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OPTIMUM MIX OF FOAMED CONCRETE BY USING DIFFERENT MATERIALS

Kasrinawati Binti Sebeli

Bachelor of Engineering with Honours (Civil Engineering)

2009

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SARA W AK

BORANG PENGESAHAN STATUS TESIS

Judul: Optimum Mix of Foamed Concrete By Using Different Materials

SESI PENGAJIAN: 2008/2009

Saya KASRINA WATI BINTI SEBELI (HURUF BESAR)

mengaku membenarkan tesis * ini disimpan di Pusat Khidmat Maklumat Akademik, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak dengan syarat-syarat kegunaan seperti berikut:

1. Tesis adalah hakmilik Universiti Malaysia Sarawak. 2. Pusat Khidmat Maklumat Akademik, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak dibenarkan membuat salinan untuk

tujuan pengajian sahaja. 3. Membuat pendigitan untuk membangunkan Pangkalan Data Kandungan Tempatan. 4. Pusat Khidmat Maklumat Akademik, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak dibenarkan membuat salinan tesis ini

sebagai bahan pertukaran antara institusi pengajian tinggi. 5. * * Sila tandakan ( ~ ) di kotak yang berkenaan

DSULIT

D TERHAD

o TIDAK TERHAD

(Mengandungi maklumat yang berdarjah keselamatan atau kepentingan Malaysia seperti yang termaktub di dalam AKTA RAHSIA RASMI 1972).

(Mengandungi maklumat TERHAD yang telah ditentukan oleh organisasil badan di mana penyelidikan dijalankan).

Disahkan oleh

(TANDATANGAN PENULIS) (TANDATANGAN PENYELIA)

Alamat tetap: 268A, KG. TABUAN HILIR,

Tarikh:

CATATAN

JALAN SETIA RAJA, 93450 KUCHING Dr. Mohd Ibrahim Safawi Mohd Zin Nama Penyelia

6 APRIL 2009 Tarikh: 6 APRIL 2009

Tesis dimaksudkan sebagai tesis bagi Ijazah Doktor Falsafah, Sarjana dan Sarjana Muda. Jika tesis ini SULIT atau TERHAD, sila lampirkan surat daripada pihak berkuasalorganisasi berkenaan dengan menyatakan sekali sebab dan tempoh tesis ini perlu dikelaskan sebagai SULIT dan TERHAD.

The Following Final Year Project:

Title : Optimum Mix of Foamed Concrete by Using Different Materials

Author : Kasrinawati bt. Sebeli

Matrix Number : 14258

Was read and certified by:

Dr. Mohd Ibrahim Safawi Mohd Zin

Project Supervisors

Date

OPTIMUM MIX OF FOAMED CONCRETE BY USING DIFFERENT MATERIALS

KASRINAWATI BINTI SEBELI

This project is submitted to Faculty of Engineering,

University Malaysia Sarawak in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the

Degree of Bachelor of Engineering with Honours (Civil Engineering) 2009

For my beloved parent, Mr Sebeli andMdm SUi

My beloved siblings and dearest friends

Thanks for all your supports

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Bismillahhirrahmannirrahim.

In the name of Allah the Gracious and the Merciful.

First of all, I would like to take this opportunity to express my SIncere

gratitudes to all those who have contributes, supports and encourage me in my way

to complete this final year project. Without all of you, I will not be able to

accomplish this project successfully.

My deepest thanks and appreciation goes to my supervIsor, Dr. Mohd.

Ibrahim Safawi Bin Mohd. Zin for his guidance, motivation and encouragement. His

advices, suggestions and comments are gratefully acknowledged.

Sincere thanks also go to the Concrete Laboratory technician, Mr. Adha for

his guidance. Without his assists and helps, this project will not be a success.

Last but not least, my sincere appreciation goes to all my families. Thanks for

their sacrifice, continuous support and encouragement throughout the completion of

my final year project. A special thanks also goes to all my dearest friends for their

kindness, helps and supports.

ABSTRACT

Foamed Concrete is a special concrete which can be very useful in the construction

because it is lightweight and a self compacted concrete. It is necessary here and can

be cast easily into every corner of formwork especially for mass concreting. Many

researches have been done in overseas show that the foamed concrete can reduce

load in construction compared to normal construction. Materials used to produce

foamed concrete are cheap thus it will reduce the construction cost. In Malaysia

especially in Sarawak, foamed concrete is still new. Before it can be use in the

constructions, a lots of study need to be done on foamed concrete. The objective of

this project is to determine the optimum mix of foamed concrete using different

materials which are Fly Ash (FA), Silica Fume (SF) and Calcium Carbide (CC). In

this project, the mix of foamed concrete has been done on two conditions. First

condition is by replacing 50% cement and second condition is by replacing the sand.

