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Mihailovic 2009 Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic Chipped Stone Industries From Crvena Stijena

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Text of Mihailovic 2009 Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic Chipped Stone Industries From Crvena Stijena

PREHISTORIC SETTLEMENTS IN CAVES AND ROCKSHELTERS OF SERBIA AND MONTENEGROFascicule II

Publisher: University of Belgrade Faculty of Philosophy Center for Archaeological Research ika Ljubina 1820 11000 Belgrade Serbia For Publisher: Vesna Dimitrijevi Rewieved by: ivko Miki Ivana Radovanovi Editor: Miroslav Lazi Translation by: Mirjana Vukmanovi Design by: vojislav filipovi Printed by: igoja Printed in: 250 copies

The monograph is published thanks to the financial support of the Serbian Republic Ministry of Science and Technological Development and Project (147041).ISBN 9788686563651

University of Belgrade Faculty of Philosophy

Center for Archaeological Research Volume 22

PREHISTORIC SETTLEMENTS IN CAVES AND ROCKSHELTERS OF SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO Fascicule II

Duan Mihailovi

UPPER PALAEOLITHIC AND MESOLITHIC CHIPPED STONE INDUSTRIES FROM CRVENA STIJENA

Miroslav Lazi

Editor

Belgrade 2009

Rather long time had passed from the analysis of the material until the publishing of this book. It is, therefore, understandable that it would have never printed unless its publication was supported by many colleagues, friends and associates. I owe my deepest gratitude to Zvezdana VuoviLui, who made possible my examinations and study of the material when the circumstances were far from good, to Ivana Radovanovi, Dragoslav Srejovi and Milutin Garaanin because their advices and help were of immeasurable importance. My warm thanks are also due to Robert Whallon and the colleagues from Montenegro who invited me to take part in the recent investigations of Crvena stijena and to Vojislav Filipovi and Viktor Fari who helped me in preparing the manuscript for publishing.

The book is partially based on authors doctoral dissertation The Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic of Montenegro (University of Belgrade, 1999).

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................... ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING ................................................................................................... LOCATION, RESEARCH AND STRATIGRAPHY OF THE SITE ........................................

7 13 19

Chronology ....................................................................................................................................... 24 ANALYSIS OF THE CHIPPED STONE ARTIFACTS .............................................................. 27 Raw materials ................................................................................................................................... 29 Products of knapping ........................................................................................................................ UPPER PALAEOLITHIC AND MESOLITHIC OF CRVENA STIJENA WITHIN THE REGIONAL CONTEXT ...................................................................................................... Parallels between Crvena stijena and other Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic sites in Montenegro .................................................................................................. 69 The Middle to Upper Palaeolithic Transition ................................................................................... Late Upper Palaeolithic .................................................................................................................... 80 87 67 31

Epipalaeolithic and Mesolithic ......................................................................................................... 98 CONCLUSION .............................................................................................................................. 105 APPENDIX ..................................................................................................................................... 111 BIBLIOGRAPHY ........................................................................................................................... 117 PLATES ........................................................................................................................................... 131

INTRODUCTION

UPPER PALAEOLITHIC AND MESOLITHIC CHIPPED STONE INDUSTRIES FROM CRVENA STIJENA

T

he rock shelter of Crvena stijena on the western border of Montenegro (Figs. 1, 2) is one of the most important Palaeolithic and Mesolithic sites in the southeast Europe and the site, which is in many aspects a unique one. More than thirty cultural horizons have been investigated in this rock shelter in the course of earlier excavations reaching to the depth of 20 meters. In contrast to other sites in the southeast Europe almost all phases in the cultural development from the Middle Palaeolithic to the Middle Neolithic have been recorded at Crvena stijena. This site yielded large amount of data not only about changes in the material culture and the way of life of the prehistoric communities but also about the paleoclimatic and paleoecological circumstances during given time. Therefore, it should not be surprising that the interest for Crvena stijena has always been great and why the investigations of this exceptional site are still in progress. The investigations of Crvena stijena had been conducted relatively long time ago, in the 1950s and 1960s. Even though the excavations had not been carried out within the square grid system and the sediment had not been sifted they were executed very precisely attempting to gather all, even the smallest finds within the stratigraphic context. Besides, Crvena stijena is one of the first sites in this region where the interdisciplinary investigations had been undertaken. These investigations included the analyses of the sediments and macrobotanical remains, fauna and microfauna, identification of raw materials and C14 dating. The results have been presented in detail in many reports, studies and dissertations as well as in the monograph on this site ( 1975). Unfortunately, the excavations of the rock shelter were undertaken in the time when modern approach in the study of Palaeolithic was just at its outset in this as in many other parts of Europe. Because of that there are not enough data concerning the raw materials, structure of the industry, knapping technology and style of tool manufacture in the published works (Benac, Brodar 1958 and even 1975). Some authors tried to obtain these data on the basis of the published material (Whallon 1999; Kozowski 2002), but many problems concerning the attribution and stratigraphic position of certain finds still remained unsolved. Thus, it is not clear even until these days whether the industry from layer X belongs to the Aurignacian or Gravettian, whether the finds from layers VIIV date from final Palaeolithic or Early Mesolithic and whether in the material from the Mesolithic layer also appear the Neolithic elements, which are mentioned in the earlier reports ( 1975). In this work are presented results of the detailed analysis of the artifacts from the Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic layers (XIV) that we had an opportunity to carry out already in 1993. The objectives of these analyses were to acquire the thorough insight in the material, to determine

9

Duan Mihailovi

Fig. 1 Geographical position of the site

cultural and relatively chronological position of the assemblage and to reconstruct the activities of human groups within the dwelling place and its surroundings. Already at that time we tried to comprehend the industries from Crvena stijena within broader regional context ( 1998; Mihailovi 1998; 1999). In this book, however, we intend to take a further step having in mind the interpretative potential of the gathered material and the distinctiveness of the site itself. There are many factors, which impede the analysis and interpretation of the remains from Crvena stijena: in the Regional Museum in Niki is missing the field documentation and material from the excavations, there are no data about the spatial distribution of the artifacts, and there is just a few absolute dates. Therefore, it is clear that importance of Crvena stijena could be understood only if we examine the existing material within wider spatial and chronological framework and in the context of the evolution of the Upper Palaeolithic and the Mesolithic in this area. On the other hand, Crvena stijena offers remarkable possibilities for the studying of longlasting trends in the material culture and in all other aspects of evolution of the Upper Palaeolithic and the Mesolithic in the Balkan Peninsula (Bakovi et al. 2009). In comparison with other sites in the southeast Europe only at this site could be followed almost all transitional periods; from the Middle to the Upper Palaeolithic, from final Palaeolithic to the Early Mesolithic, from the Early Mesolithic to the Late Mesolithic and from the Mesolithic to the Neolithic. The continuous inhabitation of Crvena stijena was certainly influenced by geographic and topographic position of the site as well as by paleoclimatic and paleoecological characteristics of the region. Just because of that we paid special attention in this work to the climatic, ecological and social factors of the cultural changes.10

UPPER PALAEOLITHIC AND MESOLITHIC CHIPPED STONE INDUSTRIES FROM CRVENA STIJENA

The reconstruction of the region paleoecology is essential for the comprehension of settling and economy of huntergatherer communities. However, the importance of this region could be seen also in the fact that Mediterranean region considering the climatic, ecological and geographic aspects was a transitional zone between the steppic regions in the south and east of Europe and glaciated regions in the north. Besides, it seems that there are reasons to assume that western part of

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