2012 Society for Training & Research on Panchayats and Rural Development. [HANDBOOK OF NIRMAN SAHAYAK] Society For Training And Research on Panchayats & Rural Development Government of West Bengal Jessop Building ,63 NS Road ,Kolkata -700001
Text of REINFORCE CEMENT CONCRETE STRUCTURE TRANSPOTATION
Society for Training & Research on Panchayats and Rural
[HANDBOOK OF NIRMAN SAHAYAK] Society For Training And Research on
Panchayats & Rural Development
Government of West Bengal Jessop Building ,63 NS Road ,Kolkata
1. What are the properties of 1st class Bricks?
Ans. It should be thoroughly well burnt preferably in kiln uniform
cherry or copper coloured, regular in shape & size, distinct
edges and should emit clear ringing sound when struck against
another brick, free from cracks, when immersed in water in a vat
for 24 hrs. It should not absorb more than 10 to 15% of its weight.
The conventional size of bricks 9 ¾” x 4 ¾” x 2 ¾” & the weight
is approximately 3.50 Kg. each.
2. How many types of bricks & what is the limit of water
absorption by bricks?
Ans. The types of bricks are as follows with the limitation of
water absorption: a) 1st class bricks – not more than 10% of
weight. b) 2nd & 3rd class bricks – not more than 20% of
weight. c) Fourth class bricks. d) Picked jhama bricks.
3. What are the crushing or compressive strength of bricks?
Ans. 1st class bricks – 126 kg/cm2
2nd class bricks - 105 kg/cm2 3rd class bricks – 56 kg/cm2 Picked
jhama bricks – 140 kg/cm2
4. What are the tests of good bricks? Ans. i) When struck with each
other they should emit clear ringing sound.
ii) Should be sufficiently hard & leave no impression when
scratched with finger nails. iii) Should not break when dropped on
hard ground from a height of about one meter iv) Limit of water
absorption when soaked continuously for 24 hrs, are varying 10-20%
for different class of bricks.
5. What are the Common Construction Materials used in the
Works? Ans. Marbel Moorum Brick Cement
Sand Stone Granite Brick bats Sand Slate Lime Stone Jhama bats
Surkis Laterite Kankar Jhama Metal Timber Bitumen Grit Stone Lime
6. What are different forms of lime used in construction
Ans. It is in the form of lime stone named Calcium Carbonate. It is
generally available as:
i)Non hydraulic lime ii)Semi hydrated lime iii)Hydraulic lime
Lime may be classified as Class A – Eminently hydraulic lime
(contained 25-30% of clay) which is
used for foundations & hydraulic structures. Class B - Semi
hydraulic lime (containing 15-20% of clay used for
mortar in masonry work). Class C – Fat lime (high calcium oxide
content) used chiefly for lime
punning, white washing. Lump lime: It means quick lime as its comes
directly from kiln(CaCo). 7. What are the terms of ‘Surki’ &
‘Sand’? Ans. It is termed as ‘artificial puzzolona’ obtained by
girnding fresh burnt bricks, brickbats, broken tiles, pottery which
should be fairly burnt of light red colour and with no portions
remaining unburnt. Best Surki is obtained from burnt clay
containing 15-20% lime. Sand is a form of Silica (SiO) is formed by
disintegrate of rocks caused by weather. It should be free from
silt and organic matter, should have coarse, angular grains of pure
silica. Grains of sand should be hard, durable & strong.
Classification as follows:
a) Pit Sand b) River Sand c) Sea Sand Functions: It is used as
adulterant to increase the volume of mortar, it prevents shrinkage
and cracking of mortar in setting and to improve the strength of
mortar as sand has greater crushing strength.
