English Varieties. Language Varieties 1. Regional varieties 2. Social varieties 3. Ethnic varieties

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English Varieties Slide 2 Language Varieties 1. Regional varieties 2. Social varieties 3. Ethnic varieties Slide 3 A Handbook of Varieties of English Slide 4 British English dialects Slide 5 Pronunciation: North vs. South StandardNorth foot[fUt][fOt] meat[mit][met] sun[sn][sUn] dance[dans][dns] Slide 6 Dialect of East Anglia No agreement I go you go he go she come that say Slide 7 Dialect of East Anglia Old plural forms house housen mouse meece Slide 8 Dialect of East Anglia No plural s after measurement nouns foot three mile Slide 9 Dialect of East Anglia Case in pronouns Ill give he what for some day. Him left. Slide 10 Dialect of East Anglia 5. He begunHe has begun He brokeHe has broke He drunkHe has drunk He doneHe has done He blewHe has blew He comeHe has come He choseHe has chose Slide 11 Dialect of East Anglia 6. You done it, did you. Slide 12 Dialect of East Anglia 7.I wuzwerent you wuzwerent hewuzwerent wewuzwerent youwuzwerent theywuzwerent Slide 13 Dialect of East Anglia Negative int (cf. aint) I int a-comen. Im not coming. I int done it yet. I havent done it yet. Slide 14 Dialect of East Anglia Multiple negation I couldnt find hardly none onem. Slide 15 Dialect of East Anglia Subject pronouns in imperatives Go you on! Shut you up! Slide 16 Dialect of East Anglia What as a relative marker Hes the one what done it. A book what I read. Slide 17 Dialect of East Anglia New conjunctions Go you and have a good wash time I git tea ready. There werent no laburnum, yet no lilac. The fruit and vegetables werent as big as last year, more werent the taters and onions. Slide 18 Dialect of East Anglia Old progressive forms Im a-runnen youre a-runnen hes a-runnen were a-runnen youre a-runnen theyre a-runnen He wus a-hitten on it. He was hitting it. Im a-taken on em.Im taking them. Slide 19 English Varieties Slide 20 British English dialects Slide 21 American English dialects Slide 22 South-Eastern American English 1. Inflected be (1)Thats how it bees. (2)It bes like that. 2. Omission of be (1)She nice. (2)They acting silly. 3. Be perfect (1)Youre been there. (2)Im forgot the food yesterday. Slide 23 South-Eastern American English 4. A-prefixing (1)They came a-lookin for the possum. (2)She was a-huntin and a-fishin. (3)Rex was at/on fishin. 5. Leveling of past-past participle (1)I went I had went (2)He done the work He have done the work (3)They drinked the beer- They have drinked the beer Slide 24 South-Eastern American English 6.NP-REL/PP < coordinate/collective NP < lexical NP < pronominal NP (1)They barks (2)The dogs barks (3)People goes (4)Me and my dog likes to run (5)The dogs in the truck barks Slide 25 South-Eastern American English 7.Double modals (1)He might could come. (2)He useto couldnt count. 8.Aint is commonly used in place of havent and arent (1)She aint there. (2)She aint never done no work. Slide 26 South-Eastern American English 10. Was werent (1)I wasI werent (2)You wasyou werent 11. Yall serves as a new plural pronoun 12. Regularization of himself (1)He saw hisself in the mirror. Slide 27 South-Eastern American English 13. Comparative forms of adjectives (1)(most) beautifulest (2)(most) awfulest (3)(more) older 11. The ly marker of adverbs is often omitted. (1)I was exceptional scared. (2)Im frightful bad at that. 12. Plural of quantified measure nouns (1)I caught 200 pound of flounder. (2)Its four mile from here. Slide 28 Are the non-standard varieties more advanced or more conservative? Slide 29 Mechanisms of language change Simplifications 1. Omission of copula 2. Omission of ly 3. Omission of plural s after quantified Ns 4. Omission of agreement s Slide 30 Mechanisms of language change Analogical extensions/leveling 1. Loss of contrast: past and past PTC 2. was werent 3. Plural s for 3.person 4. Hisself for himself Slide 31 Mechanisms of language change Expressivity 1. Double negation 2. Double modals 3. yall 4. more ADJ er/-est 4. you in imperatives Slide 32 British vs. American English BritishAmerican [SEdyUl][skEDUl] ['g{rID][g@'ra:Z] [lef'ten@nt] [lu:'ten@nt] [Et][et] [naID@r][niD@r] Gloss schedule garage lieutenant ate neither Slide 33 British vs. American English Gloss leisure tomato missile fertile fragile BritishAmerican [lEZ@r][liZ@r] [t@mato][t@meto] [mIsaIl][mIsl] [fErtaIl][fErtl] [fr{DaIl][fr{DIl] Slide 34 British vs. American English 1.In American English, [t] has become a flap after stressed syllables, at the beginning of an unstressed syllable (e.g. butter). 