Both conditions are done in two ratios 1: 1 and 1:2. Water to cement ratio is fixed 0.5

and the target wet density is 1000kg/m3 . Two tests done are Flow Table Test and

Compressive Strength on 7 days and 28 days. The results from this project show

different materials replaced in the foamed concrete influence the performance and

quality of foamed concrete itself.

ii

ABSTRAK

Konkrit Busa adalah konkrit khas yang amat berguna dalam pembinaan kerana

sifatnya yang ring an dan boleh mampat sendiri. Konkrit Mampat Sendiri (SCC)

boleh dituang dengan senang ke dalam bucu acuan terutamanya untuk kerja konkrit

yang besar. Banyak kajian telah dijalankan di luar negara menunjukkan bahawa

Konkrit Busa dapat mengurangkan beban dalam pembinaan berbanding konkrit

biasa. Bahan yang digunakan untuk menghasilkan konkrit busa murah dan itu akan

mengurangkan kos pembinaan. Di Malaysia terutamanya di Sarawak, Konkrit Busa

adalah satu teknologi baru. Sebelum ia dapat digunakan dalam pembinaan, banyak

kajian perlu dijalankan ke atas konkrit tersebut. Objektif projek ini adalah untuk

mengenalpasti bancuhan optima Konkrit Busa dengan menggunakan bahan berlainan

iaitu Fly Ash (FA), Silica Fume (SF) dan Calcium Carbide (CC). Untuk projek ini,

bancuhan Konrit Busa telah dilakukan dalam dua keadaan. Keadaan yang pertama

adalah dengan menggantikan 50% kandungan simen dan keadaan kedua adalah

dengan menggantikan pasir di dalam bancuhan tersebut. Bancuhan untuk kedua-dua

keadaan ini telah menggunakan dua nisbah iaitu 1: 1 dan 1:2. Nisbah air dan cement

adalah tetap iaitu 0.5 dan anggaran ketumpatan adalah 1000kg/m3 . Dua eksperimen

telah dilakukan iaitu Flow Table Test dan Kekuatan Mampatan pada 7 dan 28 hari.

Keputusan dari kajian ini menunjukkan bahan yang berlainan dalam bancuhan

mempengaruhi pre stasi dan kualiti Konkrit Busa itu sendiri.

iii

TABLE OF CONTENT

CONTENT PAGE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ABSTRACT 11

ABSTRAK 111

T ABLE OF CONTENT IV

LIST OF TABLES IX

LIST OF FIGURES X

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of Project 1

1.2 Objective of Study 5

1.3 Limitation/Scope of Study 5

1.4 Proj ect Outline 6

iv

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Properties of Foamed Concrete 7

2.2 Characteristic of Foamed Concrete 9

2.3 Foamed Concrete Mix Design 12

2.3.1 Water Demand of Mix Constituent 13

2.3.2 Mix Proportion for Foamed Concrete 13

2.4 Cement and Sand Replacing Materials 17

2.4.1 Fly Ash 17

2.4.2 Silica Fume 17

2.4.3 Calcium Carbide 19

CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY

3.1 General 21

3.2 Preparation and Casting of Foamed Concrete 22

3.3 Mixing Procedure 23

3.4 Cement Sand Ratio 24

3.5 Water Cement Ratio 24

3.6 Equipments 25

3.6. 1 Foam Generator 25

v

3.6.2 Air Compressor 26

3.6.3 Concrete Mixer 26

3.6.4 Mini Cone 27

3.6.5 Mortar Mixer 28

3.6.6 Moulds 28

3.7 Materials 29

3.7.1 Ordinary Portland Cements 29

3.7.2 Sand 30

3.7.3 Water 30

3.7.4 Foaming Agent 30

3.7.5 Fly Ash 31

3.7.6 Silica Fume 31

3.7.7 Calcium Carbide 32

3.8 Experimental Program 32

3.8.1 Condition 1 Cement to Sand ratio 1: 1 33

3.8.2 Condition 1 Cement to Sand ratio 1:2 34

3.8.3 Condition 2 Cement to Replacement Material ratio 1: 1 34

3.8.4 Condition 2 Cement to Replacement Material ratio 1:2 35

vi

3.9 Tests 35

3.9. 1 Workability 35

3.9.2 Strength 36

CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

4.1 General 38

4.2 Mix Proportions 39

4.3 Physical Description of Foamed Concrete on Condition 1 40

4.4 Physical Description of Foamed Concrete on Condition 2 43

4.5 Flow Table Test 47

4.6 Compressive Strength Test 51

4.7 Summary 57

CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS

5.1 General 58

5.2 Conclusions 58

5.3 Recommendations 60

5.4 Limitations 61

vii

REFERENCE 62

APPENDIX A 64

APPENDIXB 66

viii

LIST OF TABLES

TABLES PAGE

2.1 Typical Foamed Concrete Properties 7

2.2 Typical properties ofLCM foamed concrete 8

2.3 Fire resistance comparison test between

foamed concrete and vermiculite. 11

2.4 Mix proportions in m3 for the series of foamed concrete

investigated with W/C of 0.5 15

3.1 Condition 1 CIS 1: 1 33

3.2 Condition 1 CIS 1:2 34

3.3 Conditio

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