Public Deliberation & Participation: Concepts, Values, & Process Design Tina Nabatchi, Ph.D. Public Administration Department April 13,

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<ul><li><p>Public Deliberation &amp; Participation:Concepts, Values, &amp; Process Design</p><p>Tina Nabatchi, Ph.D.Public Administration April 13, 2011</p></li><li><p>the most important point of excellence which any form of government can possess is to promote the virtue and intelligence of the people themselves. </p><p> John Stuart Mill, On Representative Government</p></li><li><p>Civic EngagementCivic Engagement involves virtually any activities that concern public issues. </p><p>Civic Engagement can happen in many places:Civil SocietyElectoral ArenasAdministrative Arenas</p><p>Civic Engagement can take many forms:Adversarial Collaborative ConsensusOne-Way Two-Way Deliberative Communication Information Exchange Democratic Decisionmaking</p></li><li><p>Public/Citizen ParticipationPublic Participation: the processes by which public concerns, needs, and values are incorporated into governmental decisionsIndirect Participation: citizens select a representative to make decisions for themExamples: Voting and Interest group activities</p><p>Direct Participation: citizens are personally involved and actively engaged in decision making Examples: Advisory committees and Participatory decision making </p></li><li><p>Deliberative ParticipationPublic Deliberation: participatory models designed to help citizens form their own political voice through the act of reasoned discussion</p><p>Deliberative Democracy: Public decisions should be made through reasoned discussion and collective judgment of free and equal citizens Requires reason-giving Must take place in public and be accessible to all/some citizens affected by decisions Seeks to produce a decision that is binding for some period of timeIs dynamic and keeps open the option for continuing dialogue</p></li><li><p>Deliberative Democracy ProcessesSimilarities Focus on actionAppeal to valuesAbsence of pre-existing commitmentsMutuality of focusFree exchange of knowledge and information Occurs within small groups (though many involve thousands of people)</p><p>DifferencesWho participatesHow information is exchangedHow decisions are madeHow deliberation is linked to policy or public action </p><p>Examples AmericaSpeaks 21st Century Town Meeting National Issues Forum (NIF)Public (or Civic) JournalismDeliberative PollingStudy Circles</p></li><li><p>Core Values for Public ParticipationThe public should have a say in decisions that affect their lives.Participation should include the promise that the public's contribution will influence the decision. How the publics input will affect (or has affected) the decision should be communicated. The participation process should focus on and communicate the interests and needs of participants. The participation process should seek out and facilitate the involvement of those who are potentially affected by a decision. The participation process should provide participants with the information they need to participate in a meaningful way. Adapted from the International Association for Public Participation ( </p></li><li><p>Advocates and Critics Views </p><p>The arguments for participationIntrinsic value of participationInstrumental value of participationCitizensCommunitiesPolicy and GovernanceThe arguments against participationTransaction costsConstraints imposed on officialsNegative impacts on citizens and groupsRisky decision making</p></li><li><p>Why participation? Four Broad GoalsExploration: encouraging people to learn more about themselves, their community, or an issue, and possibly discover innovative solutionsConflict Transformation: resolving conflicts, fostering personal healing and growth, and improving relations among groups.Collaborative Action: empowering people to solve complicated problems and take responsibility for the solution(s). Decision Making: improving public knowledge on issues and influencing public decisions and policies</p></li><li><p>Spectrum of Public ParticipationInformConsultInvolve</p><p>CollaborateEmpowerIncreasing Level of Shared Decision Authority Fact Sheets Web Sites Open Houses</p><p> Public Comment Focus Groups Surveys Public Meetings</p><p> Workshops Deliberative Polling</p><p> Citizen Advisory Committees Consensus-Building Participatory Decision Making</p><p> Delegated Decision Making Deliberative Democracy Adapted from the International Association for Public Participation (IAP2) </p><p>One-Way Communication Deliberative Communication Two-Way Communication Engagement Processes Participation Processes Democratic Processes </p></li><li><p>Reciprocity: Actions Required of Agencies and CitizensInformConsultInvolve</p><p>CollaborateEmpowerInquirePropose/ Express Opinions Discuss/ Deliberate</p><p>Take Part on Continuing BasisAssume Respon-sibility</p></li><li><p>What Level of Participation is Right?It depends.How complex is the issue?What kind of participation is required for the decision to have legitimacy? How quickly does a decision need to be reached?What is the mandate? What are the political realities?What is the budget?