Civil Services Main 2014 GS Exam Analysis, Civil Services Mains 2014 General Studies Exam Analysis, UPSC 2014 Mains GS Exam Analysis, UPSC 2014 Mains General Studies Exam Analysis, UPSC 2014 Exam Analysis

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  • 7/25/2015 CivilServicesMain2014GSExamAnalysis,CivilServicesMains2014GeneralStudiesExamAnalysis,UPSC2014MainsGSExamAnalysis,UPSC

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    SOLUTIONGENERALSTUDIESPAPERI

    1.TowhatextenthastheurbanplanningandcultureofIndusValleyCivilizationprovidedinputstopresentdayurbanization?Discuss.Ans:UrbanPlanningandcultureofIndusValleyCivilization(IVC)whichprovidedinputstopresentdayurbanization,

    Thequalityofmunicipaltownplanningandefficientmunicipalgovernmentsbasedonhighpriorityonhygiene.Perfectlylaidoutgridpattern,comparabletothepresentdayNewYorkCity.Urbansanitationsystemsanddisposalofwastewatertocovereddrains.Allhouseshadaccesstowater.Theirpreciseaccuracyformeasuringlength,massandtime.Theyfollowedthedecimalsystemanddevelopedasystemofuniformweightsandmeasures.Thediscoveriesofmassivereservoirssuggesttheycollectedandstoredrainwater,equivalenttopresentrainwaterharvestingsystems.Theirfineartisticsensibilitiesportrayedintheirhighlyrealisticsculptures,terracottafiguresetc.givesusaglimpseofthecultureprevalentatthattime.ArecentreportsuggeststhatIVCscriptdevelopedintoVedicSanskrit.Ifthatistrue,thenahugedebtisowedtotheIVCbecausewrittenlanguageisthefirstessentialbuildingblockforlearning,enablingpeopletopassontheirknowledge.2.GandharasculptureowedasmuchtotheRomansastotheGreeks.ExplainAns:GandharaartflourishedlargelyundertherulersofKushanEmpireinnorthwesternPakistanandeasternAfghanistan.InitsinterpretationofBuddhistlegends,theGandharaSchoolincorporatedmanymotifsandtechniquesfromClassicalRomanart,includingvinescrolls,cherubsbearinggarlands,tritons,andcentaurs.TheGandharaSchooldrewupontheanthropomorphictraditionsofRomanreligionandrepresentedtheBuddhawithayouthfulApollolikeface,dressedingarmentsresemblingthoseseenonRomanimperialstatues.TheGandharaartalsoinculcatestheGreekClassicalrealisticstyle,attitudes,hairstyleandfashioninclothessuchaschitonandhimation.

    3.TaxilaUniversitywasoneoftheoldestuniversitiesoftheworldwithwhichwereassociatedanumberofrenownedlearnedpersonalitiesofdifferentdisciplines.Itsstrategiclocationcauseditsfametoflourish,butunlikeNalanda,itisnotconsideredasauniversityinthemodernsense.Discuss.Ans:TaxilaUniversityisnotconsideredasuniversityinmodernsensebecause,

    TheteachersatTaxilamaynothavehadofficialmembershipofparticularcolleges.TaxilaUniversityseemstolackbuiltlecturehallsandresidentialquarters,asharpcontrastcomparedtothelaterNalandaUniversityineasternIndia.Eachteacherformedhisowninstitution,enjoyingcompleteautonomyinwork,teachingasmanystudentsashelikedandteachingsubjectshelikedwithoutconformingtoanycentralizedsyllabus.Studyterminatedwhentheteacherwassatisfiedwiththestudent'slevelofachievement.Inmostcasesthe"schools"werelocatedwithintheteachers'privatehouses,andattimesstudentswereadvisedtoquittheirstudiesiftheywereunabletofitintothesocial,intellectualandmoralatmospherethere.Examinationsweretreatedassuperfluousandnotconsideredpartoftherequirementstocompleteone'sstudies.Noconvocationswerehelduponcompletion,andnowritten"degrees"wereawarded,sinceitwasbelievedthatknowledgewasitsownreward.

