Right Word Wrong Word ... Longman English Grammar Series by L. G. Alexander Longman English Grammar:

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  • Right Word Wrong Word

    Words and structures confused and misused by learners of English

    L. G. Alexander

    LONGMAN

  • Addison Wesley Longman Limited Edinburgh Gate, Harlow Essex CM20 2JE, England and Associated Companies throughout the world.

    © Longman Group UK Limited 1994 All rights reserved; no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the Publishers.

    First published 1994 Fifth impression 1997 Illustrated by Chris Ryley

    British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Alexander, L. G.

    Right Word Wrong Word: Words and Structures Confused and Misused by Learners of English. - (Longman English Grammar Series) I. Title II. Ryley, Chris III. Series 428.24 ISBN 0-582-21860-8

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Alexander, L.G.

    Right word wrong word: words and structures confused and misused by learners of English/L.G. Alexander.

    p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-582- 21860-8 1. English language-Usage. 2. English language-Errors of usage. I. Title.

    PE1460.A48 1993 428.2'4-dc20 93-11963

    CIP

    We have been unable to trace the copyright holder of the text for Exercise 52 Everybody, Somebody, Anybody, Nobody and would appreciate any information that would enable us to do so.

    Set in Times New Roman, TrueType Produced through

    Longman Malaysia, ETS ISBN 0 582 21860 8

  • Acknowledgements

    I would express my sincere thanks to the following people who supplied extremely useful data while this work was being developed:

    Julia Alexander Mohamed Eid, Cairo, Egypt Professor Jacek Fisiak, O.B.E., Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan, Poland Cristina Germanis, Verona, Italy Jurgen Kienzler, Ludwigsburg, Germany Roy Kingsbury Professor Hanna Komorowska, University of Warsaw, Poland Gottfried Kumpf, Vaihingen, Germany Chris Lynch, Tokyo, Japan Penelope Parfitt Professor T. Takenaka, Kagawa University, Japan

    Longman English Grammar Series by L. G. Alexander

    Longman English Grammar: a reference grammar for English as a foreign language Step by Step 1-3: graded grammar exercises (beginners' to pre-intermediate level) Longman English Grammar Practice: reference and practice (intermediate level) Longman Advanced Grammar: reference and practice (advanced level) The Essential English Grammar: a handy reference grammar (all levels)

  • Contents Introduction viii

    Reference Section 1-201

    Test Yourself 203

    Up to Intermediate Level 1 Social exchanges 204 2 Cars and driving 205 3 Adjectives: opposites 206 4 Adjectives and noun modifiers 206 5 Asking, requesting, commanding 207 6 Telephoning 207 7 Appearance, etc., of people and things 208 8 Descriptions, etc. 208 9 Containers 209

    10 Countable and uncountable nouns 210 11 Time and frequency 211 12 Health 212 13 Holidays 212 14 'Be','get','go','make', etc. 213 15 Work and jobs 214 16 Buildings and parts of buildings 214 17 Verbs/verb phrases with and without prepositions 215 18 Occupations, etc. 216 19 Words easily confused, misspelt, etc. 217 20 Prepositional phrases 218 21 Only one negative 218 22 -ed/-ing 218 23 Addressing people 219 24 Names of places 219 25 Doing things for people 220 26 Movement to and from 220 27 The human body 221 28 Furniture 221 29 Money 222 30 Adverbs 223 31 Comparatives and superlatives 223 32 Four topics: 224

    1 The weather 2 The news 3 Luck and misfortune 4 Keeping clean

    33 Questions and exclamations 225 34 Quantities and amounts 226 35 Travelling by train 227 36 Outside 228 37 'Do', 'make' and 'have' 229

    v

  • 38 Dressing and clothes 230 39 Food and drink 231 40 Countable and uncountable nouns 232 41 Education 233

