Overview Of Exodus
• Exodus is the second Book in the Pentateuch (the first five
Books of the Old Testament). The Book is named
"Exodus" ("departure") to describe the "departure" of the
Hebrews from Egypt. There are 40 chapters.
• It was written by Moses around 1447-1410 B.C.
• The Book picks up the story of the descendants of Abraham
(the Hebrews/Jews) who were in Egypt at the end of the Book
of Genesis. It progress through to their time on Mount Sinai.
• It is a reminder to the people of Israel, especially as they are
punished in the wilderness for forty years for their continued
• The key word seems to be "sign."
• Exodus 12:40-41-40 Now the sojourn of the
children of Israel who lived in Egypt was four
hundred and thirty years. 41 And it came to
pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty
years—on that very same day—it came to pass
that all the armies of the LORD went out from
the land of Egypt.
• The Period Of Detention (Exodus 1-2)
• The Period Of Deliverance (Exodus 3-14)
• The Period Of Discipline (Exodus 15-19)
• The Period Of Directive (Exodus 20-40)
• The Egyptians become afraid of the Hebrews
living in their land. They enslave them, and then
rise up and kill many of the Hebrew males.
Moses is saved by his mother. She floats him
down the Nile river where he is rescued by an
Egyptian woman who raises him as her son.
The name "Moses" is similar to many of the
Egyptian ruling families of that day. His name
literally means "Pulled Out." His mother,
Jochebed, was hired as his nurse and raised
him. When he was forty years old, he killed and
Egyptian soldier who was mistreating a Hebrew
and fled to Midian where he became a shepherd.
• The Lord appears to Moses in the burning bush.
He sends Moses to confront Pharaoh and
demand that the Hebrews be set free.
• When the Pharaoh refuses, God demonstrates
to him and to all of Egypt that He is the one true
God. In a series of Ten Plagues, God shows
that He is superior to Egyptian gods and
• Exodus 12:12-For I will pass through the land of
Egypt on that night, and will strike all the
firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and
beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will
execute judgment: I am the LORD.
• Exodus 18:11-Now I know that the LORD is
greater than all the gods; for in the very thing in
which they behaved proudly, He was above
The Ten Plagues
• One: Waters To Blood (7:14-25)
• Two: Frogs (8:1-15)
• Three: Lie (8:16-19)
• Four: Flies (8:20-32)
• Five: Livestock Diseased (9:1-7)
• Six: Boils (9:8-12)
• Seven: Hail (9:13-35)
• Eight: Locusts (10:1-20)
• Nine: Darkness (10:21-29)
• Ten: Death Of Firstborn (11:110; 12:29-30)
• The Lord passed over Egypt and killed all of the firstborn
• The Hebrews were commanded to slaughter a lamb and
cover their houses with its' blood. When this happened,
The Lord "passed over" the homes where the blood was
• This foreshadowed the way that the Lord's blood was
applied to His people and the Divine wrath "passes over"
• The Passover was celebrated every year in Israel (more
attention to the Hebrew calendar will be given to this in
• Chapters 12-13 contain many other Passover regulations
for the Hebrews.
Chapter 14-The Red Sea
• Exodus 14:19-21-19 And the Angel of God, who
went before the camp of Israel, moved and went
behind them; and the pillar of cloud went from
before them and stood behind them. 20 So it
came between the camp of the Egyptians and
the camp of Israel. Thus it was a cloud and
darkness to the one, and it gave light by night to
the other, so that the one did not come near the
other all that night. 21 Then Moses stretched
out his hand over the sea; and the LORD caused
the sea to go back by a strong east wind all that
night, and made the sea into dry land, and the
waters were divided.
• "Second, we need not assume that they crossed in
some single file line, even though much artwork
suggest such. The crossing could have been 1-3 miles
wide. Therefore, the Israelites could have crossed in
as little as 3-6 hours. We can picture an organized type
army march, with no panic, or trampling of people.
The Israelites had entered the sea bed and were far
into the crossing, when Jehovah moved the cloud that
had been blocking them off from the Egyptians, to the
front, allowing the Egyptians to see them." (Edward D.
Andrews, Bible Difficulties In The Book Of Exodus:
Answering The Bible Critics-Bible Book Number Two,
2035-20042 (Kindle Edition); Cambridge, OH; Christian
• The Deliverance of the people of Israel from
Egyptian slavery has been attested to in
numerous ways archaeologically (see below).
• On their way to Mount Sinai, the Hebrews continually
rebelled against God (Exodus 15:24; 16:2-3; 17:1-2).
• During this period, God provided for their needs and
tried to teach them to be grateful and to trust in Him.
• Sadly, they didn't learn.
• As we will notice in more detail in a future lesson, the
people were condemned to wander in the wilderness
for forty years when they left Sinai and refused to go
into Canaan (wanting instead to turn back around
and go back to Egypt!)
• Exodus 16:35-And the children of Israel ate
manna forty years, until they came to an
inhabited land; they ate manna until they came
to the border of the land of Canaan.
• The rest of the Book of Exodus contains Divine
Directions from God to the Hebrews.
• Moses went up to Mount Sinai to receive the Ten
Commandments. These are given orally in
Exodus 20; but they are not actually recorded as
being given on stone until Exodus 32.
• One: No gods before Me.
• Two: No carved images.
• Three: Shall not take God's Name in vain.
• Four: Remember the Sabbath day.
• Five: Honor your father and mother.
• Six: Do not murder.
• Seven: Do not commit adultery.
• Eight: Do Not steal.
• Nine: Do not bear false witness.
• Ten: Do not covet.
• Exodus 32::15--And Moses turned and went
down from the mountain, and the two tablets of
the Testimony were in his hand. The tablets
were written on both sides; on the one side and
on the other they were written.
• Moses makes another set of the Ten
Commandments (at the command of God). He
also intercedes for the people after they have
rebelled against Him by committing ritual
fornication (Exodus 32-33).
• In this section, God provides Moses with much
direction regarding the worship of Israel (more
attention will be given to this in the study of
Leviticus). There are also several societal laws
put into place here.
The Hardening Of
• One of the most often asked questions about
Exodus deals with God's declaration that He
would harden the heart of Pharaoh.
• Let's notice several things about this hardening.
• Exodus 4:21-And the LORD said to Moses,
"When you go back to Egypt, see that you do all
those wonders before Pharaoh which I have put
in your hand. But I will harden his heart, so that
he will not let the people go.
Who Was Pharaoh Before
God Dealt With Him?
• Please notice that Pharaoh was already a stubborn and
• This has been made clear from several facts. First, we see that
the Pharaohs before him were hardened in sin (Exodus 1:8).
Second, Pharaoh was clearly in favor of the slavery and
mistreatment of the Hebrews (Exodus 2-4).
• Thus, God did not take some indifferent and religiously
confused "good man" and harden his heart. He took a man
who was already hardened in sin and allowed his heart to be
• The question is not, "Does God harden people's hearts?" The
question is, "Whom does God harden?" From Pharaoh we see
that God hardens the hearts of those who first harden
Who Does The Hardening?
• Notice that there are several indicators that
Pharaoh hardened his own heart (Exodus 8:15,
• "God did not harden Pharaoh’s heart contrary to
Pharaoh’s own free choice. The Scriptures make
it very clear that Pharaoh hardened his own
heart. They declare that Pharaoh’s heart “grew
hard” (Ex. 7:13; cf. 7:14, 22), that Pharaoh
“hardened his heart” (Ex. 8:15), and that