8. What about ‘Cement’ and their types. Ans. In the most general
sense of the word, ‘Cement’ is a binder a substance that sets and
hardens independently and can bind other materials together. Modern
concrete this was made from crushed rock with burnt lime as binder
of volcanic ash and pulverized brick additives that were added to
the burnt lime to obtain a hydraulic binder were later referred to
Cement. Some common types of cement as are follows:
a) Ordinary Portland cement b) Low heat cement c) Blust furnace
slag cement d) Rapid hardening cement e) High alumina cement f)
Quick setting cement g) Coloured cement h) Water proofed Portland
9. What is Concrete? Ans. . Concrete is a mixture of fine aggregate
(sand), coarse aggregate (stone chips, gravel, jhama khoa) and
matrix (cement) in combination with water as per proportion for the
exact workability (water : cement ratio) of concreting. Excess
water reduces t 9.a) What is the meaning of Development
Ans. Whenever some reinforcing bar is to be anchored or two bar
have to be given an overlap, it is essential that they must get
sufficient length of embedment or overlap on the case may be, so
that no slippage takes place. The length of embedment (Ld) or
Ld= Ø σ s /4 τbd Ø= Bar diameter
σ s = Actual tensile or compressive stress in bar
τbd = Permissible average bond stress. Its value depends upon the
concrete, strength, the concrete cover and the type of bar used
i.e. whether plain or deformed.
The length of lap for reinforcement bar in tension shall not be
less than Ld or 30 Ø, whenever is greater.
The length of lap for reinforcement bars in compression shall not
be less than Ld or 24 Ø whichever is greater
The anchorage value of standard U type hook alone is equal to 16 Ø,
where Ø is the diameter of a reinforcement bar.
The letter M refer to the mix and the number denotes the ultimate
compressive strength of 150 mm cube at 28 days expressed in
b) What is Columns?
Ans. A structural member, carrying on axial compressive load is
called a strut. A vertical strut, used in building, is called a
c) What is long & short Columns?
Ans. A column is generally a compression member having an effective
length greater than three times the least lateral dimension, when
the ratio of effective length of the column to its least lateral
dimension does not exceed 12, then it is termed on a short column.
When the ratio of effective length to its least lateral dimension
exceeds 12, then the column is considered on along or slender
The area of longitudinal reinforcement in a column should not be
less than 0.8% of the area of the concrete section required for
The diameter of longitudinal bar should not be less than 12
d) What is slab?
Ans. The slab are plane structural members whose thickness is quite
small as compared to its other dimensions.
When the ratio of long span to short span is greater than or equal
to 2, then the slab is known on or slab spanning in one direction
or one way slab. When the ratio of long span is less than 2, then
the slab is known as a two way slab.
If the plan bar are used, then the area of distribution
reinforcement in slabs should not be less than 0.15% of gross c/s
area of concrete.
e) What is the meaning of Foundation?Classification of
Ans. Foundation is the part of a structure whose function is to
distribute the load of super-structure over a large bearing area.
The foundation increase the stability of the structure and prevent
the lateral movement of the supporting material. The lower most
portion of a foundation which is in direct contact with the sub
soil it is called footing.
According to Tezzaghi, a foundation may be broadly classified on
shallow foundation and deep foundation. According to Tezzaghi, a
foundation is said to be shallow if the depth is equal to or less
than its width. In case of deep foundation, the depth is equal too
greater than the width.
According to IS-456-1978, the thickness at the edge in reinforced
and plain concrete footing on soils shall not be less than 150 mm
and not less than 300 mm above the top of piles for footing on
Minimum depth of footing, according to Rankine’s formula:-
D=P/W [1- Sin Ø/1 + Sin Ø] ²
P= Safe bearing capacity of soil in KN/m²
W= Unit weight of the soil in KN/m²
Ø= Angle of repose of the soil.
f) What are the uses of Retaining Walls?
Ans. The retaining wall are used to retain earth fill or any other
material so that the ground surface at different elevations are
maintained on either side of the retaining wall. These are mostly
used for road in hilly areas, swimming pools, at the end of the
bridges in the form of abutments, and under ground water
g) What is the meaning of Bond Stress?
Ans. When the steel bars are embedded in concrete, the concrete
after setting, adheres to the surface of the bars and thus resist
any force that tends to pull or push this rod. The intensity of
this adhesive force is called bond stress.
