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OR WAS IT? The “ Era of Good Feelings ” (1815-1824) (1815-1824)

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  • OR WAS IT?The Era of Good Feelings(1815-1824)

  • American SystemBritish manufacturing competitors in 1815 looked to make up for lost time and money after the war.Dumped contents of their overstocked warehouses on the United States market.Often offered goods at below cost in hope of strangling the burgeoning American industriesAmerican manufacturing screamed for protection.In 1816, a nationalist Congress passed the Tariff of 1816, primarily for protection of American industry. Rates were 20-25% of the value of dutiable importsStarts trend of protection, another sign of the growth of nationalism

  • The American System Tariff of 1816- provide funds and protection Second Bank of the U. S.- Easy and abundant credit Internal improvements at federal expense. - National Road (needed for transportation of goods and materials from North and East to South and West (Vice versa). Link nation together economically Henry Clay, The Great Compromiser

  • The American SystemHowever, Madison vetoed the Federal road spending bill and for internal improvement in the statesStated unconstitutionalStates forced to provide own revenueAs a result, New York completes the Erie canal by 1825New England did not want federally funded roads because of fear of the population and power drain to the South and West

  • The American System

  • The American System WEST got roads, canals, and federal aide. EAST got the backing of protective tariffs from the West. SOUTH ?? Will this be an issue?

  • The Election of 1816Last time that the Federalists will have a presidential candidate. Also, the Virginia Dynasty continues with Monroe being elected. (Washington, Jefferson,Madison, and now Monroe. As Federalists slowly die, we have a system of One-party rule.

  • James Monroe [1816-1824]#5

  • James MonroeAs book states, the man and the times met perfectly. Straddled two generations, the by-gone period of the Founding Fathers and also the merging age of NationalismNot brilliant or ever great, but an intellect who understood that the nation did not need an overbearing president, just simple and sober administrationHe was an experienced, levelheaded executive who could interpret popular rumblings and discontent and respond.

  • James MonroeBoston newspaper, after his 1817 goodwill tour, pronounced his presidency will usher in an Era of Good Feelings.However, this is often called a misnomer, because despite a period of tranquility and prosperity early in his presidency, the era under Monroes administration was a troubled one. Issues of tariffs, the bank, and internal improvements caused bitter argumentsSectionalism was rearing its ugly head as well as the issue of slavery

  • The Panic of 1819 CAUSES???

  • Causes of 1819Depression, bank failures, deflation, bankruptcies, unemployment, soup kitchens, and debtors prisons all were the result of the panic of 1819.CausesOverspeculation in frontier lands, with the Bank of the United States involvedWest was severely hit as many farms were foreclosedWestern debtors started to despise and hate the Bank of the United States because of this. Poorer classes also hit very hard by the panic, which helped sow the seeds for Jacksonian Democracy

  • Western Expansion9 states joined the union from 1791-1819.To preserve the North-South balance, admitted alternately as free or slave state. Why such an explosion West?Continuation of the generations old-westward movementCheap land appealed to European immigrantsSmall down payments neededCrushing of Native Americans made land availableBuilding of roads improved transportation (Cumberland Road)Use of Steamboats made it easier to navigate rivers

  • Western ExpansionHowever, West was still weak internally and politically, just not enough people. However, still had demands, especially cheap acreage.Land Act of 182080 acres at 1.25 an acre cashAlso wanted cheap transportationAlso wanted cheap money

  • The Tallmadge Amendment Missouri wanted statehood, as a slave stateAll slaves born in Missouri after the territory became a state would be freed at the age of 25. Also no more slaves could be brought to Missouri. Passed by the House, not in the Senate. The North controlled the House, and the South had enough power to block it in the Senate.

  • The Tallmadge Amendment

    Slaveholding southerners were outraged at the Tallmadge amendment.Also, North over time was getting wealthier and more populated, as represented in the House. So the North had an advantage. But in the Senate, with 11 free states and 11 slave states, the South remained equal due to the 2 Senators per state.So Southerners wanted to maintain this equality because it gave them the opportunity to twart any measure to interfere with the expansion of slavery.

