Phylum Porifera Invertebrates. There are 2 Types of animals Vertebrates: Animals with backbones. Vertebrates: Animals with backbones. Invertebrates: Animals

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  • Phylum PoriferaInvertebrates

  • There are 2 Types of animalsVertebrates: Animals with backbones.

    Invertebrates: Animals without backbones. * About 97% of all animal species are inverts.

  • Kingdom Animalia Phylum PoriferaPhylum Porifera (pore bearers) There are about 10,000 different species

    Are the simplest multicellular animals

    Adults are either asymmetrical or radial

    Cells are independent of each other

    Rely on water current for food, gas exchange, excretion, & reproduction

  • Kingdom Animalia Phylum PoriferaSponges come in many sizes, colors, and shapes including: Flabellate (fan-shaped)Arboresecent (tree-like)

  • Kingdom Animalia Phylum PoriferaSponges come in many sizes, colors, and shapes including: Caliculate (Cup Shaped)Tubular (Tube Shaped)

  • Kingdom Animalia Phylum PoriferaSponges come in many sizes, colors, and shapes including: Amorphous (Shapeless)Globular (Ball Shaped)

  • An IntroductionTurn Volume up

  • PoriferaMost are marine (saltwater)

    Have tiny pores on the surface to allow water to enter & circulate through a series of canals where planktonic organisms are filtered out and eaten

  • PoriferaPlanktonic: Describes small organisms that passively float or drift in a body of water.Zooplankton: Animal likePhytoplankton: Plant like

  • Porifera All are sessile: Living attached to the bottom or a surface.

    All are filter feeders: Actively filter suspended food from the water

  • Porifera: Anatomy The outer surface is covered with flat cells and sometimes tube-like pore cells called ostia, which form canals to allow water to enter.

    Simple sponges have one large atrium in the center which is also called a spongocoel

  • Fish in Atrium/Spongocoel

  • Porifera: AnatomyWater is pumped into a larger canal lined with collar cells also called Choanocytes, which have a flagellum that creates currents and a collar that traps food.Food gets trapped here

  • Porifera: Eating After choanocytes trap food on their collar, and is moved along to the base of the collar

    Food is then engulfed by the cell to form a food vacuole, and is digested by enzymes and pH changes

    Digested food is passed to amoeboid cells, & distributes it to other cells

  • Porifera: AnatomyWater leaves through the osculum, a large opening on the top

  • Sponges are Filter Feeders

  • SponginSpongin: Resistant fibers for support. Magnified spongin Highly magnified spongin

  • Porifera: AnatomyLarger sponges need spicules for support* Are different shapes & sizes

  • Porifera: Body Forms1. Ascon: Simplest & least common body form

    Considered simple sponges

    A type of sponge having an oval shape and a thin body wall with pores leading directly into the spongocoel.

    Has a single osculum at the top.

  • Ascon Body Form

  • Porifera: Body FormsSycon is when the sponge wall appears folded

    These sponges tend to be larger than asconoids and have a tubular body with a single osculum.

    Similar to the ascon sponge, but the body wall is folded. The "folds" form radial canals.

    Choanocytes line the radial canals rather than the spongocoel.

  • Sycon Body Form

  • Porifera: Body PlanLeucon: Have extensive branched canal system

    Considered Complex Sponges

    Do NOT have a spongocoel (Atrium)

    Have multiple exit points (oscula) for water leaving the sponge

    Have increased surface area and filter large volumes of water

  • Leucon Body Form

  • Sponge ReproductionMany are asexual: branches or buds break off and grow into separate sponges identical to the original one called Fragmentation.

    * No Sound *

  • Sponge Reproduction Sexually: When both sexes release gametes during the spawning season.

    *** What are gametes? ***Gametes: Haploid cells (sperm or egg) that functions in sexual reproduction. The union of 2 gametes of opposite sex produces a zygote.

  • Sponge ReproductionSpawning is the production or depositing of large quantities of eggs and sperm in water. Frog SpawnFish SpawningClam Spawning

  • More Sponge Spawning Pics.

  • Sponge Reproduction Zygote: Diploid Cell produced by the fusion of an egg and sperm. A fertilized egg cell.Diploid CellHaploid CellspermZygote

  • Sponge Reproduction Most sponges can produce both male and female gametes in the same individual and is called monoecious

    Some are dioecious meaning that they have separate sexes in each individual (either male OR femalenot both)

    Are we monoecious or dioecious?We are DIOECIOUS!

  • Sponge Reproduction Once the egg is fertilized, a larva is formed

    Larva: Is an immature stage that may undergo a dramatic change in structure before changing to the adult body form

    After no more than 2 days of free-swimming existence, the larva settles to the substrate and begins to develop into the adult formWhat is Substrate?

  • Types of SpongesEncrusting: form thin brightly colored growths on rocks or dead coral.

  • Types of SpongesGlass sponges: live in deep water & have skeletons of fused silica spiclues.(example: Venus Flower Basket)

  • Types of SpongesBoring Sponges: bore thin channels through oyster shells and corals.

  • Importance1. Bath Sponges: Harvested & used to bathe with

  • Commercial Importance2. Medical: Some act as antibiotics & others have painkilling properties (still researching)

    Researchers think that sponges us chemicals to limit competition among spongesthey release these chemicals to insure themselves space in the ecosystem

    Some of these chemicals have been found to have beneficial pharmaceutical effects for humans, including compounds with respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and antibiotic activities.

  • Commercial Importance2. Medical: Some act as antibiotics & others have painkilling properties (still researching)

    Researchers think that sponges us chemicals to limit competition among spongesthey release these chemicals to insure themselves space in the ecosystem

    Some of these chemicals have been found to have beneficial pharmaceutical effects for humans, including compounds with respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and antibiotic activities.

  • Harvesting SpongesTurn Volume down

  • The End.

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