1. Efficiency gains Performance gains Knowledge gains Policies IT Architecture Administration 2. S Y N E R G Y Policies IT Architecture Administration 3. Input Process Output Storage 4. Computer Literacy hardware components communications /networks programming languages software applications Information Literacy how to find information how to analyze information how to use information 5. A Computer is. . .
- 2.operating under the control of instructions storedin its own memory unit,
- 3.that can accept data ( input ),
- 4.processdata arithmetically and logically,
- 5.produce results ( output ) from the processing,and
- 6.storeresults for future use.
6. Input is. . . ?
- Entering data, programs, commands, and user responses into memory
- Programs - stored instructions that direct the computer
- Commands - keywords and phrases that direct the computer
- User responses - responses to questions or messages from the software
7. the computer manipulates data ( numbers, words, images, sounds) . . .and organizes the data to create information that has meaning and is useful. system behavior is determined by arithmetic and logical rules Process is. . . ? 8. Output is. . . ? Audio output Graphics Reports Video Output Hard copy Soft copy Other types 9. Storage is. . .? Area for storing instructions and data when they are not in use. . . Often function as an input source 10. Categories of Computers personal computers servers minicomputers mainframe computers supercomputers 11. Physical Transmission Media Wireless Transmission Media Networks 12. How Communications are Used
General Concepts - Communications
- Electronic data interchange
- Global Positioning Systems
13. Physical Transmission Media Twisted-pair Cable Coaxial Cable Fiber-Optic Cable 14. Physical Transmission Media Twisted pair inexpensive well understood easy to add nodes sensitive to noise distance limitationssecurity limitedlimited bandwidth premises wiring for LANS local loop of phone system Coax high bandwidth long distances noise immunity burdensome limited security television used in Ethernet systems Fiber very high bandwidth noise immunity very long distances small size expense maintenance network backbones Media adv disadv typical apps 15. Wireless Transmission Media Broadcast Radio Cellular Radio Microwaves Communications Satellite Infrared 17. temporary connection dedicated (leased) connection Up to 24 signals Up to 672 signals3 to 24signals asymmetric 18. Networks Local Area Networks Wide Area Networks Intranets Internet 19. file server database server web server print server e-mail server firewall server Client Server 20. Internet 21.
- Graphic design/multimedia
application software programs are designed to perform a specific task 23. Enterprise Systems Workflow Systems Document Management Systems Data Warehouse Systems Geographic Information Systems Electronic Government 24. Enterprise Systems Short fore nterpriser esourcep lanning,a business management system that integrates all facets of the business, including planning, manufacturing, sales, and marketing. As the ERP methodology has become more popular, software applications have emerged to help business managers implement ERP. 25. Workflow Systems The defined series of tasks within an organization to produce a final outcome. Sophisticated work flow applications allow you to define different workflows for different types of jobs.So, for example, in a publishing setting, a document might be automatically routed from writer to editor to proofreader to production. At each stage in the workflow, one individual or group is responsible for a specific task. Once the task is complete, the workflow software ensures that the individuals responsible for the next task are notified and receive the data they need to execute their stage of the process. 26. Document Management Systems
- Version tracking: see how a document evolves over time
- Document sharing: see in what business processes the document is used and re-used
- Electronic review: enable users to add their comments to a document without actually changing the document itself
- Document security: refine the different types of access that different users need to the document
- Publishing management: control the delivery of documents to different publishing process queues
- Workflow integration: associate the different stages of a document's life-cycle with people and projects with schedules
27. Data Warehouse Systems Extremely large database that stores and manages the data required to analyze historical and current business information 28. Geographic Information Systems Portray data in a graphical / spatial context 29. E-Government Defined
- Governments use of technology, particularly web-based Internet applications, to enhance access to and delivery of, government services to citizens, business partners, employees, and other governmental agencies.
30. Software Applications
- Transaction server software
- Electronic payment systems
31. Web Browser Software
- Allows citizens to connect with servers
- Access any number of web pages
- Follow links from document to document or page to page
32. Web Server Software
- Allows citizens to request information
- Serves up the web pages as requested
33. Firewall Server Software
- Controls the flow of traffic between two or more networks
- Can protect against viruses, intrusions, unauthorized system access
34. Transaction Server Software
- On-line transaction processing (OLTP) software
- Processes data according to the rules established by an organization
- Programs that tell the database server how to handle the data
35. Electronic Payment Systems
- Collect fees and levy taxes for services
- Must be safe, secure, and confidential
36. Commerce Server Software
- Allows citizens to easily conduct one or more transactions in one visit
37. Scalability - the system should be capable of handling an increasing numbers of users without any disruption to service. Flexibility the system must provide a broadly configurable array of hardware and software devices that do not require major re-installations as enterprise requirements change. Compatibility - the system must meet expandable configuration requirements as well as standard industry specifications to protect future application investment. Manageability the system should not demand excessive management time and effort for maintaining on-line operations. Availability - the system must be capable of sustaining tens to hundreds of thousands of processing transactions with minimal wait time or downtime. Metrics. . . 38. Computers - Male or Female? A language instructor was explaining to her class that French nouns, unlike their English counterparts, are grammatically designated as masculine or feminine. Things like 'chalk' or 'pencil,' she described, would have a gender association although in English these words were neutral. Puzzled, one student raised his hand and asked, "What gender is a computer?" The teacher wasn't certain which it was, and so divided the class into two groups and asked them to decide if a computer should be masculine or feminine. One group was comprised of the women in the class, and the other, of men. Both groups were asked to give four reasons for their recommendation.