    Upper Intermediate to Advanced Level 42 Greetings, conventional social utterances and exchanges 234 43 Comparing and contrasting 235 44 Socializing, entertainment, etc. 236 45 What goes with what? 236 46 Phrasal verbs 237 47 Adjective + preposition 237 48 Verb +'to'or verb +'-ing'? 238 49 Approval and disapproval 239 50 Red tape 240 51 Character and reputation 241 52 Everybody, Somebody, Anybody, Nobody 242 53 Regular and irregular verbs which are easily confused 242 54 Animals, birds and plants 243 55 Shopping 244 56 Counting and measuring 245 57 Verbs with and without prepositions 246 58 Household equipment, power, etc. 247 59 Expressing feelings of approval 248 60 Writing, literature, language 249 61 Items of clothing, etc. 250 62 Nouns ending in's' 251 63 Food 252 64 Health 253 65 Behaviour 254 66 Two topics 255

    a) War and peace b) Geography, natural phenomena

    67 Adjectives and -ly adverbs 256 68 Communicating 257 69 Reflexive pronouns after verbs 258 70 Food and drink 259 71 Two topics 260

    1 Entertainment, leisure 2 Games, sports, outdoor activities

    72 What comes after the verb? 261 73 Newspapers, broadcasting, publishing 262 74 'Do', 'make', 'have' and 'take' 263 75 Education 264 76 Buildings, parts of buildings, surroundings 265 77 Countable and uncountable nouns 266 78 Fear, worry, embarrassment, etc. 267 79 Crime and punishment 268 80 Clothes, materials, etc. 269 81 Are you a hypochondriac? 270

    vi

  • 82 Housework, gardening, maintenance 271 83 Degree and intensifying 272 84 -ic/-ical 272 85 Inversion after negative adverbs 273 86 Adjective + preposition 273 87 Words easily confused, misspelt, etc. 274 88 Experiences, perception, thought 275 89 What sort of person are you? 276 90 Politics and government 277 91 Stative and dynamic uses of certain verbs 278 92 Travelling 279 93 Prepositional phrases 280 94 Cars, driving, maintenance, traffic 281 95 Referring to facts, the truth 282 96 A campaign against litter 283

    Answer Key 284

    Technical Terms 289

    Index 291

    VII

  • Introduction About Right Word Wrong Word Little green men In 1877 the Italian astronomer Giovanni Schiaparelli (1835-1910) observed some markings on the planet Mars which he referred to as canali. This was mistranslated into English as canals, suggesting man-made structures and the existence of intelligent life on Mars, instead of channels, which occur naturally. The idea of canals appealed to the imaginations of scientists and novelists alike. The astronomer Percival Lowell used it as the basis for his 'scientific observations', recorded in such works as Mars and its Canals (1908). The novelist H.G. Wells was inspired to write his powerful story about the invasion of the earth by Martians, The War of the Worlds (1898). In 1938, a simulated newscast of this novel was broadcast, describing the Martian invasion of New Jersey, which reduced millions of listeners to a state of near panic. The idea of Martians was not exploded till 1965 when the US spacecraft Mariner 4 sent back close-up pictures of Mars, which proved conclusively that there were no canals and no little green men! The story shows how powerfully mother tongue interference can affect our understanding of a foreign language, with unpredictable consequences. It also shows how we have to suppress our own language if we want to acquire a foreign language.

    What is Right Word Wrong Word? Right Word Wrong Word is a Reference and Practice Book based on common errors in English. It covers items like the following: • Words often confused, where the student's native language interferes with

    English (false friends): for example, benzine/petrol. • Word-confusions that exist within English itself: for example, rob/steal/burgle. • Structures in the student's language that interfere with English structures: for

    example, it has compared with there is/it is. • Confusions of structures within English itself: for example, must/had to. • Particular words and structures which are a well-known source of error: for

    example, get and enjoy. Right Word Wrong Word is therefore a comprehensive usage book that provides answers to students' questions that are not easily available from any other source.

    Who is the book for? The book is suitable for students of English as a foreign or second language at intermediate level and above, whether they are preparing for examinations or not. It is also suitable for teachers. It extends the knowledge of non-native teachers by clarifying the meanings and uses of related items; it sensitizes native-speaking teachers by making them aware of mistakes that students really make. For both kinds of teachers, it is a handy reference for dealing with awkward questions on the spot.

    The basis of the selection I have been collecting 'right word wrong word' items since the early 1960s and my collection has grown into a large database. This database was checked against the Longman Learners' Corpus (drawn from 70 countries) and then filtered through a

    VIII

  • representative spread of languages, including Arabic, European (Germanic, Romance, Greek, Slavonic) and Asiatic (Japanese). The words in this collection are the survivors of the original database that followed this investigation and number more than 5,000 items.

    A description of the material The material consists of the following sections: • A reference section (pages 1-201) • Test Yourself (pages 203-283) • Answer Key