Nonlinear Systems 2nd- Hassan K. Khalil,Ch1,Ch2

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Text of Nonlinear Systems 2nd- Hassan K. Khalil,Ch1,Ch2


Second Edition&!+.A.

Hassan K. Khalil Michigan State University

Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

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NmIimar sysrrma I Harsan K. Khllil.--land ed.] p. 0 . " Indudes indw. ISBN 0-13-P8U24-8 1. Nanlincar b r i e r . I . Title. QA427.K48 19% 003'. 75--dcm

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ToPetar V. Kokotovit

PrefaceThis text is intended for a first-year graduate-level course on nonlinear systems. It may also he used for self-study or reference by engineers and applied mathematicians. It is an outgrowth of my experience in teaching the nonlinear systems course at Michigan State University, East Lansing, several times since 1985. Students taking this course have had background in electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, or applied mathematics. The prerequisite for the course is a graduatelevel course in linear systems, taught at the level of the texts by Cheu [29], DeCarlo [41], Kailath [86], or Rugh [142]. In writing this text, I have assumed the linear systems prerequisite which allowed me not to worry about introducing the concept of a "state" and to refer freely to "transfer functions," "state transition matrices," and other linear system concepts. As for the mathematics background, I have assumed the usual level of calculus, differential equations, and matrix theory that any graduate student in engineering or mathematics would have. In one section, I have collected a few mathematical facts which are used throughout the book. I do not assume that the student has previous knowledge of this material hut I expect, with the level of maturity of graduate students, that with the brief account of these facts provided here they should he able to read through the text without difficulty. I have written the text in such a way that the level ofmathematicalsophistication builds up as we advance from chapter to chapter. This is why the first chapter is written in an elementary context. Actually this chapter could be taught a t senior, or even junior, level courses without difficulty. This is also the reason I have split the treatment of Lyapunov stability into two parts. In Sections 3.1 to 3.3, I introduce the essence of Lyapunov stability for autonomous systems where I do not have to worry about technicalities such as uniformity, class K functions, etc. In Sections 3.4 to 3.6, I present Lyapunov stability in a more general setup that accommodates nonautonomous systems and allows for a deeper look into advanced aspects of stability theory. The level of mathematical sophistication at the end of Chapter 3 is the level that I like to bring the students to, so that they can comfortably read chapters 4 to 13. There is yet a higher level of mathematical sophistication that is assumed in writing the proofs given in Appendix A. The proofs collected in this appendix are

not intended for classroom use. They are included to make the text self contained on one hand, and to respond to the need or desire of some students to read these proofs, like students continuing on to conduct Ph.D. research into nonlinear systems or control theory. Those students can continue to read Appendix A in a self-study manner. By the higher level of sophistication in Appendix A, 1 do not mean more background knowledge; rather I refer to the writing style. A derivation step that would usually take three or four lines to describe in the main text, would probably be done in one line in the appendix. Having said that, let me add that many of the proofs in Appendix A are, in my opinion, simpler to read than their write-ups in the original references. The second edition of the book is organized into thirteen chapters. The first nine chapters deal with nonlinear systems analysis. Chapter 10 is also an analysis chapter, but deals with feedback systems. The last three chapter deal with the design offeedback control. Chapter 1 starts with introductory remarks on nonlinear phenomena which define the scope of the text. These remarks are followed by two sections. Section 1.1 introduces examples of nonlinear state equations which are used later in the book t o illustrate the various results and tools covered. In teaching this material, 1 have found it beneficial to get the students to appreciate the versatility of the nonlinear state equation before we overwhelm them with the technical results for that equation. Section 1.2 deals with classical material on second-order systems. I have used this material to introduce the reader to the two nonlinear phenomena which are studied rigorously later in the book; namely, multiple equilibria and their stability properties, and limit cycles. Chapter 2 starts with a section of mathematical preliminaries. The contraction mapping theorem of Section 2.1.4 is used a few times in Appendix A, hut only once in the main text (in the proof of Theorem 2.2). If the instructor chooses to skip the proof of Theorem 2.2, then the contraction mapping theorem might be skipped. Notice, however, t h a t normed Linear spaces, introduced in Section 2.1.4, are used in Chapter 6. Sections 2.2-2.5 contain the fundamental theory of ordinary differential equations, which should he treated, a t least briefly without proofs. Chapter 3 presents the Lyapunov theory. It is the core chapter of the book and should be thoroughly covered. Section 3.6 contains converse Lyapunov theorems which are referenced several times later on. It is important to mention these theorems in the classroom. Notice, however, that both Sections 3.5 and 3.6 can he taught very briefly since their proofs can be left as reading assignments. Beyond Chapter 3, all chapters are designed to be basically independent of each other, to give the instructor flexibility in shaping his/her course. I list here the exceptions to this general rule. The invariance theorems of Section 4.3 are used in Section 13.4 on adaptive control. Sections 5.1 t o 5.4 are used in Sections 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 12.3, 13.1, 13.2, and 13.3, and in a few examples a t the end of Section 13.4. 1 strongly recommend coverage of Sections 5.1 to 5.4. They deal with the important topic of stability in the presence of perturbations. Despite the importance of this


vii topic, its coverage in introductory books on Lyapunov stability has been limited, if a t all touched. T o be introduced to this important aspect of Lyapunov theory, students had to consult advanced stability monographs, such as Hahn's [62] and Krasovskii's [96]. Section 5.7 on slowly varying systems is beneficial for Chapter 9 on singular perturbations and Section 11.3 on gain scheduling, but it is not required. T h e notion of L-stability, introduced in Section 6.1, is used in Sections 10.2 and 10.3. Familiarity with the singular perturbation theory of Chapter 9 is needed in Section 11.3, but no technical results from Chapter 9 are explicitly used. Sections 11.1 and 11.2 should be included in any coverage of the last three chapters. Feedback linearizable systems, introduced in Sections 12.1 and 12.2, are used in several examples in Sections 13.1 to 13.3, but they are not needed for the main ideas of these sections. Every chapter from 1 to 13 ends with a section of exercises which are designed to help the reader understand and apply the results and tools covered. Many of these exercises have been used in homework assignments and tests in my class over the years. A solution manual is available from the publisher. It is my pleasure to acknowledge all those who helped me in the writing of this book. I would like, first of all, to thank my wife Amina for her encouragement and complete support throughout this project. I would like also to thank my sons Mohammad and Omar for their understanding and moral support. I am especially appreciative of the discussions I had with Petar KokotoviC a t different stages of this project. His remarks and suggestions were very valuable. Thanks are also due to Eyad Abed, Nazir Atassi, Martin Corless, Ahmed Dabroom, Farzad Esfandiari, Jessy Grizzle, Suhada Jayasuriya, Rolf Johansson, Ioannis Kanellakopoulos, Mustafa Khammash, P.S. Krishnaprasad, Miroslav Krstit, Zongli Lin, Semyon Meerkov, Jack Rugh, Fathi Salam, Eduardo Sontag, Mark Spong, and Steve Yurkovich, for their suggestions, constructive comments, feedback on the first edition, and/or reviewing parts of the new material of the second edition. I would like, in particular, to acknowledge Semyon Meerkov for his comprehensive feedback on the first edition and his