According to I.S. Specification (IS-456-1978) the permissible value
of bond stress for MIS grade of concrete is limited to 1N/mm.
h)What is Curing?
Ans. It is the process of hardening the concrete mix by keeping its
surface moist for a certain period, in order to enable the concrete
to grain more strength. The object of curing is to prevent the loss
of water by evaporation, to reduce of concrete and to preserve the
properties of concrete.
i) What is Compaction?
Ans. It is the process of consolidating concrete mix after placing
it in position. The main aim of consolidation of concrete is to
eliminate air bubbles and thus to give maximum density to concrete.
The proper consolidation ensures intimate contact between the
concrete and the surface of reinforcement.
10. How to measure a stack of materials?
Ans. Qty = (Upper Area + Lower Area )/2 x Height (Av.) 11. What are
the different proportions for the plaster works applied for? Ans.
For the exterior wall surface 6:1 (15 mm)
For the interior wall of the same 6:1 (20 mm) Outside of the plinth
wall 4:1 (15 mm) For the ceiling 4:1 (10 mm)
12.What is reinforced Concrete?
Ans. A reinforced concrete is one in which concrete has been
reinforced i.e. strengthened by introduction of some other material
normally torque steel to ensure strength, serviceability & life
span etc. 13. What are the quantities of mortar in different
proportions for 1m³ of brick work? Ans. Porportion Brick Cement
Sand 2:1 389 0.15m³ 0.30m³ 3:1 389 0.107m³ 0.33m³ 4:1 389 0.083m³
0.33m³ 6:1 389 0.055m³ 0.33m³
14. What are the types of Glass as construction materials
Ans. a) Sheet glass j) Ribbed glass k) Reinforced wire safety glass
l) Laminated safety glass
15. What is ‘Timber’ & what are the names for common uses? Ans.
Timber is a very important material for building construction. It
is primarily required for two purposes:
a) For making doors & windows b) For structural use as rafting,
reapers & purlains
Common uses of timber as follows: Sal, Teak, Mehagony, Sundari,
Siris, Arjun, Jaruh, Jack, Bakul, Mango, Pia Sal, Mugra,
15 (I). How can be differentials of % saving for a low cost saving
by using the alternative materials in place of conventional
Conventional option % of Saving
A) Foundation i)Pile foundation Traditional Brick 15 (Fifteen) ii)
Brick Arch Works/Boulder works 25 B) Walling i)Stabilized Mud Block
Burnt Brick Work 20 ii) Fly ash brick wall Green Brick work 20
iii)Fungi(Fly ash: Lime : Gypsum) Block
Green Brick work 25
iv) Hollow Block wall Solid Masonry 20 v) 150-200 mm Stone
Random Rubble Stone Masonry
C) Lintel i)Precast thin lintel R.C.C. lintel 25 ii) Brick on end
R.C.C. lintel 50
iii) Corbelling lintel R.C.C. lintel 40 iv) Brick Arch lintel
R.C.C. lintel 30 D) Doors / Windows i)R.C.C. door frames Wooden
frame 30 ii) Frame less door Wooden frame &shutter 50 iii)
R.C.C. Window frame
Wooden frame 30
iv) R.C.C. Jellies Ventilators 50
Room height to be maintained minimum 2.40m considering the low cost
17. What is Soil erosion? Ans. Soil erosion means loss of soil from
a particular area and this happened due to: a) Soil erosion by
water (Ns¡e¡ SmpË¡al fËi¡h ru) b) Salt affected (e¡e¡ Sml
fËi¡h) c) Water logging (SmhÜa¡)
Erosion Soil Erosion Morpho Erosion Erosion due to Flood, Sea
Sheet Erosion Gully Erosion
(Q¡cll BL¡l ¢hÙ¹£ZÑ (Sml ¢eL¡n£ e¡m¡l Hm¡L¡l ru) Lmhl hÑ¢ÜS¢ea
d)Degraded forests. 18. What are the Indian Soil classification
system? Ans. All Soils as per the Indian Soil classification system
are divided into three main groups such as:
a) Coarse grained soils having more than half the total material by
weight, larger than 75 micron sieve size.
b) Fine grained soils, having more than half the total material by
weight smaller than 75 micron sieve size.
c) Highly organic soils, these soil contains larger percentages of
fibrous organic matter such as peat and particles of decomposed
vegetation. In addition certain soils containing shells, cinders
and other non-soil materials in sufficient quantities are also
included in this group.
