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Page 1: CHAPTER -VII CONCLUSION, FUTURE PLANNING …shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/27129/16/16...CHAPTER -VII CONCLUSION, FUTURE PLANNING AND SUGGESTION 7.1 CONCLUSION 7.2 DEFINITIONS

CHAPTER -VII

CONCLUSION, FUTURE PLANNING AND

SUGGSTION

229

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CHAPTER -VII

CONCLUSION, FUTURE PLANNING AND

SUGGESTION

7.1 CONCLUSION

7.2 DEFINITIONS OF TOWN PLANNING

7.3 NEED OF URBAN PLANNING

7.4 EVOLUTION IN THE EXECUTION OF URBAN

PLANNING

7.5 SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT OF NASHIK CITY

7.6 PLANNING POLICY OF NASHIK MUNICIPAL

CORPORATION

7.6.1 POPULATION PROJECTION

7.6.2 FUTURE PLANNING OF LANDUSE PATTERN

7.6.2 A) RESIDENTIAL ZONE

7.6.2 B) COMMERCIAL ZONE

7.6.2 C) INDUSTRIAL ZONE

7.6.3 WATER SUPPLY

7.6.3 A) EXISTING WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM

7.6.3 B) NEED OF PLANNING

7.6.3 C) NEW PROPOSALS

7.6.4 PLANNING FOR THE TRANSPORTATION

7.6.5 PARKING SCHEME

7.6.6 STREET HAWKERS

7.6.7 SLUMS

7.6.8 HOUSING POLICY

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7.6.9 DRAINAGE AND SEWERAGE SCHEME

7.6.10 POWER SUPPLY

7.6.11 STREET LIGHTING

7.6.12 RECREATIONS

7.7 SUGGESTIONS

7.7.1 CITY BUS TRANSPORTATION

7.7.2 PARKING AND TRANSPORTATION

7.7.3 TRAFFIC CONGESTION AND TRANSPORTATION

7.7.4 STREET HAWKERS

7.7.5 WATER SUPPLY

7.7.6 SLUMS

7.7.7 COMMERCIAL FACILITIES

7.7.8 DRAINAGE AND SEWERAGE

7.7.9 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

7.7.9 A) WATER POLLUTION

7.7.9 B) AIR POLLUTION

7.7.9 C) NOISE POLLUTION

7.7.9 D) SOIL POLLUTION

7.7.10 OTHER SUGGESTIONS.

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7.1 CONCLUSION

Nashik city is and headquarter of Nashik district in Nashik revenue division of

North Maharashtra. The city enjoys a central position and reflects the glorification of

North Maharashtra. The study region is located on 190 33’ and 200 53’ North Latitude

and between 730 16 and 750 6’ East Longitude and covers an area about 259.10

sq.kms. It is an important railway junction of central railway having a height of 450

meters from mean sea level.

The physiography of Nashik is very typical because it is formed by the Deccan

Laval with residual hill ranges and broad valleys, with small hillocks. The river

Godavari flowing from west to east direction forms western boundary of study region

and after a course of about 1,465 Kms it joins Bay of Bengal at Machalipatnam. The

river Nasardi and Valdevi flowing from west to east forms eastern side of city and the

Gangapur Dam is situated on west side of city. The climate of the city is generally dry,

except in the monsoon period and the average rainfall of the city is 76 mm.

Although Nashik is one of the ancient cities of India, the origin of the city’s

name and the subsequent changes in the name can only be vaguely derived from the

available literature. According to early Hindu records the city was known as

‘Padmanagar’ or Lotus city during ‘Krita Yuga’. During ‘Treta Yuga’ the city was

known as ‘Trikantak’ or three-peaked city as it grew over three hills on the right bank

of the river. It became ‘Janasthan’ during ‘Dwapara Yuga’ when the city area

expanded at the cost of the receding forests and the city became well peopled. The

municipalty was established on 7th November 1982 and in 1871 population was

22,436 persons. Since then city has been steadily growing and now becomes

important commercial and industrial centre of Maharashtra with 10,77,236 population

in 2001. Areal growth of study region shows that in 1871 the area was 12.80 sq. Kms.

it has increased upto 259.10 sq. Kms in 2012.

The study region is divided into three geographical zones i.e. the inner zone,

the middle zone and outer zones. The inner zone corresponds with old city having

commercial area, administrative buildings and highly congested residential area. The

middle zone includes industrial establishments and planned residential area, while the

outer zone covers suburbs such as Gangapur, Anadawali, Makhamalabad, Masharul,

Adgaon, Manur, Eklahra, Kotmgaon, Deolali, Chunchale and Pimpalgaon–Bahula.

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The landuse pattern in urban area is of prime interest to the geographers. Due

to rapid increase in population and size of the urban areas, the landuse changes

continuously. A development plan was prepared for Nashik City in the year 1993. The

landuse as given in the development plan indicates the fact that the large increase in

the population will be accommodated in the development plan area. The total

development area in 1985 was about 27 per cent of the total area with large areas

under Agriculture (52.99 pre cent) and vacant land (14.25 per cent). In future

developed area is expected to increase to 52.84 per cent keeping 43.61 per cent for the

non development zone and 3.57 per cent for water bodies.

It is observed that, in 1901, the population of Nashik city was 21,490 persons,

which has increased upto 30,098 persons in 1911. From the decade of 1911 to 1951,

the population growth rate was high due to natural growth and immigration from rural

areas (i.e. 40.06 per cent in 1911, 27.02 per cent in 1921, and 85.24 per cent in 1951).

Due to severe drought and migration to other cities, population growth rate was very

low in the decade of 1941 (i.e. 14.52 per cent). In the decade of 1951, the highest

population growth (i.e. 85.24 per cent) of 20th century was recorded, because in 1982

Nashik Municipal Corporation has extended its boundaries from 12.80 sq. Kms to

259.10 sq. Kms by including the area and population of surrounding villages. There

was 10, 77, 236 population in 2001, which has 63.98 per cent growth rate.

Sector wise population growth shows that in 1991 the highest growth was

observed in sector No. III (i.e. 93.41 per cent) and lowest in sector No. I (i.e. 41.36

per cent). In the decade 2001, highest population growth was found in sector No. III

(i.e. 93.41 per cent) and lowest in sector No. I (i.e. 2.27 per cent). Lowest growth rate

was found in sector No. I, because population migrated to other sectors of the city.

According to geometric rate of increase method projected population of the

city is 16,97,795 and 26,06,529 persons for the decade 2011 and 2021 respectively.

While according to current rate ratio method, the projected population is 13,44,821

and 16,12,405 persons for the decade 2011 and 2021 respectively.

The distribution of population reveals that, in 1991, the sector No. I have

highest concentration of population (i.e. 25.77 per cent), while lowest concentration

found in sector No. II (i.e. 8.78 per cent). In the decade 2001, the sector No. III has

highest concentration of population (i.e. 19.95 per cent), while lowest concentration

found in sector No. II (i.e. 11.46 per cent).

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The density of population was 1665 persons per sq.km. in 1951, this increased

up to 4,503 persons per sq.km. in 1981. But it was decreased upto 2,535 persons per

sq.km. in 1991, because the urban area of Nashik city has increased in 1982. The

density of population was again increased in 2001 i.e. 4,158 persons per sq.km.

As compare to other sectors, sector No. I has very high population density in

both the decade 1991 and 2001 i.e. 11,594 and 11,330 persons per sq.km, because it is

an old city area, with multistoried antiquated buildings and narrow lanes, so the

density gradually decreases towards the periphery of the city and recently developed

area of the city.

It is observed that, the sex-ratio was very low in study region, because of

migration of male working population from rural to urban area. In decade of 1991 the

sex-ratio was 891 and it has slightly decreased upto 871 in the decade 2001.

Population below the age group of 14 years was decreased from 40.18 per cent

to 39.65 per cent in the decade 1991 and 2001. In the age-group of above 60 years

population was increased from 5.88 per cent to 6.18 per cent in the decade 1991 and

2001.

The total literate population of Nashik city was 67.94 per cent in 1991 which

has increased up to 74.51 per cent in 2001. In the decade 1991 nearly 60.75 per cent

females and 74.35 per cent males were literate. Literacy was found increased upto

68.73 per cent in the females and 74.51 per cent in males in the year 2001. In the

decade 1991, highest literacy (70.48 per cent) was observed in the sector No. II, while

the lowest literacy (61.68 per cent) was found in sector No. III. In the decade 2001,

the sector No. II was recorded highest percentage (79.50) of literate population. The

sector No. III recorded the lowest percentage (71.20) of literate population. The

sectors which are located in the central part of the city have higher percentage of

literate population.

In the decade 1991, the labour participation ratio was 30.64, which was

increased upto 34.48 in the year 2001.

