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SAUDI ARAMCO

SCAFFOLD SAFETY HANDBOOKIssued by Loss Prevention Department Published by Training and Career Development

May 2001

This Scaffold Safety Handbook is the same as and is reprinted from Section II-9 of the Saudi Aramco Construction Safety Manual.

May 2001

TABLE OF CONTENTSPage 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 ELEVATED WORK AREAS, LADDERS, AND SCAFFOLDS Purpose ....................................................................................................... Scope .......................................................................................................... Standards and References .......................................................................... Definitions ................................................................................................... Elevated Work Areas - General Requirements ........................................... 9.5.1 9.5.2 9.5.3 9.5.4 9.5.5 9.5.6 9.5.7 9.5.8 9.5.9 Fall Protection ................................................................................ Guardrail Systems ......................................................................... Personal Fall Arrest Systems ......................................................... Falling Object Protection ................................................................ Entry and Exit ................................................................................. Temporary Stairways ...................................................................... Temporary Ramps .......................................................................... Slipping and Tripping ..................................................................... Roof Work ...................................................................................... 1 1 2 5 14 14 14 15 16 17 17 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20

9.5.10 Lighting .......................................................................................... 9.5.11 High Winds ....................................................................................

9.5.12 Work Over Water ........................................................................... 9.5.13 Hot Surfaces .................................................................................. 9.5.14 Unstable Buildings and Structures ................................................. 9.5.15 Forklift Supported Temporary Work Platforms ...............................

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9.6

Portable Ladders and Step Ladders ............................................................ 9.6.1 9.6.2 9.6.3 9.6.4 9.6.5 9.6.6 9.6.7 Condition ........................................................................................ Position .......................................................................................... Clearances ..................................................................................... Usage ............................................................................................. Step Ladders .................................................................................. Extension Ladders ......................................................................... Job-made Ladders .........................................................................

21 21 21 22 23 24 24 24 25 25 26 28 29 29 30 30 33 35 36 37 37 37 38

9.7

Scaffold Components .................................................................................. 9.7.1 9.7.2 9.7.3 General .......................................................................................... Scaffold Tubing and Fittings Specifications ................................... Platform Units.................................................................................

9.8

Requirements Common to All Scaffolds ...................................................... 9.8.1 9.8.2 9.8.3 9.8.4 9.8.5 9.8.6 Capacity ......................................................................................... Foundations ................................................................................... Stability .......................................................................................... Scaffold Platform Construction and Use ........................................ Clearances ..................................................................................... Raising and Lowering Materials Using Gin Wheels ......................

9.9

Requirements Common to System and Tube and Coupler Scaffolds .......... 9.9.1 9.9.2 9.9.3 Horizontal Members ....................................................................... Bracing ........................................................................................... Tools...............................................................................................

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9.10 9.11

System Scaffolds ......................................................................................... Tube and Coupler Scaffolds ........................................................................ 9.11.1 9.11.2 9.11.3 9.11.4 9.11.5 Posts (Standards)........................................................................... Runners (Ledgers) and Bearers (Transoms) ................................. Vertical Bracing .............................................................................. Light-duty Tube and Coupler Scaffolds .......................................... Medium-duty Tube and Coupler Scaffolds .....................................

38 39 39 39 40 41 43 44 44 45 46 46 46 47 48 48 49 49 50 51

9.12

Mobile and Tower Scaffolds......................................................................... 9.12.1 Mobile and Tower Scaffold Construction ........................................ 9.12.2 Mobile Scaffold Operation..............................................................

9.13 9.14

Fabricated Tubular Frame Scaffolds ........................................................... Bracket Scaffolds......................................................................................... 9.14.1 Brackets and Straps ....................................................................... 9.14.2 Guardrails and Platforms for Bracket Scaffolds .............................

9.15

Underhung Scaffolds ................................................................................... 9.15.1 Criteria for Underhung Scaffolds ................................................... 9.15.2 Underhung Scaffolds Suspended by Tubes and Couplers ............ 9.15.3 Underhung Scaffolds Suspended by Wire Rope ........................... 9.15.4 Use of Wire Rope Clips ................................................................. 9.15.5 Welding From Underhung Scaffolds Suspended by Wire Ropes ..

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9.09.1

ELEVATED WORK AREAS, LADDERS, AND SCAFFOLDSPurpose

This section establishes the minimum safety-related technical requirements for temporary elevated work areas, ladders, and scaffolds.

9.2

Scope

A. This section applies to operations, maintenance, and construction activities of all Saudi Aramco proponent organizations and their contractors, at all Saudi Aramco onshore and offshore facilities and project sites. B. Scaffold design, erection, inspection, use, alteration, and dismantling shall meet the requirements of GI 8.001, Safety Requirements for Scaffolds. C. This section covers the design, erection, use, alteration, and dismantling of temporary elevated work areas, ladders, and supported or underhung scaffolds with fixed platform heights. The types of scaffolds covered in this section are those commonly used within Saudi Aramco, including tube and coupler, fabricated tubular frame, system, bracket, underhung, and manually propelled mobile scaffolds. D. The following unusual scaffolds are not covered in this section (see GS 217/1994 or OSHA 1926.450 for definitions): Adjustable and non-adjustable suspension scaffolds (sky climbers, swinging scaffolds, etc.) Boatswains chairs Bricklayers square scaffolds Carpenters bracket scaffolds Catenary scaffolds Chimney Hoists Float (ship) scaffolds Form scaffolds Horse scaffolds Ladder jack scaffolds Lean-to scaffolds Outrigger scaffolds Pump jack scaffolds Repair bracket scaffoldsScaffold Safety Handbook

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Roof bracket scaffolds Shore scaffolds Single-pole scaffolds Step, platform, and trestle ladder scaffolds Top plate bracket scaffolds Window jack scaffolds E. The erection of any of the above unusual scaffolds shall be in conformance with the most stringent requirements from GS 217/1994 or OSHA 1926.452. Per these standards, the use of shore and lean-to scaffolds is prohibited. F. Aerial lifts (manlifts) shall meet the requirements of GI 7.030. G. Manbaskets shall meet the requirements of GI 7.027.

9.3

Standards and ReferencesMaterials and equipment built to standards or references not listed below shall not be used without the expressed written concurrence of the appropriate Area Loss Prevention Division (ALPD).

9.3.1

Standards

The requirements of the following standards are mandatory. In case of conflicting requirements within these standards, the most stringent Saudi Aramco requirement shall apply.

Gulf Standard (GS):GS 217/1994 (or later), Industrial Safety and Health Regulations Equipment: Scaffolding

Saudi Aramco General Instruction (GI):GI 2.100, Work Permit System GI 6.020, Personal Flotation Devices for Work Over, On or Near Water GI 7.027, Crane Suspended Personnel Platform Operations (Manbasket) GI 7.030, Inspection & Testing Requirements for Elevating/Lifting Equipment GI 8.001, Safety Requirements for Scaffolds2Scaffold Safety Handbook

May 2001

Saudi Ara