19.What is the classification of Soil? Ans. As per I.S. Code of
practice 1498-1970, the soils are classified as below according to
Boulder - above 300 mm Cobble - 300 – 75 mm Coarse Gravel - 75 – 20
mm Fine Gravel - 20 – 4.75 mm Coarse Sand - 4.75 – 2 mm Medium Sand
- 2.00 – 0.425 mm Fine Sand - 0.425 – 0.075 mm Silt - 0.075 – 0.002
mm Clay - below 0.002 mm
Selection of Soil for Road Construction
Engineering construction like buildings are to be made over soils
natural state, but construction of many other Civil Engineering
roads or embankments involves use of the soil in remoulded
Selection of soil for those projects, therefore, needs careful
Nature and physical characteristics of soil are of prime importance
selection process. Soil profile of the area is recorded for use in
embankment and pavement. The following are some of the important
in the task of soil selection:
Easiness in handling
Suitability for use in
Kankar, river sand-gravel mixes etc
Location of possible borrow areas along or off the road
Identification and classification of soil
Homogeneity of the soil
Liquid Limit and Plastic Limit tests
Standard Proctor Density and O.M.C. tests
Deleterious constituents (only in salt infested areas)
For highly plastic, poorly draining and unstable soil —
In addition to the above tests, the following tests are
The materials shall be soil, moorum, gravel, a mixture of these.
materials shall be free from logs, roots, stumps, rubbish or any
ingredient likely to deteriorate or affect the stability of
Materials from swamps, marshes and bogs
Peat, log, stump and perishable material ( any soil classified as
OI, OH in IS:1498-1970)
Materials in frozen conditions
Materials with salts resulting in leaching in the embankment
Expansive clays: Free swelling index > 50, shall not be used
Embankment= not exceeding 75mm
Subgrade = not exceeding 50mm
Embankment (upto 3metres height): not less than 1.44 gm/cc
Embankment (exceeding 3m height): not less than 1.52 gm/cc
Subgrade and earthen shoulders: not less than 1.65 gm/cc
The material shall be natural sand, moorum, gravel, crushed
crushed slag, granulated slag, crushed concrete, brick metal
kankar. The material shall be free from organic or other
The material shall have 9 percent fines value against 50 kN
Water absorption shall not be more than 2 percent
For higher water absorption Soundness test shall be carried
CBR value shall not be less than 15%
Plasticity Index shall be less than 6%
Liquid Limit shall be less than 25%
Materials for Base course
Water Bound Macadam (WBM) is one of the commonly used base
There are three Grades of WBM constructions:
Grade Size range of aggregates
I 90mm to 45mm
II 63mm to 45mm
III 53mm to 22.4mm
Grade Size range
Flakiness Index: not more than 30 percent
Water absorption: not more than 3 percent
Specification for binding materials ( loose soil): Plasticity Index
shall be between 4 to 6
Liquid Limit shall be less than 35%
Black Cotton Soil :- It is expansive in nature and often found in
varies parts of
West Bengal. Apart from large volume increase on increase of water
and development of huge swelling pressures when volume change is
shrinkage also occurs at the several conditions.