The percentage of total workers in primary sector was 13.06 per cent,

secondary sector 37.86 per cent and tertiary sector 47.43 per cent in 1991. While in

the decade 2001, it was 15.20 per cent in primary sector, 39.00 per cent in secondary

and 39.41 per cent in tertiary sector. The percentage of workers in tertiary sector was

found decreased from 1991 to 2001 because the marginal workers were increased

from 01.65 per cent in 1991 to 6.39 per cent in 2001.234

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In the decade 1991 the sector No. I was recorded highest percentage (i.e.

21.24) of working population, while lowest percentage (i.e. 9.10) of workers were

found in sector No. II. In decade 2001, the sector No. II has observed highest

percentage (i.e. 21.75) of working population and the lowest percentage (i.e. 11.55)

was found in the sector No. II.

Various functions play an important role in the social, economical and cultural

development of the city and its surrounding region. Being a tahsil and district

headquarter several administrative offices are established in the city. About 90 per

cent of total administrative offices are located in the sector No. III.

During 2000-01 study regions had 259 primary schools, which have increased

upto 318 primary schools in 2010-11. The number of primary school going students

were 1,33,039 in 2000-01, which was 12.35 per cent of total population. In 2010-11,

primary school students were increased upto 2,14,152 which was 14.40 per cent of

total population.

In 2000-01 there were 65 secondary schools in the city, which have increased

upto 133 secondary schools in 2010-11. The numbers of secondary school going

students were 98,244 in 2000-01, which was 9.12 per cent of total population. During

2010-11 secondary school students were increased up to 1,53,901 which was 10.35

per cent of total population.

There are various educational facilities like arts, commerce, science,

engineering, medical, pharmacy, law, business, management, agriculture, education,

music and social work etc. Before 1982, there were 5 colleges but now there are more

than 50 colleges and two state Universities located in the study region.

Banking facilities are well developed in the study region. There are 42

nationalized banks, 18 scheduled banks, 36 co-operative banks, 28 urban banks and

475 path pedies located with different branches.

The study region has 3,790 dispensaries and 495 hospitals, which are mainly

located in sector No. II and III. Civil hospital and other specialized hospitals are

located in sector No. III. There are 1,193 doctors, out of which 539 doctors are

specialized doctors and 554 doctors are general practitioners. Gynecologists and

Dentists account for 5.20 and 4.36 per cent of the total doctors.

In the study region, health care centers and population ratio is 1:376, while

doctors and population ratio is 1:309. The ratio of beds and population is 1:134.

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Nashik city is well connected by roads and railways with important cities of

country. There is no domestic or international airport located in proper Nashik. The

nearest one is the Ozar Airport (domestic) located at some 24 km from the city center.

There is another airport at Gandhinagar but it is not used due to its short runway. The

other nearby airports is located at Mumbai (international) 190 Kms from Nashik and

the Aurangabad Airport (domestic) or Chikkalthana Airport at about 218 Kms from

the city. At present the Kingfisher Airlines runs only one daily flight to Mumbai from

the Ozar Airport. The Deccan Airlines also used to ply flights from Ozar to Mumbai

some time back. But this service was discontinued due to the lack of passengers.

During the 1980s the government’s Vayudoot also ran a service to Mumbai from the

Gandhinagar Airport, and N. H. No. 03 and 50 passes through the study region. The

total length of roads in the city was 830 Kms in 1991, which is increased upto 2,518

Kms in 2011. There were 8,60,837 vehicles in 2011, out of total vehicles nearly 55.73

per cent are motor cycles.

Industries are well developed in the study region. There are various types of

small scale and large scale industries observed in the study region. Dal Mills, Oil

Mills, Industries based on Fruits and Vegetables, Ginning and Pressing, Saw Mills,

Chemical Industries, Plastic Product Industries are well developed. ABB, MICO,

XLO, VIP, Mahindra & Mahindra, Crompton Greaves, Carbon Everflow, Taparia Tools

etc. industries are the important industries in the Nashik city. Industries are mainly

located in Ambad and Satpur in sector No. IV. Out of total investment in various

industries in 2011, nearly 38.34 per cent is invested in chemical industries, while

17.82 per cent in rubber and plastic industries, and 13.50 per cent in paper and allied

industries.

Marketing occupies an important position in the economy of city.

Commodities exported from study region are Grapes, Onion, corn, pulses, plastic

products and imported commodities are tea, sweet oil, cloth, wheat, medicines and

Automobiles.

There are 56 shopping complexes of municipal corporation have, 2,771 shops

and private complexes have 10,568 shops. The Mahatma Phule Market is oldest and

Sharanpur Canada Corner Mini Market largest market, have 450 shops and famous

for cloths, readymade garments and grocery. Other important markets are New

Bhadrakali Bhaji Market, Yashavant Mandai, Ravivar Karanja, Shivaji Road Market,

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Sharanpur Canada Corner Tibetien Market etc. The well constructed and planned

structures are the characteristics of these market centers.

Recreation landuse is an important feature of an urban landscape. Nashik city

has acute shortage of recreational facilities. There was 10 cinema theatres, 15 gardens,

13 play grounds, 8 libraries, 3 swimming tanks, 13 community halls and 7 rest houses

are observed in the study region. There were 210 hotels in 2001-02, which have

increased upto 454 in 2011-12.

In modern time, the study of slums has been made by various authors, but

Homer Hoyt and E. W. Burgess have made important contribution in the study of

slums. There are number of terms by which slums are known in different countries. In

India they are known as Bastees, Jhuggis, Jhoupris, Chawls, Anthas, Cheris, Keris,

Pettas and Zopadpatti etc.

At present, there are 168 slums in the Nashik city, out of which 56 slums are

declared and other 112 undeclared. Besides these 85 slums are rehabilitated in last 20

years.

In the decade 1981, total numbers of hutments were 18,945 and total

population of slums was 66,498 persons, which was 25.33 per cent of total population

of the city. Total number of hutments were increased upto 42,742 in 2011 and total

population of slums was increased upto 2,14,769 persons, which was 14.44 per cent

of the total population.

The average density of population per meter was 10 persons in 2011. The

highest density of population was found in Naikwadi slum i.e. 31 persons per meter

and lowest found in Indira Gandhi Nagar slum i.e. 01 persons per meter. The highest

number of population and families observed in Mahatma Phule Nagar (Nashik road),

which accounts for 4.62 per cent of the total slum population. While largest area

occupied by the Upnagar Nashik road which accounts for 12.25 per cent of the total

slum area. The Daha Chauk is the lowest in population size, number of families and

area occupied than the other slums, which accounts for 0.03 per cent of the total slum

population, wadar wadi, peth road panchavti accounts for 3.91 per cent of total slum

population, which is second largest in population size, while Sawarbaba Nagar is third

largest in population size, (i.e. 3.56 per cent). P. C. Tolls Prabhud Nagar, Kajichi Gadi,

Shanti Ngar, Panchashil Nagar, Samata Nagar, Ramabai Ambedkar Nagar have more

than two per cent population of total slum population.

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During 2012, there were 833 females for every 1000 males in the slums

of Nashik city, but it varies from slum to slum. Out of the total slums 38.69 per cent

slums have less than 800 females per 1000 males, while 35.71 per cent slums have

800 to 899 females per 1000 males. While 16.07 per cent slums have 900 to 999

females per 1000 males. Above 1000 females per 1000 males have observed in 9.53

per cent slums.

It is observed that, 40.30 per cent of total slum population found in the age

group of 0 -14 years, while 56.41 per cent found in the 15 - 59 years age group.

Above 60 years age group only 3.30 per cent of the total slums population is found.

It is observed that in all slums of Nashik city, 20.47 per cent of the total

population was literate in 2012, out of which 23.37 per cent were males and 18.41 per

cent females. The highest literacy is observed in Nashik road sector slum area (i.e.

29.50 per cent) and lowest in Cidco sector slum area (i.e. 12.04 per cent).

The occupational structure of slums reveals that, 49.36 per cent of the total

slum population is found working group. Out of which about 63.95 per cent is male

and 36.05 per cent female. It is observed that, out of the working population of slum,

57.45 per cent is working as laborers, 16.32 per cent engaged in household, it is

mainly the female population, 14.78 per cent devoted to construction, and 4.05 per

cent engaged in collection of scraps and other things.

Annual income analysis of slum dwellers shows that, generally the annual

income is found very low i.e. between Rs.30,000 to 60,000.

Shortage of housing accommodation is chronic disease of the city. Nashik city

is expanding in its population day by day but it is difficult to provide houses to such a

large population. It is observed that, there were 20,630 numbers of houses in 1971,

while it has increased upto 2,25,190 houses in 2001. Occupancy rate of dwellings was

8.54 persons per house in 1971, which was found gradually decreased upto decade

2001. i.e. 4.78 persons per house.

