Major impact on the design of printed material, furniture and architecture;
. Arts and Crafts Movement
The arts and crafts movement set the direction for much of art and design in the Twentieth Century. It had a strong influence on architects and designers like Frank Lloyd Wright and Walter Gropius; setting the values that resulted in such institutions as the Bauhaus. It is directly responsible for subjects like graphic design, ceramics, and other applied arts being taught in universities and regarded as equal to the fine arts.
Arts and Crafts Movement
Arts and Crafts MovementThe A+C movement developed in England during the second half of the 19th Century partly as a protest against the poor quality of manufactured goods and the degrading effects of labor.
Arts and Crafts MovementSome of its avowed goals were to: heal the social ills through good design reform of work and living standards bring renewed interest in aesthetics of practical crafts
Arts and Crafts MovementIts ideas were picked up around the world in a few years, with artists colonies springing up in Americathe Roycroft communities) and in Austriathe Wiener Werkstatte. Painters, woodworkers, architects formed associations to carry out commissions that amounted to a complete works of art, or total design
The word for this in German is Gesamtkuntswerk.
Arts and Crafts MovementWilliam Morris: Red House 1860William Morris: Credited with the origin of the Arts and Crafts Movement.
William Morris became keenly aware of the poor quality of most domestic wares when he undertook to build a home for himself and his new wife. He worked with his friend Phillip Webb to design and furnish his home according to his developing ideals. The RED HOUSE was radically designed from the inside out - first with a program for function and then deciding how it should look.
Morris designed everything inside of the house to be harmonious with it.
(The idea of total design was taken up by architects like Frank Lloyd Wright,)1859 Red House, just outside London, England
John Ruskin Ascendency of the HandmadeIntegration of art and lifeThe total work of art
Ruskin, in his book the Stones of Venice argued that the imperfect forms of the middle ages were more true and more aesthetically pleasing because of their imperfections, which revealed the hand and heart of the person who made them, in contrast to the qualities of machine-made artifacts.
He thought the Gothic style more truly reflected Christian values than the pagan Roman and Greek forms.
The Medieval Cathedral was for him a model of the ideal social environment - including the total integration of Art and Life, Form and Purpose.above,, Lilith, by Rosettti, and right, Edward Burne-JonesRuskin and the Gothic Revival:One of Morris inspirations was writer and critic John Ruskin who argued for architecture and craft based on a medieval model.
William Morris Wallpaper 1883Arts and Crafts MovementWilliam Morris: WallpaperWilliam Morris started a company in London in 1861 to make and sell hand-crafted functional objects.
His maxim was have nothing in your home that is not both useful and beautiful
The goal was that life should be lived as a total aesthetic experience.
Arts and Crafts MovementArts and Crafts MovementWhile Morris himself practiced a range of arts, from painting, poetry, graphic design, type face design, surface patters (for wallpaper and fabric), he is best known his books and writings and for the support he gave for other craftsmen. His sensibilities seem to be for richly-patterned surfaces, such as these wallpaper and fabric designs, and as seen in the borders of his books
Arts and Crafts MovementArts and Crafts Movement William Morris Tapestry designed by Morris, woven in wool and silk at Merton Abbey. 1890Depicts an orchard and the four seasons
The Morris Chair Adjustable-back chair designed by Philip Webb and manufactured by Morris, Marshall, Faulkner and Co. from about 1869 until 1900. (shown here with Morris-designed fabric.
A colleague saw a version of this in the shop of a rural carpenter and sent a sketch of it to Philip Webb, who designed much of the companys furniture.
This is in keeping with Morris idea of the aesthetics of simple and functional hand-crafted objects.
Arts and Crafts MovementMorris Chair
The Century Guild Dedicated to equal respect for all the arts.
Stylistically, Mackmurdo explored swirling, romantic, asymmetrical organic forms; using abstract shapes to convey thoughts and feeling. Shown here: Chair design and Book cover for Wrens City Churches, by Arthur Mackmurdo.