V1 – V2 1 Shrinkage ratio (S.R.) = . w1 – w2 Vd
where, V1 = Volume of Saturated soil at water ω1
V2 = Volume of Saturated soil at water ω2
Vd = Volume of dried soil
V1 – Vd Degree of shrinkage or Volume Shrinkage = V1
20. How many steps for making building & roads? Ans. It has
three parts mainly: Building: a) Foundation Roads: a) Sub-grade or
formation b) Plinth b) sub-base course c)base course
c) Superstructure d) Surfacing
21. What are the real steps taken for making rural roads? Ans. a)
c) Preparation of estimate and sanction of fund c)Preparation of
embankment by cutting soil & dumping & spreading
d)Preparation of Sub grade & layout d) Box cutting e) Brick
Soling / Edging f) Base course g) Surfacing
22. Do you know the CBR & its test procedure? Ans. The most
widely used test for foundation and of design of flexible pavement
is the California Bearing Ratio test. The test was originally
developed by the California Division of Highways by O.J.Porter and
a design methodology was evolved from survey of pavement conditions
carried out in California in 1920. Now most of the countries in the
world adopt this standard method. The basis of design of flexible
pavements in India too is the CBR method.
LABORATORY CBR TESTSETUP
This test basically a penetration test, in which the load required
to cause a plunger of standard size to penetrate a specimen of soil
at a standard rate is measured.
The test can either be conducted on remoulded specimens or
undisturbed specimens in the laboratory on in-situ of the sub-grade
23. What is the reason for making ‘camber’ in a road? Is it
compulsion? Ans. The reason for making in a road as follows:
h) Rain water/surface water easily flows towards the lower level.
ii) Special facilities may be availed for the moving
Yes it is compulsion for making Camber in a road. 24. For
strengthening of the rural road surface which one is best between
moorum with laterite boulder or slag boulder? Ans. For this, the
slag boulder is not suitable as because moorum & slag boulder
will not make bonding when mixed with water. But laterite boulder
easily makes bonding with moorum when mixed with water.
25. What are the major important considerations for fixing the
alignment of Rural Roads? Ans. The various important considerations
to be kept in view at the time of designing the road alignment are
a) A site visit should be made and all relevant information
collected on aspects like soil type, cross drainage works required,
relative utility of the alternatives in terms of providing
connectivity to Market, Health Centre, Educational Institution
& other Social facilities.
b) Run the alignment on as high a ground as possible. c) Run the
alignment on soils which provide better sub grade support. d) Study
the problem of land acquisition; obtain local support for
the needed land width. Utilize the existing facilities of
cart-tracks to the extent possible.
e) Avoid marshy and water logged areas, areas of poor sub grade
support. f) An ideal alignment should involve minimum construction,
and travel operation costs g) Blind curves should be avoided as far
as possible so as to give the
needed safe sight distances. h) Needless rise and fall should be
avoided. i) Major Gross-drainage & protection works should be
avoided to the extent
possible. 26. What are the side slopes to be maintained for rural
roads of normal embankments? Ans. Side slops for rural roads of
normal embankment are as follows Embankment in Silly/Sandy/Gravelly
- 2:1 Embankment in clay soils - 2 ½ :1 to 3:1 Cutting
Silly/Sandy/Gravelly Soil - 1:1 to ½:1 Cutting in Soft rock - ¼:1
to 1/8:1 Cutting in hard rock - Near vertical 27. What are the
Camber to be maintained in rural roads for different surface types?
Ans. Surface type Camber % Rigid pavement - 2.0 to 2.5 Thin
Bituminous pavement - 3.0 to 3.5 WBM or Gravel - 3.5 to 4.0 Earth -
4.0 to 5.0
27 .i)l¡Ù¹¡ Lla L¡e machine L¡S m¡N Hhw capacity La? Ans.
Road Roller m¡N [8 – 10 T, 4 – 6 T, 1.5 – 2 T] capacity
28. Do you know the details of 8-10T three wheeled Road Roller Ans.
This is most common equipment for compaction. It is diesel powered,
the BHP being around 35. The diameter of the front roll is around
105 cm. its width being around 100 cm. The diameter of the rear
roll is around 145 cm. its width being around 50 cm. The rolling
width is around 2 meters. The front roll gives a load of around
35-40 kg/cm width and the rear roll gives a load of 70- 80 kg/cm
width. The speed of rolling is in the range of 1.5 to 6.0 kmph. 29.