2.In American English, [l] is stronger velarized at the end of a word (e.g. call). 3.In British English, [] has become [a] in many words. 4.Schwa is more centralized in American English (e.g. but). Slide 35 British vs. American English 1.In American English, [t] has become a flap after stressed syllables, at the beginning of an unstressed syllable (e.g. butter). 2.In American English, [l] is stronger velarized at the end of a word (e.g. call). 3.In British English, [] has become [a] in many words. 4.Schwa is more centralized in American English (e.g. but). Slide 36 British vs. American English 5.Most British dialects have lost postvocalic [r], while most American dialects have kept it (e.g. [ka] vs. [kar] car). Slide 37 Rhotic and non-rhotic varieties in Britain Slide 38 Labov 1972: rhotic varieties in NYC Slide 39 Slide 40 Labov Rhoticity in NYC Slide 41 British vs. American English Plural of collective nouns British The hotel make a point of insulting their guests. The government are busy. American The hotel makes a point of insulting their guests. The government is busy. Slide 42 British vs. American English Prepositions BritishAmerican be in hospitalbe in the hospital go to universitygo to the university be in the classbe in class Slide 43 British vs. American English River names BritishAmerican River ThamesThames river Slide 44 British vs. American English Get - gotten BritishAmericanI have got a pen. I have gotten a pen. Slide 45 British vs. American English Future shall BritishAmerican I shall be there.I will be there. Slide 46 British vs. American English Have-questions British Have you a room of your own? American Do you have a room of your own? Slide 47 British vs. American English Subjunctive British The judge ordered that he should be held. American The judged ordered that he be held. Slide 48 British vs. American English Do after auxiliary British Have you read the paper yet? No, but I shall do. American Have you read the paper yet? No, but I will. Slide 49 British vs. American English Ditransitives BritishAmericanGive me it. Give it me.*Give it me. Slide 50 British vs. American English Conjunctions British Ill come immediately my class is over. American Ill come as soon as my class is over. Slide 51 British vs. American English BritishAmerican biscuit chips crisps to grill marrow monkey nuts porridge scone sultanas Slide 52 British vs. American English BritishAmerican biscuitcookie chipsfrench fries crispspotato chips to grillto broil marrowsquash monkey nutspeanuts porridgeoat meal sconemuffin sultanasraisins Slide 53 British vs. American English BritishAmerican jumper knickers nappy pants vest waistcoat Slide 54 British vs. American English BritishAmerican jumpersweater knickers(womans) underpants nappydiaper pantsunderwear vestundershirt waistcoatvest Slide 55 British vs. American English BritishAmerican high street lollipop man lorry motorway return ticket roundabout diversion Slide 56 British vs. American English BritishAmerican high streetmain street lollipop manschool crossing guard lorrytruck motorwayturnpike return ticketround-trip ticket roundabouttraffic circle diversiondetour Slide 57 British vs. American English BritishAmerican season-ticket holder no tipping verge wing zebra boot bonnet caravan Slide 58 British vs. American English BritishAmerican season-ticket holdercommuter no tippingno dumping vergeshoulder of road wingfender zebrapedestrian crossing boottrunk (of car) bonnethood caravantrailer Slide 59 British vs. American English BritishAmerican cot cupboard dummy dustbin garden off-license store redundancies slot machine sticking plaster ill Slide 60 British vs. American English BritishAmerican cotcrib cupboardcloset dummypacifier dustbintrash can garden yard off-license storeliquor store redundancieslayoffs slot machinevending machine sticking plasterbandaid Illsick