-Bullying and Teasing Program for Preschool
Classroom, there are four major themes, --- community, feeling, friendship, teasing,
and bullying. The research will use community theme that aims at improving students
behaviors quality and creating a friendly classroom environment. Therefore, the title
of the program is adjusted to the theme purpose which is Creating Friendly
The research is conducted to test the effectiveness of the Creating Friendly
Classrooms program to improve teachers skills in classroom management at
kindergartens. The tested program is Creating Friendly Classrooms. This is chosen
based on three considerations, which are (1) having preventive characters applicable
in large extend, (2) possesing a focus on classroom activities that can stimulate
positive climate in classrooms as an important factor that can influence bullying
(Barboza, Schiamberg, Oehmke, Korzeniewski, Post, & Heraux, 2009), and (3) are
applicable in kindergartens classrooms to prevent early bullying acts.
Several references show strong evidence that classroom management play big
roles in students discipline and motivation. Discipline is different with punishment.
Punishment is a teachers reactions toward disobeyance, while discipline is a
preventive step to avoid any violations (Moore, 2003). Experienced teachers must be
capable of managing classes by doing preventive and curative acts to student