What is the real output of 8-10T Three Wheeled Rolls for diff.
works per day of 8hrs. Job? Ans. Following are the output (Average
1. Earthwork/moorum/gravel/soil stabilization 6 passes - 425
cm³/day of 8hours. 9 passes - 300 m³/ day of 8hours. 12 passes -
200 m³/ day of 8hours.
2. Water Bound Macadam - 40 m ³/ day of 8hours. 3. Premix Carpet -
500 ²m/ day of 8hours. 4. Seal Coat - 900 m²/ day of 8hours. 5.
Bituminous Macadam - 300 m²/ day of 8hours. 6. Asphaltic Concrete -
300 m²/ day of 8hours.
30. What do you mean by weep holes? Ans. Weep holes are provided to
prevent building up of hydrostatic pressure behind abutment and
wingwall of the height of abutment or wingwall over bed level is
more than 2m, weep holes should be provided 150mm dia. In 1:20
slope. Intervals normally will be 1m c/c zigzag .
31. What is Turfing? Ans. In most of the rural roads, erosion of
the slopes of the embankments rain cuts and erosion of the earth in
the Shoulder are commonly observed
defects. The erosion of the slops causes the loss of the roadway
width, besides leading to sedimentation of the adjoining water
bodies& natural drainage channels. This must be arrested by
applying grass sods in the embankment slopes and earthen shoulders
called turfing. Provision must be made in the estimates for this
item. 32. Draw standard road Cross Section of Flexible
33. Draw road Cross Section of RIGID PAVEMENT
34. What are the Steps for pavement Design of a Flexible Pavement?
Ans. The following procedure should be adopted:
a) Determine the field moisture content and the field density.
Collect a representative sub grade soil sample for laboratory
b) The field moisture content & field density determinations
must be carried out at a number of locations, not less than 3 per
Km. length of the road. For different types of soil and for sets of
different drainage conditions, the number of field test must be
c) Prepare laboratory CBR samples of sub-grade soil confirming to
the density and moisture content determined from field test for
each of the locations.
d) Determine the CBR value of sub-grade soil for each location
selected for field tests as at (a) & (b) above
e) Evaluate the traffic parameter by carrying out 24hrs. Field
traffic counts during the lean season and during the harvesting
seasons, finally arriving at the Average Annual Daily Traffic
(AADT). A suitable rate of growth can be selected depending on the
economic potential of the area.
f) Determine the thickness of the pavement at each of the locations
of field tests. The quality of the material for the overplay will
depend on the quality of sub-base and base materials used in the
35. What are the Elements of Quality Assurance System of a Rural
Choice of quality materials and design: evaluation Pavement
Thickness and composition for the assessed traffic and subgrade
conditions to rest the design
Fielf supervision and quality control of materials, construction
technique, surface finish to desired profile
Assessment of quality of finished road
Periodic inspection and maintenance measures
Successful fulfillment of requirements of the project
36. What are the stepwise procedure for one coat and two coat
Ans. i) The aggregates and binder should be checked for
specification requirements. ii) All depressions and pot holes etc.
on the receiving surface should be corrected iii) The surface
should be cleaned by brushing to ensure that there is no loose
material before binder is applied. IV) No surface work shall be
carried out if the atmospheric temperature is less than 10° C The
base or is damp The construction materials are damp The weather is
foggy, rainy or dusty. v) The works should be organized that no
traffic or dust gets on to the cleaned base. vi) The rate of spray
of binder & temperature at the time of application should be
checked. vii) Immediately after application of binder, the
aggregated should be uniformly spread with the use of brooms viii)
The rolling of aggregates shall commence immediately from the edges
progressing gradually towards the centre parallel to the centre
line. At super elevation, it should proceed from inner edge to
outer edge. ix) Rolling operations to be continued till aggregates
are firmly embedded in binder x) No traffic should be allowed for
xi) Finished surface should be checked for cross & longitudinal
profiles being 3m straight edge.