</p></li><li><p>Why Agencies Retain (at least some) Decision-Making AuthorityAgencies are constrained by mandates.Agencies must operate within the limits of the law.Agencies must meet contractual obligations.Agencies must pay the costs of the project.Agencies must balance competing needs and interests.Agencies must retain accountabilityAgencies MUST promote the Public Interest</p></li><li><p>Planning for ParticipationDecision AnalysisClarify the decision being made.Decide whether and why public participation is needed.Specify the planning or decision making steps and schedule.Process PlanningSpecify what needs to be accomplished with the public at each step of the decision making process.Identify the internal and external stakeholders.Identify techniques to use at each stage of the process.Link the techniques in an integrated plan.Implementation PlanningPlan the implementation of individual public participation activities. Evaluation PlanningPlan the evaluation of multiple aspects of the all public participation activities. </p></li><li><p>Design Choices (Adapted from Fung 2003)Why do your want/need public participation? What do you hope to learn or accomplish?Are you seeking to explore an issue? Address a conflict? Develop collaborative action? Make a decision? Why is public input necessary for this decision?</p><p>Subject and Scope of ParticipationWhat issue will citizens consider?What will be the extent of their consideration?Do citizens have a comparative advantage over politicians, administrators, organized interests, etc.?Do you need information about public preferences and values?Do you want a citizen assessment of policy impacts?Do you want citizens to monitor accountability? </p></li><li><p>Design ChoicesThe StakesWhy will citizens consider the issue? Cold issue: low stakes, dispassionate, no fixed positionsHot issue: high stakes, passionate, fixed positions</p><p>Level of Shared Decision AuthorityHow will results of participation influence decision?Where on the spectrum will your public participation forum fall? Inform, Consult, Involve, Collaborate, Empower How will participants be informed about influence?Type of Participatory MechanismFace-to-Face: large group meetings or small table discussions?On-line: blogs, wikis, social media tools</p></li><li><p>Design Choices</p><p>Participant SelectionStakeholder Participation: open only to those who have an interest because of their job or involvement in a formal group or organizationPublic Participation: open to all residents</p><p>Participant RecruitmentVoluntary Self-SelectionTargeted Demographic RecruitmentStructural Incentives</p></li><li><p>Design ChoicesCommunication ModeOne-way communication (to or from agency?)Two-way communicationDeliberative communicationLarge group, small group, or online?Consider issues of facilitationConsider how all participants will have a voiceConsider issues of information aggregation/analysisInformed ParticipationWhat information do people need to participate in an effective way?All informational materials (e.g., expert panels, presentations, guidebooks, issue books) MUST be neutral, objective, and balanced. </p></li><li><p>Design Choices (Adapted from Fung 2003)</p><p>Recurrence and IterationOne-time event?Long-term, ongoing endeavor?</p><p>MonitoringIs there long-term monitoring of results, actions, or implementation?Will monitoring yield public learning, accountability, transparency? </p><p>EvaluationHow will you conduct a process evaluation?How will you conduct an impact evaluation? Who is the audience for your evaluation efforts?How will you share the results of your evaluations? </p></li><li><p>Design IssuesDecisions about design choices should be made:In an integrative fashionIn consideration of any mandates, laws, rules, regulations, etc.In consideration of system context and conditions (i.e., budget, human and other resources, political realities, logistical constraints, etc.)</p></li><li><p>Additional ResourcesDeliberative Democracy Consortium (DDC): </p><p>Global Voices: </p><p>LogoLink: </p><p>International Association for Public Participation (IAP2): </p><p>National Coalition for Dialogue and Deliberation (NCDD): </p><p>***</p><p>***</p><p>*</p></li></ul>


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