Average density of houses in 1991 was 566 houses per sq.km. It has increased

upto 869 houses per sq.km. in 2001, but it varies from sector to sector and colony to

colony. In 2001, highest density of houses was found in sector No. II (i.e. 2762 houses

per sq.km.) and lowest found in sector No. III (i.e. 393 houses per sq.km.).

In the Nashik city, M. S. R. T. C. runs the buses for city commuters, with its

190 poorly maintained buses on 376 skeleton routes. The buses have a high operating

cost and poor patronage. This results in present loss of 5.28 rupees per bus per km. At 238

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the same time the decline in the passenger share can be attributed to inadequate

frequency, unreliable schedules and uncomfortable journeys. In view of aforesaid, the

days are not very far off, if the city suddenly finds itself without any urban bus

transport systems. Nashik Municipal Corporation should invest sufficient capital to

improve the bus services in the city.

Nashik city comes under the semi-arid region of Maharashtra, where the water

scarcity problem and drinking water problem carries major importance throughout the

year. The water supply in 1971 was about 35.41 M. Lts. which is increased upto 337

M. Lts. in 2011. Present water sources and water supply are inadequate for the

population of city. The per capita water supply was 201.8 Lts. in 1971, which is

decreased upto 150 Lts. in 2011. Total number of water connections were 34,057 in

1961, which are increased upto 1,49,000 in 2012.

There are various pollutants contained in drinking water, bore well water, dug

well water, nalla and lake of the Nashik city. The highest PH value is recorded in

Ramkund, while lowest PH found in Anand wadi dug well water. High chlorides

concentration is observed in the Shaunagar lake water due to bathing, washing and

activities of human and animals. The dissolved oxygen levels are below detectable

limits at all the sampling station of Ramkund and Dwarka. It is observed that, dug

well and bore well water contains high amount of chlorides, total solids and hardness,

due to intersection of sewage water into the well.

The study of air pollution shows that is busiest spot for heavy traffic flow. The

maximum concentration of oxides of sulphur (32 mg/m3) and oxides of nitrogen (33

mg/m3) was recorded at V.I.P. industry. The level of suspended particulate matter

(SPM) 190 mg/m3 and respirable suspended particulate matter (RPSM) 235 mg/m3

were recorded at these locations.

The levels of oxides of Sulphur were lower than the prescribed limit at

residential area of the city. The levels of air pollutants are likely to increase in the

winter and summer season. Winter season is characterized by low wind speed and

ultimately less dispersion of air pollutants. In summer the dust get air borne due to

heavy wind currents. The traffic density on the N. H. No.03, which is going through

the heart of the city is major cause of air pollution. The level of oxides of sulphur is

lower than the prescribed limit at residential area of the city.Normal level of sound

intensity is 60 dB, but all study centers have more than 60 dB sound intensity.

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In the study region, nearly 200 tones of solid wastes collected daily by

municipal corporation. The leachate generated from the solid waste dumping sides

carries high pollution load. e.g. the leachate generated from Agra road dumping

station shows high amount of alkalinity, electrical conductivity, nitrates and

phosphates. This shows the need of proper process for solid waste management in the

study region.

Medical facilities in the study region are good but not adequate, so the people

have to go to Mumbai and Pune whenever there occurs a very serious need. The city

must have well equipped medical centers with advanced technology and machinery.

Planning is very important for the development of urban areas. Nashik Municipal

Corporation suggested number of town planning schemes for development of the city.

The first master plan was prepared according to Bombay Town Planning Act-1954. It

was sanctioned by Maharashtra Government in 1958 and implemented from 1959.

Thereafter, various development plans have been made for Nashik city.

Nashik Municipal Corporation is trying to solve problems like distribution of

landuse, transportation, parking, street hawkers, water supply, drainage and sewage,

industrial and housing policies, environmental pollutions, slums, marketing facilities

and recreation etc. It has to take necessary steps to solve these problems effectively

and immediately as soon as possible. It says that, the problem is not only to make

proper planning but also to proper implementation. So plans must be properly

implemented by municipal authorities.

7.2 DEFINITION OF TOWN PLANNING:

The main aim in planning is to decentralized industry and population from

congested area, decentralized economic growth by building new towns in a remote or

depressed areas, relieve the traffic problem by either piercing new streets though

worn-out property (as it is more economic than widening on expensive frontages) or

by widening of roads, safeguard centers of scenic beauty and eliminate blighted areas

close to the core of the city. “In doing so, town and country planning seeks to proffer

guiding hand to the trend of natural evolution, as a result of careful study of the itself

and it is external relationship. The result is to be more the piece of skillful engineering

or satisfactory hygiene or successful economics; it should be a social organism and

work of art.”1

During ancient period the urban areas were planned on certain principles

whose sizes were square, rectangular and cellular in type. In most of the cases the 240

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upper part was pyramidal shape. Such urban centers were found in Mohenjo-Daro and

Harappa in Indus Valley Civilization. The cities planned in 400 B. C., e.g. Olynthus,

Paris - Milletus, were based on grid iron pattern.2

Town planning is an art and science of rearranging and beautifying the urban

environment. It is concerned with the relationship of man and environment in terms of

the influence of each other and guiding the growth of urban centers in a right

direction. As a practical science town planning must be considered in close co-

ordination with geography, economics, social science, politics and statistics.3

According to Edward M., “The planning of streets, parks, and community

buildings, proper arrangement of services, besides ports, communication lines, legal

consideration and local participation should be searched for proper development.’’4

According to Thomas Adams, “Town Planning is a science, art and policy

which fulfill the social and economic needs of development and management of a

particular size-class of towns. It considers the building arrangement and architectural

style besides the provision of various services and set the direction of migration suited

for an urban area. Town planning also considered the urban layout arrangement,

setting the conditions of land utilization, transport management and construction of

buildings in a systematic, healthy and efficient manner.’’5

According to Nelson P. Lewis, “The considered town planning as the future

estimate of the urban society by a planner in relation to the multi-directional

development of the environment and growth of local areas. Such an idea must be

supported by the availability of resources, development of industries and commercial

establishment.’’6

7.3 NEED OF URBAN PLANNING:

Planning of the city needs not only the skill and assistance of engineers and

architects, but also the help of geographers.7 In India only two types of planning are

much stressed upon, namely, scientific and economic. Very little importance is given

to the geographical outlook in both types.8 The role of a geographer is very important

and much credence is given to this opinion either in the establishments of a new city

or in the development of an old city.9 Planning for a town usually improves the 241

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percussion of a design taking in to development of industry during the future two

decades. Thus, planning has an inescapable geographical basis.10 In modern age urban

planning refers to a science and art of ordering land use, sitting buildings and

communication network to secure maximum practicable economic growth,

convenience, beauty and safety. This is done by a section of people from the local

government who draw up and implementing plan and programmers within the

municipal boundaries. Urban planning, therefore, is geared to control and protect

urban environment, and other related measure to ensure that there is smooth life,

security and conveniences within the area.11

Urban planning has much to do with the needs and aspirations of the city

dwellers. It is imperative therefore that the socio-economic dimensions of the problem

are meticulously analyzed and the needs of city are correctly assessed. Planning

should be so organized and executed that it reliant the best that exists in the present

and introduces changes, which are most conducive to the general welfare of the

society and feasible in the present economic station. A plan is governed by a number

of factors. Abercrombie rightly observed that “the touchstone of planning is the

accommodation of several units to make a complete but harmonious whole.’’12

In short, it is undoubtedly true that the population of several cities is

increasing rapidly while the civil and the government authorities are finding it

difficult to meet their needs. It is, therefore, now a day usual to prepare a plan of

development for every city in order to be able to meet the problems arising out of

rapid urbanization.13

7.4 EVOLUTION IN THE EXECUTION OF URBAN PLANNING:

In India, central government has been implemented his policies about urban

planning through different Five Years Plans. The Ministry of Urban Development has

constituted a National Commission on urbanization to examine the status of

urbanization in the country. This will identify priority action areas and formulate

specific guidelines for an action plan for managing rapid urbanization. The

commission headed by the eminent architect Shri. Charles Correa, submitted its report

to the Government on 19th August, 1988.14

TERMS OF REFERENCE OF THE NATIONAL COMMISSION ON

URBANIZATION:

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I. To examine the status of urbanization in the country with reference to the

present demographic, economic, infrastructural, environmental, physical,

shelter, energy, communication, land, poverty, aesthetics and cultural aspects.

II. To identify priority action areas, make projections of future needs and estimate

available resources.

III. To formulate and recommend basic guidelines for the specific action plan in

each of the identified priority action areas.

IV. To evolve and recommend policy frames and suggest basic approaches for the

encouragement of manageable urbanization.