Arts and Crafts MovementArthur Mackmurdo: started the Century Guild in 1882 to promote the practice of integrated craftsCentury Guild
Selwyn ImageStained glass and:Design for Century Guild magazine Hobby HorseArts and Crafts MovementCentury Guild
Principles of the Arts and Crafts movement: 1. equality of all the arts2. good design as a morally-uplifting force3. value of handmade items over machine-made items4. re-uniting the role of designer and craftsman5. truth to materials6. design should reflect function (not merely decorate surface)Arts and Crafts Movement
The integration of the Arts
This cabinet designed by J.P. Seddon for with Morris and Company (1861) represents integration of painting as a practical art. It is decorated with painting well-known Pre-Raphaelite painters: Ford Maddox Brown, Edward Burne-Jones and Dante Gabriele RosettiArts and Crafts MovementThe integration of the Arts
Arts and Crafts MovementPre-Rapaelite artistsMorris was associated also with a group of artists called the Pre-Raphaelites, most famous of whom is Dante Gabrielle Rossetti. They tried to re-create the style of early Renaissance painting and favored mythic themes and settingunder the belief that industrial society of the 19th century was dehumanizing and crushed peoples spiritual nature.
Left: Lilith, by Dante Gabrielle RosetttiJane Burden was the wife of William Morris and a popular model for the Pre-Raphaelite artists.
Arts and Crafts MovementArts and Crafts MovementRosettis painting depicting the death of Beatrice - (based on Dantes Divine Comedy)
Arts and Crafts MovementArts and Crafts MovementSample book from Morris and Co.
William Morris Kelmscott Chaucer 1896Arts and Crafts MovementWilliam Morris, Kelmscott Press The Well at the Worlds End, 1894The crowning achievement of Morris work was the Kelmscott Press, which he started in 1891. His goal was to prove that the standards of crafts-manship of the past could be achieved in the present. He integrated type design, ornament, and illustration with meticulous craftsmanship in materials and printing. From 1891 to 1898 it produced 53 volumes, including the Works of Geoffrey Chaucer and the some of Morris own writings, like The Story of the Glittering Plain.
The design of the books were based on the early printers of the Incunabula, such as Nicolas Jenson,
Link to web resource (University of Glasgow) on Morris http://special.lib.gla.ac.uk/teach/privatepress/kelmscott.html
Morris Chair Adjustable-back chair designed by Philip Webb and manufactured by Morris, Marshall,Faulkner and Co from about 1869 until 1900.
A colleague saw a version of this in the shop of a rural carpenter and sent a sketch of it to Webb who designed much of the companys furniture.
This is in linen with Morris idea of the aesthetics of hand-crafted objects. .
Arts and Crafts MovementQuote from Morris on the state of societyMorris was active in the Socialist Movement and lectured widely about working conditions
William Morris Kelmscott Chaucer 1896Arts and Crafts MovementWilliam Morris, Kelmscott Press The Glittering Plain, 1894Morris designed the Golden type face for this book, which he designed and printed. Many of the pages have elaborate ornaments.The Illustrations are by Walter Crane.
The Golden type is based on black letter type, but letters are wider and rounder.
Arts and Crafts MovementArts and Crafts MovementWilliam Morris : Kelmscott Press Works of Geoffrey Chaucer, 1896
Arts and Crafts Movement in AmericaStickley, through his magazine popularized the American Bungalow as a way of making affordable well-styled housing available to the general publicClick on link below for moviehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1vxWs841Rd4&feature=BFa&list=ULv1wbcf5I2-I&index=2
In the United States the Arts and Crafts aesthetic is promoted by Gustav Stickley
Stickley traveled to Europe were he was introduced to the ideas of Ruskin.In 1898 formed the Gustave Stickley company in Syracuse NY published a journal called the Craftsman from 1900 until about 1915
His company produced a great deal of popular furniture in the A+C style
Mackmurdo came to the US where he got to know Frank Lloyd Wright - and they maintained a correspondenceChest of drawersGustav StickleyAmericanSimplicity of design.Functional,Arts and Crafts Movement in America
Craftsman style in domestic architecture:
Low-pitched roofs , wide gables, with large overhang and and exposed rafters
Bulky, simple columns that either continue to the ground level or sit on stone or brick pedestals - Usually deep front porches
Stone exterior chimney's, sometimes flanked by small windows
Open, flexible floor plans in which spaces flow easily from one into another
Double-hung windows - wither single or grouped, in which the upper sash is divided in