Bitumen temperature 160 degree
Laying temperature 135 degree
Rolling 110 degree
37) What are the stepwise procedures for the specified thickness of
premix carpet? Ans. a) The aggregates and the binder should be
checked as per requirements
b) The surface should be suitably prepared with the correction of
depressions & potholes etc.
c) No loose material should be on the prepared surface. d) Prime
coat should be applied as per procedure using the sprayer e) Tack
coat should be applied at the specified rate uniformly on the
prepared base. f) Mixing of aggregates & bitumen in specified
quantities should be
carried in a Hot Mix Plant (Mini) preferably 6T/hr capacity
controlling with the temperature
g) The premixed material should be spread evenly to the specified
thickness & camber. The cross fall should be checked by camber
h) Rolling should begin at the edges and progress towards the
centre wheels of the roller should be kept moist.
i) Rolling should be continued until all the roller marks
eliminated. j) Seal coat should be applied to the surface
immediately after laying the
surfacing. k) The finished surface should be checked for lime level
using camber board/straight edge. 38. What is called culvert? Ans.
A Culvert is a cross drainage structure having a total length 6m or
less between the interface of dirt wall or extreme vent way
39. What are the types of culverts? Ans.
a) R.C.C pipe culvert b) R.C.C. slab on masonry c) R.C.C. box type
culvert d)Arch Culvert e)Vented causeway f) Submersible
WATER HARVESTING & CHECK DAM
40. What is the meaning of ‘Rain Water Harvesting’ & its
different construction Component? Ans. Where there is no surface
water or ground water is deep or inaccessible due to hard ground
condition, or where it is too salty, acidic or otherwise unpleasant
or unfit to drink, another source must be sought. In areas which
have regular rain fall the most appropriate alternative is the
collection of rain water, called “Rain water harvesting. The
typical roof top rain water harvesting system comprises
Roof catchment Gutters Down pipe & first flushing pipe Filter
Unit Storage Tank
What is check dam? A check dam is a small, temporary or permanent
dam constructed across a drainage ditch, swale, or channel to lower
the speed of concentrated flows for a certain design range of storm
events. Purpose: Reduced runoff speed reduces erosion and gullying
in the channel and allows sediments and other pollutants to settle
out. They are inexpensive and easy to install. They may be
permanent if designed properly and can be used where it is not
possible to otherwise divert flow and stabilize the channel.
Limitations Check dams should be used only in small open channels
that drain 10 acres or less. The dams should not be placed in
streams. The maximum height of the
RAIN WATER HARVESTING SYSTEM
check dam should be 2 ft (0.6 m). The center of the check dam must
be at least 6 in (152 mm) lower than the outer edges. They may kill
grass linings in channels if water stays high or sediment load is
great. Materials A check dam can be built from logs, stone, or pea
After construction of check dam Construction of check dam
Installation Check dams can be constructed of either stone, or
logs. Log check dams are more economical from the standpoint of
material costs, since logs can usually be salvaged from clearing
operations. However, log check dams require more time and hand
labor to install. Stone for check dams, on the other hand, must
generally be purchased. However, this cost is offset somewhat by
the ease of installation. If stone check dams are used in
grass-lined channels which will be mowed, care should be taken to
remove all the stone from the dam when the dam is removed. This
should include any stone which has washed downstream. Since log
check dams are embedded in the soil, their removal will result in
more disturbance of the soil than will removal of stone check dams.
Consequently, extra care should be taken to stabilize the area when
log dams are used in permanent ditches or swale
CROSS SECTION OF HAND TUBE WELL
DPR & TENDER
41. What are the Steps for preparation of DPR for road project Ans.
DPR means Detail Project Report should be prepared in such a way
that its gives a comprehensive account of different features of the
project and should be presented under the following sub
a) Preliminary Details: Name of the work, broad scope, plan
provision reference to road plans, climate, need & priority of
b) Route selection: Considerations governing route selection,
merits & demerits of alternative routes, investigations and
reasons for selecting the proposed route.
c) Land acquisition plan: These are prepared for the survey
drawings for land acquisition details.
d) Road features: The road features should be provided in detailed
containing various aspects such as : i)Alignment: Topographical
& Geographical ii) Environmental issues & mitigation
measures: Air pollution to life system, drainage pattern,
iii)Proposal of right way, acquisition of structures. iv)Traffic
Survey: Projected period of 10yrs. & present status.