Maharashtra State (former Bombay state) is one of the leading states, which is

engaged in formulation of acts regarding town planning and amendments according to

different situations. Land use planning has been first started in India by Bombay State

in 1915, formulating Bombay Town Planning Act 1915. It was the first act of this kind

in the country. This act was involving town planning for developing areas, which can

be implemented by local authorities. It is also useful for determination of area, shape

of open spaces and their reservation for public utility. The scope of this act has been

increased under the rule PWR 139, to prepare city master plans for the cities governed

by municipality. But according to this rule, it was not obligation for local authorities

to prepare these plans and submit to Government for their sanction.15

This error was amended by cancellation of above act and formulation of new

act named as Bombay Town Planning Act 1954. By this act, it is obligatory for every

civic authority to prepare a development plan for the entire area within its jurisdiction.

The main objective of this act was to control the land use provision of public

facilities, projected population of next decade and planning of road network which is

necessary for transport.

After that, to correlate city development and regional development, the

Bombay Town Planning act 1954 was cancelled and Maharashtra Regional and Town

Planning Act 1966 were implemented.

7.5 SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT OF NASHIK CITY:

The Nashik city is developing rapidly due to availability of natural resources

such as good agricultural lands in the hinter-land and the water resources and also due

to the fast growing industrialization, trade and commerce and convenient

transportation and communication links. The sporadic development has started around

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the old municipal limits. The development within the old municipal limits is being

properly controlled by the sanctioned development plan. However the area in the

extended municipal limits is developing fast without social amenities and if attempts

are not made for proper planning of the extended area, it would create haphazard

development without social amenities like schools, play-grounds, gardens etc. It is

therefore necessary to prepare a development plan for the extended area of Nashik

city as per the provisions of Maharashtra Regional and Town Planning Act 1966.

THE MAIN OBJECTIVES OF THE DEVELOPMENT PLAN:

I. To have optimum utilization of the land in the interest of community and to

check the unplanned and haphazard growth of the town.

II. To provide most efficient traffic and transportation network to promote case

of communication by designing proper road system.

III. To make provisions for civic amenities and social facilities, public amenities

and services to meet the future requirement of the town.

IV. To preserve feature, structures of places of historical, natural, architectural and

scientific interest.

7.6 PLANNING POLICY OF NASHIK MUNICIPAL CORPORATION:

In the Planning Policy of Nashik Municipal Corporation, various suggestions

have made dealing with number of factors. Here, some important factors have been

considered for study such as, Population projections, landuse pattern, street hawkers,

water supply, drainage, electricity supply, transportation, parking, industrial and

housing policy, slum areas, street lighting, recreations, public transportation and

environmental policies etc.16

7.6.1 POPULATION PROJECTION:

Population projection is the best method for future planning of city residents.

By this method we can calculate the future required public amenities and load on

land. In 2001, population of Nashik city was 10,77,234 persons, while projected

population in 2011 and 2021 is 16,97,795 and 26,75,838 persons by Geometric Rate

of increase method. It means in the year 2011 nearly 6,20,561 persons and in the year

2021, nearly 9,78,043 persons will be more, which require more facilities. This factor

is very important when the planning policy formulated for Nashik city.

There are also sectorial imbalances in the distribution of population in study

region which requires decentralizing population concentration in sector No. I, III, IV 244

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and VI. Because sector No. II and V having higher concentration of population and

that are badly affected on the public amenities in future.

7.6.2 FUTURE PLANNING OF LANDUSE PATTERN:

Landuse planning in urban areas is a part of the larger process of city planning.

It is basically concerned with the location, intensity and amount of land development

required for various uses of space, functioning of the city e.g. industry, wholesaling,

business, housing, recreation, education, religious and cultural activities of the

people.18 The sector wise area, existing population, projected population of the year

2011 and 2021 have been calculated and this population is adopted for framing zones

and detailed planning proposals of town planning department.

7.6.2 A) RESIDENTIAL ZONE:

For providing the residential facilities following criteria have been considered

by Municipal Corporation of Nashik city.

I. Capacity of residential areas in the sanctioned development plan of old

municipal limits of Nashik to accommodate the maximum additional

population.

II. Zoning of the sanctioned peripheral area zone plan of Nashik.

III. Trend of development and compactness of future development.

IV. Qualify and feasibility of soil.

As per existing land use statement area available for development including

agricultural area within municipal limits is about 14,213.82 hectare. Considering the

average density 76 persons per hectare. It can therefore accommodate population of

10,77,234 persons. The population of area adopted by 2011 and 2021 is 6,20,561 and

9,78,043 persons can be well accommodated in the city for residential purpose. It can

be seen that the average density per hectare will in between 44 to 69 persons per

hectare.

Construction of flay over on N.H.No. 3 at Nashik will be completed within a

short period then the traffic from Adgaon will be diverted to Nashik from Mumbai

road and 24 m wide road on western side of Nashik and hence there will be demand

for residential development towards west side. Considering this aspect and to open

out the development on that side, a part of no development zone as proposed in the

peripheral area zone plan is proposed to be included in residential zone in sector No.

I.

7.2.2 B) COMMERCIAL ZONE:245

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The shopping habits of the people to depend on central market which is

situated in heart of the city within old municipal limits will not allow new markets /

commercial zone away from C. B. D. area. Therefore no separate commercial zone is

proposed. In order to provide the facility in the developing parts of the city and to

provide job opportunities for the educated unemployed persons the sites for vegetable

markets and shopping centres have been proposed as per requirements of the planning

standards in different parts of the city.

7.6.2 C) INDUSTRIAL ZONE:

The industrial activity is mainly found in the area of Maharashtra Industrial

Development Corporation and Co-operative Industrial Estate on western side of

Nashik along the N. H. No. 3 and Trimbak road. The major industrial area of MIDC

and Co-operative industrial estate is 1430.66 hectare. The area under other industries

uses accounts for 398 hectare (CIDCO).

As per 2001 census the total No. of workers are 3,71,423 out of total

population of 10,77,236 persons of entire municipal limits i.e. labour participation

ratio is 34.48 per cent. It is assumed that this ratio will increase to nearly 35 per cent

by year 2011. Therefore, the total No. of workers by the year 2011 would be about 5,

00,000.

On the basis of overall average density of 42 workers per hectare so the

industrial land requirement would be about more than present area.

There are some large scale and small industries surrounding municipal limit.

The large scale industries like Mahindra and Mahindra, V.I.P, Crompton Ltd,

Schneider Electricals, MICO (Bosch) etc., are located in Satpur and Ambad which is

municipal limits on western side.

7.6.3 WATER SUPPLY:

The study region comes under the semi-arid region of Maharashtra, where the

water scarcity problem mainly drinking water problem carries major importance

throughout the year. So it is necessary to proper study of water supply system and

related problems for the proper planning of available water.

7.6.3 A) EXISTING WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM:

The Nashik municipal area is at present mainly served by two water supply

source viz. Gangapur dam water source on Godavari River and Chehedi Barej water

source on Darna River. Various five water treatment plant with total capacity of

421.50 MLD, and 90 E.R.S. with 395 MLD, There are 1,46,433 domestic water 246

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connections and 2,567 commercial water connection in the city. The present

population is 14,86,973 persons and water supply is 395 million Lts., which is

supplied by 90 water reservoirs.

7.6.3 B) NEED OF PLANNING:

The present source of water supply is quite inadequate for the increasing need

of the people. At present per capita water supply is 150 liters, which is quite

inadequate. As per the population projection in 2011 population will 16,12,405

persons and in 2001 it will be 10,77,236 persons. It means in 2011 are 5,35,169

persons and in 2021 nearly 8,02,754 persons will increase, so they requires more

water supply. Hence, it needs planning for adequate water supply to such huge

population.

7.6.3 C) NEW PROPOSALS:

Since the area of Nashik municipal council has increased about 10 times, the

expectations of the people have also increased. Godavari River flows through Nashik

City. As far city water supply is concerned city is traditionally dependent on Godavari

River. In 1954 Gangapur dam was constructed. It had a total storage of 7200 mcft.

Over a period the storage has been reduced to 5630 mcft. There is a reservoir of water

in the dam to the extent of only 1194 mcft. Dam water further reserved for MIDC in

Nashik and Eklahara thermal power station situated in Nashik. Considering all these

reservations of water for non irrigation purposes there is very less water available for

irrigation. Over a period right bank canal has fully stopped the irrigation. For making

up part irrigation dam is being replenished through upstream dams. One other source

is from Darna dam which is about 28 km from Nashik city is dam was constructed in

the year 1934 with storage capacity of 7149 mcft. Presently NMC is having

reservation of 350 mcft. in this storage. The NMC is constructing one weir with gate

on river Darna near village Chehedi with storage capacity of 144 mcft. From the

following tables it can be revealed that Corporation drinking water demand is

constantly increasing. Present developed capacity is now becoming inadequate. For

future population of 2031 the full capacity remains nearly half the required capacity.