    4.TheBattleofPanipatwasfoughtin1761.WhywassoempireshakingbattlesfoughtatPanipat?Ans:AllempireshakingbattleswerefoughtinPanipatorHaryanaingeneralbecause,

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  • 7/25/2015 CivilServicesMain2014GSExamAnalysis,CivilServicesMains2014GeneralStudiesExamAnalysis,UPSC2014MainsGSExamAnalysis,UPSC

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    OneofthepartiesalmostalwayscamefromtheNorth/Northwest.HavingcrossedtheKhyberPasstheyhadtopassthroughPunjabandHaryanabeforereachingDelhiandnormallythedefendingkingmettheinvadingmarchersoutsidethefortsofDelhii.eontheplainsofHaryana.BothpartieswantedtocaptureDelhi,becauseitliesinthemiddleoftwoofthemostagriculturallyproductiveregionsoftheworldi.eThePlainsoftheIndusandtheGanga.AlsothepeopleofIndiaconsideredthepersonsittingonthethroneofDelhiastheirKing.Soinshort,whoevercontrolledDelhi,controlledNorthIndia.5.SufisandmedievalmysticsaintsfailedtomodifyeitherthereligiousideasandpracticesortheoutwardstructureofHindu/Muslimsocietiestoanyappreciableextent.Comment.Ans:AlthoughtheSufisandothermedievalmysticsaintsopposedvariouspracticeslikeinequality,ritualsandhelpedbuildamedievalculturetolerantandappreciativeofNonMuslims,theyfailedtomodifythepracticesoroutwardstructureofsocietyingeneralbecause,

    UnlikeHinduismandIslamwhichweredirectlylinkedtothestatevialandgrantsinthecaseofHindusandSharasinthecaseofIslam,Sufisandothermysticsneverdirectlyinvolvedwiththestate.Theywerentwidespreadduetowideoppositionfromorthodoxelements.Theydidntproposeanewsystemtoreplacetheoldexistingone.6.ExaminecriticallythevariousfacetsofeconomicpoliciesofBritishinIndiafrommideighteenthcenturytillindependence.Ans:Mercantalism(17571813):Aimisaccumulatewealth,aggressivepoliciesinIndia(forfavourabletrade),BritishgovernmenttryingtogainmorecontroloverCompanyaffairs(Regulatingact1773,PittsIndiaAct),financialbleedingofIndiastarted(revenuesettlements,hegemonyoverIndianterritories)OneWayFreeTrade(18131860):Bydawnof19thcenturyIndustrialrevolutioninEngland,neededrawmaterialsandmarketsforitsmanufacturedgoods,Companymonopolyremoved,BritishgoodsenteredIndiavirtuallyfreewhileIndianproductsenteringBritainfacedhightariffs.FinanceCapitalism(18601947):StartedestablishingmodernindustriesinIndia(itzindustrialpolicyonlyaimedatcommercializingIndiaandtocompetewithotherindustrialpowers),basicindustriesneglected,destroyattemptsofIndianentrepreneurswhomadeattemptstostartmodernindustries.

    7.InwhatwaysdidthenavalmutinyprovetobethelastnailinthecoffinofBritishcolonialaspirationsinIndia?Ans:Reasons,

    TheNavywasheartofBritainssuccess.Itwasthecentreoftheirpride,thereasonfortheirriseastradersandthenrulersaroundtheworld.Thesameshipsandboatshadnowbecomeathreat.ThemutinymadetheBritishofficialslosetheirtrustintheIndianarmy,navyandairforce.Theyknewtheseunitswerenolongertrustworthy.Itwaslargestrevoltbyanyoftheimperialnavalunits.PrimeMinisterClementAtleeknewtheempirewouldnotholdonforlongandwithintwomonths,AtleesCabinetmissionpromulgatedtheplantodecolonizeIndiathatpavedthewayforIndependence.