V) Road Design & Specifications: Geometric design of road,
pavement design, retaining works, specifications. vi) Cross
drainage structures: Investigation, details of design proposal
& drawings of CD structures. vii) Material, labour &
equipment: Availability, suitability, lead dirts
mobilization of resources. viii) Rates: Schedule of rates adopted,
analysis, consideration of price
escalation contingencies ix) Construction programme: Total period
of execution x) Miscellaneous: Diversion of traffic, arrangement of
water supply & other
42. What do you mean by ‘Tender’? Ans. Any constructive works
proposed for execution by contract will be notified in a form of
invitation called Tender & posted in Public places as per the
approval of the Authority. 43. What are the steps taken for Tender
procedures of a work? Ans. Tender invites in different shapes
considering the nature of works such as : NIT (Notice Inviting
Tender) NIQ (Notice Inviting Quotation) For execution of
works-estimates prepared as per PWD Schedule of rates for roads,
buildings, structures & S&P works. The item rate available
in the schedule of rates and notified in a form of invitation
called NIT (Notice Inviting Tender) And the items specification
prepared and the rates not available in the schedule of rates – in
that case it is notified in a form of invitation called NIQ (Notice
Inviting Quotation). 44. What is called ‘Vetting’? Ans. The
estimates prepared for a particular project which is to be sent to
the Authority for sanction of the same. Before sanctioning of the
estimate, the same to be checked technically as per drawing,
designs & plans and also with the schedule of rates. If it is
found OK in all respect by the Technical Authority, the same should
be agreed by him with the written words ‘vetted by me’. And then
the estimates will be given Administrative Approval and financial
sanction. 45. How many types of Tenders are there? Ans. a) Turnkey
b) Limited Tenders c) Open Tenders d) Short Tenders e) Quotation
46. What is M.B. & its functions & uses Ans. It is called
Measurement Book. It is used for recording the measurements of
executed works before payment. This may for the road works,
building works, Bridge & culvert works, stack measurements,
supply of materials etc. This is very vital documents to the Govt.
Department. For recording in details of the project before making
any payment. The recording should be like projects name, Tender
………site location, name of Agency, date of commencement of works,
date of completion, date of measurements, the item wise measurement
records & the certificates for completion of the works as per
terms and conditions of the tender specification. 47. What are the
different Scales used for different Survey works as well as Mouza
maps? Ans. Topographical Maps Town Survey 1 cm = 2.5 Km or 1/250000
2 cm = 1 Km or 1/50000 1 cm = 1 Km or 1/100000 4 cm = 1 Km or
1/25000 1 cm = 0.5 Km or 1/50000 10 cm = 1 Km or 1/10000 1 cm = 50
m or 1/5000
Large Scale Surveys & Layouts Preliminary or Sketch drawings
dependent on the
Subject 1 cm = 20 m or 1/2000 1 cm = 5 m or 1/500 1 cm = 10 m or
1/1000 1 cm = 2 m or 1/200 1 cm = 5 m or 1/500 1 cm = 1 m or
Working drawings: Plans Elevations and Sections 1 cm = 2 m or 1/200
1 cm = 1 m or 1/100 1 cm = 0.5 m =1/50 Large Scale drawings General
Details Enlarged Details 1 cm = 20 cm or 1/20 1 cm = 10 cm or 1/10
1 cm = 10 cm or 1/10 1 cm = 5 cm or 1/5 1 cm = 2.5 cm or ½.5 1 cm =
2 m or ½ 1 cm = 1 cm full size