For 2021 demand, new source along with upstream dams will become obligatory. In

the later stage however additional source can be thought of. At present Phase-I work

is considered for year 2016. As per CPHEEO manual the design period after the

completion of the components should be as follows

TABLE VII-I 247

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NASHIK CITY (NEW PROPOSALS)

Item Design

Item Design Period in yearsStorage by dams 50Infiltration works 30Pump house (civil works) 30Electric motors and pumps 15Water treatment units 15Raw water and clear water conveying mains 30Clear water reservoirs, ESRs, GSRs 15Distribution system 30

For having a vision upto 2016 Gangapur dam, Kashyapi dam, and Gautami-

Godavari dam will be fully useful for the city’s demand of drinking water. Large cites

shall have to plan for the appropriate drainage also and accordingly the per capita

water supply has to be decided .Kashyapi dam and Gautami Godavari dams have been

constructed with appropriate cost sharing with NMC. Necessary Govt.orders has

already available. NMC had paid Rs. 5 crores for Kashyapi dam way back. The issue

is not settled but the fact remains that NMC requires the water from all the three

dams. It has been seen that there are two streams for NMC from Gangapur dam. One

pumps to high level zone and other pumps to low level zone. While tapping the

sources from Kashyapi and Gautami -Godavari dams the potential higher level is

taken into account and it can be worked out that low level zone can be directly

brought on gravity from these two dams. This becomes better alternative and

approximate costing considered in CDP.

CPHEEO prefers system design for 24 X 7 and for that purpose storages and

distribution system has to be updated and sufficient provision is proposed in the CDP.

Apart from this it is aimed to provide 100% house connections. From health point of

view it is very essential. CDP plans for giving houses to the urban poor and in this

amenity it is proposed to bear the actual expenses for giving connections along with

the meter to remodeled slum areas. Each house is proposed to be having separate

toilet and a separate house tap. It has been presumed that diameter of the Gravity main

and head works capacity is adequate till 2016.

The various works included are very much important to cater the population of

the year 2031. The priority of the works depending upon their needs is as given

below:

• Augmentation of existing WTP’s wherever required for the population

of year 201 is considered for Phase-I.

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• Simultaneously, storage capacity is to be added accordingly, to cater

the increasing demand.

• The distribution network is to be strengthened wherever new areas are

developed.

• New sources of water for drinking purpose need to be identified and

developed; as the present sources will be inadequate in the future for

the rising population. 17

TABLE VII-II

NASHIK CITY

PROJECT PREPARATION FOR YEAR 2026 AND 2041 POPULATION

1 Population Population projection for year 2026 and 2041 is 31.75 and 52.50 Lakhs respectively.

2 Source New Source development proposal for year 2041 population at Mukane Dam, Kashyapi Dam, Kikvi Dam.

3 WTP Development of new WTPs of about 220 MLD.4 ERS and Dis.

NetworkDevelopment of ERSs and distributions pipe lines for projected population of year 2026.

5 Supply 150 Lpcd with 24x7 supplies.

7.6.4 PLANNING FOR THE TRANSPORTATION:

Most of the roads as proposed in the peripheral area zone plan of Nashik are

incorporated in development plan as it is, while approving the layout plans,

cognizance of the proposed regional plan road have been taken. Most of the lands

have already been laid out into residential plots. There is no scope to propose new

major road linkages. It has been proposed to regulate the traffic in Nashik city by

widening some of the major road links considering its function. Attempt also has been

made to achieve the proper linkages by widening the layout roads.

Traffic and Transportation planning is an important aspect of preparing

Development plan, particularly of Metropolitan Cities and while formulating the

proposals of sanctioned D.P. the sub group headed by expert Traffic planner was

formed and various traffic surveys were carried out. They included peak hour traffic

count, origin and destination surveys, in addition to assessment of volume of regional

traffic. The input in the studies was provided by RTO, MSRTC, and Railways etc.

Important recommendations included upgrading of National and state highways with

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service roads, major district roads, and village roads passing through the Nashik

Municipal Corporation. In addition to this the existing road network was examined

and was co-related with the expected future pattern of city growth; based on

population projection and land use zoning and hierarchy of road system, major traffic

arterial roads, radial roads, middle and outer ring roads.

ROADS AND TRANSPORT

Good roads are the good image of the city. NMC is trying hard to improve the

quality of roads. Nashik City consists of one national highway and seven state

highways. The city is provided with many roads having a width of 30-60 m. This is a

sign of development of the city. The occasion of Sinhastha has also given a bridal

look to important roads of the city. The construction of roads and bridges, expansion

of roads, concreting of roads, systematic construction of speed breakers, development

of islands etc. have been done in order to given a beautiful look and to reduce

congestion and avoid accidents. In order to control traffic congestion, many roads are

widened. Apart from construction of roads due thought was given to road

illumination, signaling system etc. Entry points in the city were beautified by erecting

permanent concrete Gateways. Road signs were modernized and tourists and pilgrims

were kept well informed as to how to move about to their places of interest.

DETAILS OF ROADS

There are 535 km of roads proposed in D.P. out of which 298 km roads are

developed so far. Existing status of the NMC roads WBM Roads - 430 km Tarred

roads - 1282 km Concrete roads - 262 km. These road lengths include DP road as well

as colony roads. Along with above, for the occasion of Sinhastha, 13 numbers of

bridges have been constructed and one flyover work at Nashik Road is completed. As

the population of city goes on increasing, on par with this, needs of services to travel

from one place to another also goes on increasing. Different ways of transportation

available in Nashik are road ways and railway. The prominent roadways have

improved alot of things in the last one year. The state transport provides buses to the

city. There is one depot and 170 number of buses provided to Nashik cites for their

service and it travels to sixteen routes around Nashik. The following table shows the

details of transport services in NMC area.

TABLE VII-III

NASHIK CITY

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DETAILS OF TRANSPORT SERVICES PROVIDED BY MSRTC DURING 2012

Sr. No.

Description Value

1 Number of buses 1902 Number of Routes Served 3763 Cost of operation per km 34.514 Earning per km 29.235 Load Factor 68.126 Vehicle Utilization 225.23km/day7 Maximum Number of Passenger Carried

Daily140000

8 Average Daily Kms of Running 225km9 Daily Firebox Collection 12,00,000

10 Staff Bus Ratio 6.43

No. Item

Nashik city has facility of daily taxi services for 24 hours to different places

like Mumbai, Dindori-Wani, Kasara and Shirdi. Apart from Govt. bus services, the

city also provides private bus facility on different routes. Good bus facility is

available for within city limit traveling. Apart from this autos are also available at

affordable rate for movement of people within the city. Recently six seaters are also

plying on roads of Nashik. Increase in urbanization has also increased the number of

vehicles plying on the roads of Nashik. As par previous data it is seen that,

approximately forty five to fifty thousand vehicles get registered every year.

TABLE VII-IV

NASHIK CITY

NUMBER OF INDIVIDUAL VEHICLES REGISTERED

Sr. No.

Name of Vehicles 2005 2011No. of

VehiclesPer cent to Total

No. of Vehicles

Per cent to Total

1 Motor Cycles 2,54,40

7

48.69 4,79,761 55.73

2 Scooters 79,532 15.20 1,10,279 12.823 Mopeds 49,215 09.41 49,781 05.784 Motor Cars 33,164 06.34 72,624 08.435 Auto Rickshaws 21,503 04.10 23,889 02.776 Jeeps 19,492 03.73 23,089 02.697 Trailers 17,176 03.27 22,913 02.668 Tractors 25,023 04.77 37,727 04.389 Trucks and Lorries 7,043 01.35 10,034 01.1710 Delivery Van(3 and 4 wheel) 11,628 2.22 23,221 2.69

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11 Stage Carriage 768 00.14 926 00.1112 Taxi Cab 2,662 00.50 4,095 00.4813 Station Wago 91 00.02 93 00.0214 Contract Carrier 228 00.04 568 00.0615 School Bus 188 00.04 316 00.0416 Private Service Vehicle 132 00.03 197 00.0217 Tankers 373 00.07 250 00.0318 Others 434 00.08 1,074 00.12

Total 5,23,059 100.00 8,60,837

100.00

(Source: R.T.O Nashik)

About 5,23,059 numbers of vehicles have been registered in the year 2005 in

Nashik limits. Data shows the increasing trend in registration. In the year 2005 there

is an increase of 9.93 per cent and in the year 2011 the increase is 10.29 per cent.

Vehicle population in the year 2005 was 5,23,059 and it is 8,60,837 in the year 2011.

Assuming average 10 km run of the vehicles vehicular traffic is having 9,04,870

vehicle km run. Assuming about 2000 km road length average vehicle density per day

calculates to 45 vehicles per km per day. However, the peak density can reach to 450

vehicles per day per km. In busy hours on selected roads it may reach to 1,350

vehicles per km.