    8.Whatwerethemajorpolitical,economicandsocialdevelopmentsintheworldwhichmotivatedtheanticolonialstruggleinIndia?Ans:Political,economicandsocialdevelopmentsintheworld,

    FirstandSecondWorldWar,economiesoftheworldmainly,imperialistpowersshattered.ThecontinuoussupportofUSSRagainstanticolonialstruggle.Theconceptofsupremacyofraceshattered(soldiersreturninghomeafterwardispellinganysuchnotions).DefeatofRussiabyJapanin1905andanattemptbythepeopletothrowtheCzarofRussiaout,followedbyRussianrevolution.TheEconomiccrisisof1929affectedthedevelopedaswellasdevelopingcountriestoagreatextent.ToprotecttheOttomanEmpireaftertheaftermathofWorldWar1,KhilafatmovementwasstartedwhicheasedHinduMuslimrelationstoagreatextent.Industrialrevolutioncreatedanewsocialorderintheworldandconsequentlyprofessionalmiddleclassemergedasanimportantregulatorofthesocialandpoliticalsystem.9.WhatweretheeventsthatledtoSuezCrisisin1956?HowdiditdealafinalblowtoBritainsselfimageasworldpower?Ans:Events,

    BritainhadruledEgyptforalongtimeandwantedtocontinueitbecauseofSuezCanal(reducedmilesofseajourneyfromEuropetoAsianmarkets)anddiscoveryofimmenseoilreservesintheMiddleEast.TheMiddleEastwasalsoanimportantstrategicpointwithrespecttocoldwar.HowevertheBritishpresencewasnotwelcomedanditresultedinmanyconflictsbetweenthetwo.In1956theSuezCanalwasnationalizedbytheGovernmentofEgypt.ThisresultedininvasionofEgyptbyIsraelfollowedbyBritainandFrance.TheaimwastoregainwesterncontrolofSuezcanalandtoremoveNasserthethenpresidentofEgypt.Afterthefightinghadstarted,theUnitedStates,theSovietUnion,andtheUnitedNationsgotinvolveddiplomatically,forcingBritain,FranceandIsraeltowithdraw.AfterthecrisisthoughBritishinfluencecontinuedintheMiddleEast,SuezwasablowtoBritishprestigeintheNearEastthatBritainneverrecoveredfrom.Increasingly,Britishforeignpolicythinkingturnedawayfromactingasagreatimperialpower.10.TheNewEconomicPolicy1921ofLeninhadinfluencedthepoliciesadoptedbyIndiasoonafterindependence.Evaluate.Ans:NewEconomicPolicy1921ofLeninanditsimpactonIndia:

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    Leninsanctionedthecoexistenceofprivateandpublicsectors.Indiaalsoadoptedapolicyofmixedeconomy.Leninrepresentedamoveawayfromfullnationalizationofcertainpartsofindustries.ThiswasbecauseforeigninvestmentswereexpectedbytheSovietUnionundertheNEP,inordertofundindustrialanddevelopmentalprojectswithforeignexchangeortechnologyrequirements.Indiaalsofollowedthispolicy.Leninputanendtograinrequisitionsandinsteadinstitutedataxonthepeasants,therebyallowingthemtokeepandtradetheirsurplus,promotingproduction.Indiaoptedforlandreformstoreduceinequalityinlanddistributionandpromotedincreaseinproduction.DuringtheruleofLeninlaborunionsbecameindependentcivicorganizations.ConstitutionofIndiaembeddedaseriesoffundamentallaborrights.11.HowdoespatriarchyimpactthepositionofmiddleclassworkingwomaninIndia?Ans:Impactofpatriarchyinmiddleclassworkingwoman,

    Formalexclusionofwomenfromtoppositions.Discriminationagainstwomeninhiringandpromotion.Creationandmaintenanceofgenderlinkedjobcategories,whichtiewomenintolowerlevelpositions.Maintenanceofmalecareerpatternswhichrequiremobility,fulltimeworkandnointerruptions(forchildbearing)