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Scaffold Aramco

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  • iTABLE OF CONTENTS

    Page

    9.0 ELEVATED WORK AREAS, LADDERS, AND SCAFFOLDS

    9.1 Purpose ....................................................................................................... 1

    9.2 Scope .......................................................................................................... 1

    9.3 Standards and References ........................................................................... 2

    9.4 Definitions .................................................................................................... 5

    9.5 Elevated Work Areas - General Requirements ............................................. 14

    9.5.1 Fall Protection ................................................................................. 14

    9.5.2 Guardrail Systems .......................................................................... 14

    9.5.3 Personal Fall Arrest Systems .......................................................... 15

    9.5.4 Falling Object Protection ................................................................. 169.5.5 Entry and Exit .................................................................................. 17

    9.5.6 Temporary Stairways....................................................................... 17

    9.5.7 Temporary Ramps........................................................................... 19

    9.5.8 Slipping and Tripping ...................................................................... 19

    9.5.9 Roof Work ...................................................................................... 19

    9.5.10 Lighting ........................................................................................... 19

    9.5.11 High Winds ..................................................................................... 20

    9.5.12 Work Over Water ............................................................................ 20

    9.5.13 Hot Surfaces ................................................................................... 20

    9.5.14 Unstable Buildings and Structures ................................................... 20

    9.5.15 Forklift Supported Temporary Work Platforms ................................. 20

  • ii

    9.6 Portable Ladders and Step Ladders ............................................................ 21

    9.6.1 Condition ........................................................................................ 21

    9.6.2 Position .......................................................................................... 21

    9.6.3 Clearances ..................................................................................... 22

    9.6.4 Usage ............................................................................................. 23

    9.6.5 Step Ladders .................................................................................. 24

    9.6.6 Extension Ladders .......................................................................... 24

    9.6.7 Job-made Ladders ......................................................................... 24

    9.7 Scaffold Components ................................................................................... 25

    9.7.1 General ........................................................................................... 25

    9.7.2 Scaffold Tubing and Fittings Specifications ..................................... 26

    9.7.3 Platform Units ................................................................................. 28

    9.8 Requirements Common to All Scaffolds........................................................ 29

    9.8.1 Capacity ......................................................................................... 29

    9.8.2 Foundations .................................................................................... 30

    9.8.3 Stability ........................................................................................... 30

    9.8.4 Scaffold Platform Construction and Use .......................................... 33

    9.8.5 Clearances ..................................................................................... 35

    9.8.6 Raising and Lowering Materials Using Gin Wheels ......................... 36

    9.9 Requirements Common to System and Tube and Coupler Scaffolds............. 37

    9.9.1 Horizontal Members ........................................................................ 37

    9.9.2 Bracing ........................................................................................... 37

    9.9.3 Tools ............................................................................................... 38

  • 9.10 System Scaffolds ......................................................................................... 38

    9.11 Tube and Coupler Scaffolds ......................................................................... 39

    9.11.1 Posts (Standards) ........................................................................... 399.11.2 Runners (Ledgers) and Bearers (Transoms) .................................... 399.11.3 Vertical Bracing .............................................................................. 40

    9.11.4 Light-duty Tube and Coupler Scaffolds ............................................ 41

    9.11.5 Medium-duty Tube and Coupler Scaffolds ....................................... 43

    9.12 Mobile and Tower Scaffolds .......................................................................... 44

    9.12.1 Mobile and Tower Scaffold Construction .......................................... 44

    9.12.2 Mobile Scaffold Operation .............................................................. 45

    9.13 Fabricated Tubular Frame Scaffolds ............................................................. 46

    9.14 Bracket Scaffolds ......................................................................................... 46

    9.14.1 Brackets and Straps ....................................................................... 46

    9.14.2 Guardrails and Platforms for Bracket Scaffolds ............................... 47

    9.15 Underhung Scaffolds .................................................................................... 48

    9.15.1 Criteria for Underhung Scaffolds ..................................................... 48

    9.15.2 Underhung Scaffolds Suspended by Tubes and Couplers ............... 49

    9.15.3 Underhung Scaffolds Suspended by Wire Rope .............................. 49

    9.15.4 Use of Wire Rope Clips .................................................................. 50

    9.15.5 Welding From Underhung Scaffolds Suspended by Wire Ropes ..... 51

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  • 9.0 ELEVATED WORK AREAS, LADDERS, AND SCAFFOLDS

    9.1 Purpose

    This section establishes the minimum safety-related technical requirements for temporaryelevated work areas, ladders, and scaffolds.

    9.2 Scope

    A. This section applies to operations, maintenance, and construction activities of all SaudiAramco proponent organizations and their contractors, at all Saudi Aramco onshore andoffshore facilities and project sites.

    B. Scaffold design, erection, inspection, use, alteration, and dismantling shall meet therequirements of GI 8.001, Safety Requirements for Scaffolds.

    C. This section covers the design, erection, use, alteration, and dismantling of temporaryelevated work areas, ladders, and supported or underhung scaffolds with fixed platformheights. The types of scaffolds covered in this section are those commonly used withinSaudi Aramco, including tube and coupler, fabricated tubular frame, system, bracket,underhung, and manually propelled mobile scaffolds.

    D. The following unusual scaffolds are not covered in this section (see GS 217/1994 orOSHA 1926.450 for definitions):

    Adjustable and non-adjustable suspension scaffolds (sky climbers, swinging scaffolds,etc.)Boatswains chairsBricklayers square scaffoldsCarpenters bracket scaffoldsCatenary scaffoldsChimney HoistsFloat (ship) scaffoldsForm scaffoldsHorse scaffoldsLadder jack scaffoldsLean-to scaffoldsOutrigger scaffoldsPump jack scaffoldsRepair bracket scaffolds

    Scaffold Safety Handbook 1

  • Roof bracket scaffoldsShore scaffoldsSingle-pole scaffoldsStep, platform, and trestle ladder scaffoldsTop plate bracket scaffoldsWindow jack scaffolds

    E. The erection of any of the above unusual scaffolds shall be in conformance with the moststringent requirements from GS 217/1994 or OSHA 1926.452. Per these standards, theuse of shore and lean-to scaffolds is prohibited.

    F. Aerial lifts (manlifts) shall meet the requirements of GI 7.030.G. Manbaskets shall meet the requirements of GI 7.027.

    9.3 Standards and References

    Materials and equipment built to standards or references not listed below shall not beused without the expressed written concurrence of the appropriate Area LossPrevention Division (ALPD).

    9.3.1 Standards

    The requirements of the following standards are mandatory. In case of conflictingrequirements within these standards, the most stringent Saudi Aramco requirementshall apply.

    Gulf Standard (GS):

    GS 217/1994 (or later), Industrial Safety and Health Regulations Equipment:Scaffolding

    Saudi Aramco General Instruction (GI):

    GI 2.100, Work Permit System

    GI 6.020, Personal Flotation Devices for Work Over, On or Near Water

    GI 7.027, Crane Suspended Personnel Platform Operations (Manbasket)GI 7.030, Inspection & Testing Requirements for Elevating/Lifting Equipment

    GI 8.001, Safety Requirements for Scaffolds2 Scaffold Safety Handbook

  • Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard (SAES):

    SAES-A-112, Meteorological And Seismic De