PROJECTS PROPOSED UNDER JNNURM

a) D. P. Roads Development - Nashik Municipal Corporation has formulated

an integrated road development project in two phases of which the first phase is

presently ongoing and included the construction of 10 roads with a total length of 21.8

km. It is proposed to undertake development of 265 km roads including establishment

of missing links necessary bridges, culvert and CD works as per Development Plan in

Phase-I.

b) Junction Improvement Scheme - Under this scheme heavily crowded traffic

junction at Ravivar Karanja have been selected and plans and estimates have been

prepared by NMC.

c) Feasibility Study of high capacity mass transport rout - NMC is keen to

undertake a high capacity mass transport route along the alignment of right bank canal

which passes generally in straight direction and touches important work centers at

Nashik city, large width is available for use as a major traffic artery. It is proposed to

undertake techno economic feasibility study.

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d) Street Lighting and Traffic Signals – For providing Street Lighting at 30 m

center to center and adequate traffic signals.

Considering the development of city after 2016 and the expected growth

trends the cost of roads required.

PROPOSALS OF NATIONAL HIGHWAY AUTHORITY

Four planning of NH-3 as it passes through Municipal council limits along

with series of fly overs on important road junctions have been proposed by N.H.

authority, which are to be developed on BOT basis at an estimated cost of Rs.330

crores, for total length of 21 km within Corporation limits. This component is not

included in the cost of CDP for funding. MSRTC is separately taking steps to augment

available Bus fleet which presently is severely inadequate for a population of nearly

15 lakhs at present. MSRTC has prepared a separate CDP. They have covered the city

public transport part. It is a support organization of the state government working in

the City limits. There is no budgetary provision in the NMC budget towards city

transport. CDP from NMC will act as part of overall city development plan. MSRTC

will contribute to the extent of 30 per cent of the tentative plan cost of Rs. 128 Crores.

The MSRTC have prepared the separate vision document and is submitted as under.

PROPOSAL FOR CITY BUS SERVICE BY MSRTC

TRANSPORTATION:

Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation is the one and only biggest

organization of public transport working under Maharashtra Government.

The organization has 15,080 buses of its own. It daily runs about 50 lakhs

kilometers, nearly 60 lakhs passengers travel per day through S.T. buses.

The S.T. buses cover the whole of Maharashtra, from the western sea shore, to

eastern Nanded, Nagpur and Bhandara at M.P. border, and upto Karnataka State, even

covering the hilly areas. It is our motto, “WHERE THERE IS A VILLAGE THERE

IS A S.T.BUS “. We can say that where there is a road there will be a S.T. bus.

M.S.R.T. Corporation has relentlessly and honestly performing its public

services. Thus S.T. has been performing the prime role of interlinking the Nation and

its citizen through its vast network of service.

The additional service provided by S.T. is to run the City Transport, viz. in

Satara, Sangali, Kolhapur, Dhule, Nagpur, etc. In Nashik, which is a very popular

holy place and famous for its Sinhastha Kumbhamela, the city transport is run by

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M.S.R.T.C. Since 1952, M.S.R.T.C. has a holding of 190 buses to run the city

transport.

It is a prime responsibility of NMC to run the city transport. There are more

requirements of buses considering the vast expansion of the city and growth in its

population. The M.S.R.T.C. runs the city transport very judiciously with a very small

strength of vehicles. It has borne a cumulative loss of about Rs.5 crores till date.

City transport service needs to be revitalized with the introduction of new

environmental friendly new buses, expansion of fleet, and by improving the

infrastructure facilities such bus shelters, bus depots, modern maintenance workshops,

and in a long term view there is a need for improved roads for running of rapid transit

system.

In the city of Nashik, M.S.R.T.C. has various establishments and vacant land

for expanding its facilities. The existing facilities are as under:

I) DIVISIONAL WORKSHOP:

Used for reconditioning and major engine repairs of vehicles.

II) DEPOT NO.1:

Used for daily repairs and maintenance of vehicles, which ply goes outside the

Nashik division?

III) DEPOT NO.2:

Used for carrying out daily repairs and maintenance of city buses.

IV) BUS STATIONS:

A) Main Bus Station (Old): for vehicles going to Maharashtra and city

operation.

B) Central Bus Station (New): For vehicles going towards Pune, Aurangabad,

etc.

C) Mahamarg Bus Station: For vehicles going towards Mumbai, Alibag, and

Solapur etc.

D) Nimani Bus Station: For internal main city operation.

DEVELOPMENTAL GOALS:

Focused attention is required for the development of infrastructural facilities

for the Public Transport system of the city. Renovating the infrastructure

facilities and running new CNG buses can achieve improvement in the city

bus service. Some of the proposals are:

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1. Environmental issues such as pollution and conservation of natural oil and

gas, it is proposed that the new city buses to be operated on CN Gas only.

2. C.N.G. pumps need to be constructed in city depots.

3. Modernization of the maintenance workshops and bus depots.

4. Better facilities, clean and hygienic environment, for the bus passengers and

organization staff, at all the bus terminus. Better bus shelters, designed with

the street furniture and streetscape in mind.

DETAILED PLANNING:

A) CITY TRANSPORTATION:

1. Existing population of city- 15 lakhs.

2. Actual requirement of S.T. Buses to run the city operation-300 buses.

3. Existing strength of Buses- 190 Buses.

4. Working capacity of a Bus – 10 years + 2 years after reconditioning.

5. Existing vehicles will have to be scrapped and New to be brought. 185 300

6. Costing for New Bus Cost Rs. 20 lakh per vehicle

B) INFRASTRUCTURE FACILITIES:

It is planned for a period of 20-25 years (with 5 yearly updates) and

considering population of 37 lakhs in the year 2031.

I) City pick- up sheds

Considering increasing expansion of city, it is proposed to have 250 pickup

sheds at various places in the city with modern aspect.

II) Central Bus Station (Old)

This is the bus station centrally located in the city from where the city buses

are departed to various place. Now it is proposed to renovate the bus station

with modern face with all required passenger amenities such as Internet ATM,

STD, snack bars, and cleaned toilets.

III) Panjarpol Bus Station

On the highway towards Aurangabad near Adgaon, it is proposed to have such

a big bus station with all required facilities, in view to future requirement.

VI) Satpur City Depot No.2

Near Ambad MIDC on link road, considering expansion of city and increasing

requirement, it is proposed to have second depot for city operation with

commercial complex infrastructure and C.N. Gas pump.

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V) Nimani Bus Station

This is a city bus station operating traffic for north of city requires renovating

the building with commercial complex and passenger amenities.

VI) Nashik Road Bus Station

To connect railways, the existing bus station located near railways station on

Nashik Road needs to renovate this building with commercial complex and

modern face.

VII) Panchavati Depot 2

This is the existing city depot and workshop where daily cleaning and

maintenance of city buses are done. This depot needs to be renovated with

modern machinery, infrastructure, Computerization and C.N.Gas Pump.

VIII) Satpur Bus Station

To connect MIDC residential area with city the existing bus station needs to

renovate with modern look.

IX) Mela Bus Station (New)

In the vacant land near new central bus station required additional platform. It

is proposed to construct additional bus station with garden and all passenger

amenities.

X) Depot No.1 and Divisional Office

Fully interlinked computerization between division office and depot bus

stations is proposed including renovating the building a C.N.Gas pump is

required in depot.

XI) Mahamarg Bus Station

A new central bus station with commercial complex and all modern

passengers’ facilities is required at this place.

XII) Divisional workshop

In view to future requirement the latest machinery is required to install so it is

proposed to renovate the premises with concreting gardening constructing I.H.

Tenements, T.R.Plants and C.N. Gas pumps.

XIII) Deolali (Nashikroad) Proposed B/S and Depot

In view of further Kumbhmela and increasing requirement the new bus station

and depot with all required passenger amenities including commercial

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complex with modern face needs to construct. A new bus station with all

requirements with commercial complex required at this place.

]

Conclusion

The M.S.R.T.C. plays a major role in the urban renewal and development of

Nashik City. The total estimated expenditure towards the implementation of its stated

objectives would be Rs. 128.00 Cr. As per JNNRUM mission strategy, 70% of this

required grant will be allotted by Central Govt. and remaining 30 % will be managed

by Organization itself.

Municipal Corporation gives attention on the widening of road but not on the

quality of road. The quality of road should be improved which can reduce the traffic

jams and accidents. It needs to develop existing air port of Nashik city by corporation.

7.6.5 PARKING SCHEMES:

Reservation for parking zone is very important and necessarily because

unsystematic parking on roads, cause main disturbance in traffic and misuse of

carriage way. By considering available facilities and area available in future,

reservation of parking areas must be included in the planning scheme of the city.

Road parking included both slow speed and high-speed vehicles. Parking is

done according to local necessity and need in different parts of the city. Nashik

Municipal Council has developed parking on the basis of ‘PAY AND PARKING’

basis that can avail the extra revenue. Localities like highly polluted area, market

places, bus stand, railway station, cinema house, octroi posts, gardens need various

parking zones. Facility of on street parking can be provided on low traffic roads. For

the remaining demand of off street parking area should be reserved in the

development plan.