  • Missouri and the Slave IssueMany southerners worried that if Missouri, the first territory carved out of Louisiana and West of the Mississippi, was not admitted as a slave state, it would set a bad precedent for future western states. Southerners also worried if their peculiar institution could be abolished in Missouri, would the Northerners look to have it abolished elsewhere? Some anti-slavery northerners wanted slavery to not be allowed to expand further.So..a solution needed to be made.

  • Missouri CompromiseLed by Henry Clay, a bundle of 3 compromise were agreed to in an attempt to solve the issue of MissouriMissouri entered as a slave stateMaine entered as a free stateAll other slavery prohibited in the Louisiana Territory above 36 30 parallel (Southern border of Missouri)Who Won?South got Missouri as an unrestricted slave stateNorth got the right to prohibit slavery in the rest of Louisiana12 slave states and 12 free states due to the compromise. The compromise lasted 34 years and preserved the shaky compact of the statesHowever, it did not solve the slavery issue and simply kicked the can down the road. As Thomas Jefferson said, in regards to slavery: it will burst on us like a tornado.

  • The Compromise of 1820: A Firebell in the Night!

  • The Election of 1820Monroe was so popular, even despite the Missouri issue and the bigger issueOf the Panic of 1819, he received every electoral vote except 1. So WashingtonRemained the only unanimous choice in presidential elections. Former Governor and Senator from New Hampshire cast the single vote against Monroe

  • Daniel WebsterJohn Marshalls twin ideological brother in the Senate. Numerous times he eloquently espoused his Federalist views and nationalistic philosophy in front of the Supreme Court. Often argued in Senate against states rights and nullification

  • John MarshallAs Chief Justice, he helped create a stable and nationally uniform environment for business.Helped check the excess of popularly elected state legislatures.Through him, the conservative Hamiltonians triumphed from the tomb as he championed a strong central government time and time again

  • John Quincy Adams: A bulldog among spaniels!John Quincy Adams was Secretaryof State during Monroes administration.- Son of John Adams- rose above the sectionalism of New England and became one of the United States greatest Secretaries of State

    Treaty of 1818 (British):- Americans could share Newfoundland fisheries with Canadians- Fixed Louisiana at the 49th parallel (Lake of the Woods to the Rockies) - Ten-Year joint occupation of the disputed Oregon territory

  • The Convention of 1818

  • Florida and JacksonRevolutions broke out in Argentina, Venezuela, and Chile. So..Spain sent troops from Florida to these countries to stop the revolutionaries.Andrew Jackson creates trumped up charges that Seminole Indians and fugitive slaves are using Florida as refuge and gets commission to enter Florida to punish Indians and recapture the runaways.So he hanged two chiefs and executed two British subjects for assisting the Indians. He also took two Spanish posts, St. Marks and Pensacola.Congress and president were angry, but John Quincy Adams said lets just take Florida and wanted concessions from SpainResult is the Florida Purchase Treaty of 1819United States got FloridaHad to leave some forts in TexasBoundary established between Mexico and United States

  • Jacksons Florida Campaigns

  • Adams-Onis Treaty, 1819

  • Napoleonic Wars and AftermathAfter Napoleon was defeated and the threat of democracy was squashed, the Monarchs of Europe banded together in attempt to eliminate another revolution like in France. They wanted to make the world safe from democracy.Americans were fearful that the monarchs of Prussia, Austria, Russia, and France would send armies to defeat the democratic experiments in revolutionary Latin America. So they feared that the proximity of the adversarial monarchs would threaten American security1821, Tsar of Russia extended territory to 51st Parallel, present day British Columbia and had trading posts in San Francisco. So the fear of monarchy in America was real.

  • Britain and AmericaGeorge Canning proposed to the American minister a partnership with America that renouncing any interest in Latin American countries and also warning European despots to keep hands off the Latin American republics.John Quincy Adams said hells no!!! He understood that it was not necessary to entangle the Untied States in this alliance. There was no imminent attack from Europe in Latin America and plus the Royal navy would thwart any attack anyways. So he convinces Monroe to pronounce the..

  • The Monroe Doctrine, 1823What would the US do if the warning was not h