7.6.6 STREET HAWKERS:

Street Hawkers is a very important factor in the city. They served the needs of

working class of society. But hawkers become growing problem of the Nashik city

particularly in Market area like Main road, Shalimar, College road, Nashik road,

Cidco and Satpur area. The Nashik Municipal Corporation should plan systematically

to solve this problem of hawkers and for the purpose; the area should be developed in

such a way that hawkers should not be the obstacle for the traffic. For implementation

of planning, hawkers can be controlled and the accidents can be avoided. The 257

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municipality should give the area to hawkers for proper development and, should act

and immediately take measures to solve this problem.

7.6.7 SLUMS:

The survey of present slums reveals that the number of slums is increasing

with the development of the city. Generally huts in slaves are much crowded, so here

population density is more and slum population has scarcity of public facilities, which

results in a social health and environmental pollution problems.

During 1981, there were 18,945 total hutment and population of person’s

66,498 persons living in slums. It has increased up to 42,742 hutments and 2,14,769

persons in 2011. There are 168 slums in the city, out of which 56 slums are declared

and 112 undeclared. There are 168 slums have covered nearly 21,53,291Sq, meter

area of the total. All these slums are scattered in different parts of the city and

majority of these are developed on private land or on disputed corporation land.

Besides these, 85 slums have rehabilitated during last decade. The process of

rehabilitation was started in 1995 with the help of HUDCO, State Government and

Municipal Corporation and Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission.

At present 11,200 house have provided well equipped facilities to the slums

resident`s.

TABLE VII-V

SLUMS OF NASHIK CITY

REHABILITATION STATUS OF SLUMS (2011)

Sr. No.

Name of Slum Rehabilitation of Slum Houses

Sr. No.

Name of Slum Rehabilitation of Slum Houses

1 Bhagthsingnagar 856 9 Gautamnagar 9782 Gaundwadi 1,384 10 Beldarwadi 8953 Kasturba Nagar 456 11 Krantinagar 7894 Vaidu Wadi 385 12 Fulenagar 5745 Nilgiribag 778 13 Vadala 3576 Erandwadi 878 14 Sahvasnagar 2857 Hirawadi 928 15 Suyognagar 2688 Shivajiwadi 1,389 Total 11,200

Source: Municipal Corporation Records.

There are many schemes run by Central and State Government for

development of slums. But Maharashtra Housing Department, Corporation / local

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civic authorities may have to face difficulties to provide more facilities to slums,

which are situated on public reserved places. Therefore, there is no new proposal of

reservations in the development scheme.

7.6.8 HOUSING POLICY:

TABLE VII-VI

NASHIK CITY

HOUSING POLICY

Year No. of Houses*

ActualGrowth**

Increase in % **

Total Population *

OccupancyRate of dwellings**

1971 20,630 ----- ----- 1,76,091 8.541981 49,506 28,876 140.00 2,62,428 5.301991 1,46,688 97,182 196.30 6,56,925 4.482001 2,25,190 78,502 53.52 10,77,236 4.78

In the year of 1971, there were 20,630 houses in the study region, which was

increased upto 2,25,190 houses in 2001 and it is projected to 3,00,000 houses in 2011

and 4,50,000 houses in 2021, so it needs to plan for construction of more houses. It is

observed that the uneven distribution of houses in study region, some areas have

higher density of houses (i.e. 2,441 houses per sq.km. in sector No. I), while some

areas have very low density of houses (i.e. 223 house per sq.km. in sector no. III). So

it requires reducing this uneven distribution of houses.

It is suggested that a housing board should be setup to tackle the problem of

housing. For the purpose of housing construction prefabricated and low cast housing

technique would be properly implemented.

7.6.9 DRAINAGE AND SEWERAGE SCHEME:

The city, till recent times, did not have well planned sewerage scheme. The

untreated sewage was generally let out in river Godavari and its tributaries like

Nasardi, Valdevi.

In 1895, a sewer starting from Tiwari Mahal up to river Godavari meeting just

downstream of ghats was laid. The diameter of sewer is 400-500 mm. Old Nashik

town on right bank of Godavari had a system of brick / stone masonry drains covered

with stone slabs, running along narrow streets for conveying sullage and storm water

to the river.

“Nashik underground drainage scheme – Part 1” was executed during 1955-68

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by municipal council. Under the scheme, intercepting sewers were laid on both banks

of Godavari terminating in a pumping station at Ganeshwadi on left bank of the river.

The sewage was pumped from this pumping station through 750 mm diameter rising

main about 3.3 km length in to a distributor of Gangapur left canal.

In view of Sinhastha fair in the year 1991, Maharashtra Water Supply and

Sewerage Board executed an emergency scheme to arrest flow of sullage and sewage

in various drains, discharging in to river Godavari upstream of holy ghats. The

scheme envisaged augmenting intercepting sewers on both banks of river and

enhancing capacity of existing Ganeshwadi pumping station. Sewers 300 mm to 450

mm dia was laid on the left bank and 350mm to 800mmdia laid on the right bank and

pumping installations at Ganeshwadi pumping stations were overhauled and

augmented to deal with increased flow.

There are brick masonry sewers in gaothan area of Nashik city existing since

olden days. These sewers collect the waste water from households as also the storm

water runoff. These old sewers are joined to the piped sewerage system created later.

Due to inadequate capacities of these sewers, during monsoon, the storm water mixed

with sewage runs off to join the river. It is necessary to provide separate system of

sewers for exclusive collection of sewage for old gaothan area and join it to the main

sewer system.

There are some old sewers laid along banks of Godavari prior to phase - I

works. These sewers are in deteriorated condition. During the planning of new works,

the capacity, condition and utility of these sewers need to be examined thoroughly and

replacements as required need to be proposed.

NMC needs to prepare Master Plan considering Phase I and Phase II schemes

with respect to the projected population for year 2031 considering Nashik city as a

whole. The Present sewerage system is serving for only 70 per cent population. In

some areas sewerage system is over loaded due to rapid increase of population in

vertical direction. Old existing treatment plants and pumping stations in CIDCO Area

need renovation, augmentation, and rehabilitation of existing system. Need of curative

maintenance system for sewer network, pumping stations and STP. Existing system

are under utilize in some areas due to insufficient number of drainage connections.

There is lack of sewerage network and treatment facility in Industrial area.

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7.6.10 POWER SUPPLY:

The electric power supply to the city started in 1921. This brought faster rate

of development. Erstwhile Maharashtra State Electricity Board was looking after

Generation, Transmission & Distribution of Electricity in the State of Maharashtra

barring Mumbai. But with enactment of Electricity Act 2003, MSEB was unbundled

into 4 Companies viz. MSEB Holding Co. Ltd., Maharashtra State Electricity

Distribution Co. Ltd., Maharashtra State Power Generation Co. Ltd. and Maharashtra

State Electricity Transmission Co. Ltd. on 6 th June 2005. As the demand for electric

power was increasing the Maharashtra State Electricity Board took over the said

company with a view to co-ordinate and accelerates the supply of electric power.

M.S.E.B. supplied the power to the city through the many sub-station at

different locations. Viz.

1) 33 kV s/c line from 132/33 kV Satpur S/S to 33/11 kV PSC Pole Factory S/S

2) 33 kV s/c line from 33/11 kV Gangapur S/S to 33/11 kV civil hospital S/S

3) 33 kV s/c line from 33/11 kV APMC S/S to Peth Phata

4) 33 kV s/c line from 132/33 kV Mhasrul S/S to 33/11 kV Mungasare S/S

5) 33 kV U/G cable from 33/11 kV APMC S/S to Peth Phata

There is acute shortage of power supply in Nashik city. At present 3 to 6 hours

load shading has done by MSEB, which badly affected on city development. So it

needs to make policy about continuous power supply and decide priority sector for

power supply.

7.6.11 STREET LIGHTING:

Major functions are providing street light facility on Municipal Roads,

Gardens Public Places, and Jogging track. Street light department is decentralized in 6

divisions for maintenance purpose. There are 48,236 no. of poles in Nashik NMC has

installed following High mast in various Chowks of city to facilitated cross over

traffic during Night hours. Municipal Corporation has planning to develop street

lighting in extended municipal area.

7.6.12 RECREATION:

Recreational facilities have been considered under the following categories:

a) Children’s play-grounds.

b) Children’s parks.

c) Play-ground.261

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d) Parks and Gardens

e) Library and Community Hall.

The play-grounds have been distributed suitable to enable the residents to

reach them easily. These play-grounds would provide the facility to all the residents

and would not be restricted only to the school going children as in case of play ground

attached to schools. Park and garden sites have also been suitably distributed to enable

all the residents to enjoy this essential amenity. Children’s play-ground have been

provided for smaller areas. The extended area has existing 842 layout of open spaces

evenly distributed in the entire area of the town except Gaothans. Few of them have

been properly fenced and developed.

There are more libraries located in the study region i.e. Sarvajanik Vachnalay,

KTHM College Library, HPT College, Murkute Library, Y.C.Maharashtra Open

University Library. The 15 community halls located in different parts of the city.

Adopting the standard of one site per 1000 population, the library and community

halls are inadequate. So in the draft of development plan 20 sites have been proposed.

But these sites are also inadequate for increasing population of the study region.

7.7 SUGGESTIONS:

Any programme for the development of a town has to take into consideration

socio-economic as well as physical factors within its broad framework. All these

factors put together in the most desirable combination in an urban set up would yield

the necessary environment for a pleasant human habitation. In the Indian context, life

in town’s right from smaller towns to metropolitan cities has been described as one of

“Chaos” or of “despair”. One of the major causes for such a state of affair seems to be

lack of proper understanding and co-ordination among physical, social and economic

planners in charge of urban planning.18 The purpose of this brief note is to present a

diagnostic view of the development of Nashik city which is one of the several

hundreds of towns / cities sharing all the ills of the urbanization.

7.7.1 CITY BUS TRANSPORTATION:

A) EXISTING CITY BUS TRANSPORTATION:

The survey indicates that unlike many of the cities of Maharashtra, where

Municipal Councils / Corporations own and operate city bus transport systems,

Nashik Municipal Corporation till date has shield away from owing this

responsibility. In Nashik, Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation run the buses

for city commuters. Upto last three years 190 MSRTC buses were providing services 262

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along 376 routes. The services now mainly carry passengers to and from nearby

villages of Nashik.

As per standard rule, one bus is required for the population of 2500 persons,

but in Nashik city there are only 190 buses at present, which can served only 4,75,000

population as per standard rate, but city required about 600 buses for existing

population. It is necessary that, an average bus should run upto 230 to 260 Kms. per

day, but in study region the average running of city bus is about 195 Kms. per day.

7.7.1 B) SUGGESTIONS:

The existing bus services i.e. frequency and quality is not satisfactory. The

draft of National Urban Transport Policy of the country stresses the need of Municipal

Governments becoming the nodal agencies for providing public transport

infrastructure in urban areas. Nashik, with its innovative past can take the lead in

converting the present decrepit city bus infrastructure into a dependable and

affordable one.

In order to solve this problem, it is necessary to draft a new program for

systematic planning of city bus transportation. Bus services can be improved by use of

strength and simple transportation, such as different bus lanes, traffic preferences,

reserve routes for buses etc. Nashik Municipal Corporation should invest sufficient

capital to improve the bus services in the city.

7.7.2 PARKING AND TRANSPORTATION:

According to the data of the Regional Transport Office, there are 8,60,837

automobile vehicles in Nashik city during the year 2011. The rapid growth of private

vehicles in the city accompanied by growing industrial and commercial activities has

certainly increased the need for more parking spaces, especially in the city center

areas. Particularly, the on-street parking reduces the effective carriage way width in

the city. In the absence of planned parking facilities, vehicles get parked at random

and in an unorganized manner thereby restricting free flow of traffic on the streets.

Another observation in regard to this problem is that the parking psychology

in the city today, where citizens prefer to park at places where they need to transact

business as the city culture has not yet matured to the psychology of “Park and Walk”

and “Walk and Shop”. The parking problem of Nashik city would be solved if the

following measures will be taken into consideration.

1) All the business premises should have parking yards separately, especially in

the back yard.263

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2) Parking plots are constructed for stationary vehicles within the city.

3) To prevent accident street lighting, automatic signal facilities are needed.

4) A proper training of the public mind will do a great deal to improve the

parking conditions in the city today.

5) To solve the problem different sources of funds should be traced e.g. ‘Pay and

Parking’.

7.7.3 TRAFFIC CONGESTION AND TRANSPORTATION:

The growing traffic needs in the city would also call for proper traffic

management measures along with traffic signal with area co-ordination traffic signals

etc. Due to rapid growth of auto-rickshaws and two-wheelers and lack of proper

traffic control, the road accidents are more in the study area. The spots where most of

the accidents take place inside the study area include MIDC area, Dwarka, Junction of

N. H. No.03 and 50, Trimbak road, Satpur colony and Dindori road. Following

measures should be taken into consideration to solve the problem of traffic

congestion.

1) The inner city roads are congested particularly during the morning and

evening peak hours. The comprehensive area traffic control plans need to be

prepared for the congested area.

2) The wholesale market like Gole Colony and Main road may need to be

suitably relocated by making reservation in the landuse plan.

3) The national and state highways passing through the city function as major

arterial roads. In the absence of an effective by pass, intermixing of regional

traffic and city traffic takes place, especially on the national highway. This

adds to the traffic congestion on the highway in the city area. Thus, there is a

need to segregate inter-city and intra-city traffic, may be by providing service

roads or by constructing effective by pass links.

4) There should be planned and designated bus stops that reduce traffic

congestion and accidents.

5) Footpath should be built on every road of the city.

6) The road marking such as Zebra Crossings would be essential, particularly, at

the intersection where there is significant pedestrian- vehicle conflict.

7) Inadequate street lighting also undermines the safety and convenience on the

city road. This situation needs to improve.

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8) Efficiency, energy, environment and equity should be taken into account while

solving traffic and transportation problem.

7.7.4 STREET HAWKERS:

The street hawkers are the crucial problem in the Nashik city. The street

hawkers are of two types. In the first category, the street hawkers sell their goods on

the particular place / spot e.g. S. T. bus stand, railway station, schools, offices,

building complexes and other important market places. The second category includes

the hawkers who do their business of day to day goods by wandering in different

areas. The area includes residential places generally. Both these hawkers create more

problems. Following are the some suggestions to tackle the various problems caused

by the street hawkers. These are:

1) No license is issued to the hawkers on prominent roads. Instead the licenses

are given to them where there is low traffic. The strict vigilance from time to

time is necessary to observer whether rules are followed or not.

2) Permission must be granted in the vacant places in residential areas, so that

they do not cause disturbance on the road.

3) The hawker’s zone is created in public places like garden, play grounds,

hospitals, bus stand, religious places and big hectic squares.

4) Places should be allotted to street hawkers on the side of the roads where they

should not cause disturbance to traffic and peddlers.

5) Permission is granted to license street hawkers who do their business on roads.

6) Licensed should not be given to those street hawkers who require lot of time

on one place / spot e.g. going on hand cart.

In short, in order to keep the roads suitable for peddlers and to avoid accidents

licenses should not be given to the more hawkers and the cart owners.

7.7.5 WATER SUPPLY:

The sources of water supply for the study region are mainly from Gangapur

dam on Godavari River and Chehedi Barej water source on Darna River. Nearly 160

Lts. of water supply for person per day is necessary as per rule, but in city 108.52 Lts.

per person per day water is supplied, which is very inadequate. It is observed that the

quality of water in rainy season is not good and water is irrigated illegally for

agricultural purposes.

The contamination of drinking water of Nashik city is increased due to

improper running of water filter plants. Most of the water supplying pipelines are old 265

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and damaged; this is also major cause of drinking water pollution. It needs to remove

all these problems for getting pure and fresh water for Nashik citizens.

The Kashyapi dam and Gautami-Godavari dam should be constructed as early

as possible to solve of water problem of the study region. Water should be equally

distributed in the city. It is observed that high class residential areas have received

more water than the low class residential areas. Straight pipelines should be built for

avoiding the wastage of water, pollution of water and illegal use of water.

7.7.6 SLUMS:

In 2012, there are 42,742 hutments and 2,14,769 populations living in slum

area in the study region. Slums at some particular places are hazardous for general

people or surrounding people and also for slums. Therefore, it is necessary to

rehabilitate such slums like

* Slums near city water supply stations, which causes many health problems.

* Slums in set back distance near national and state highways.

* Slums in places owned by railway department.

* Slums having population density more than 1000 persons per hectare, which is

responsible for the health problems.

Such slums should be rehabilitated at places reserved for same reasons. During

rehabilitation, care should be taken that the population density of rehabilitated slums

should be less than 1000 per hectare. Besides this, it is also tried to reclaim extra

population from the slums having population density more than 1000 persons per

hectare to another place.

7.7.7 COMMERCIAL FACILITIES:

The city has been developing in all directions and there is no shopping facility

available in remote areas. People have to depend upon the existing facilities available

in the heart of city. In order to provide the facility in the developing parts of the city, it

is proposed to develop sites for markets and shopping centers. The planning standards

provide to propose one site of vegetable market having area of 2000 Sq.Km. for

10,000 populations. In addition, the provision of few vegetable markets and

convenience shopping centre facilities should be provided in the layout of civic

centers where such sites are available.

7.7.8 DRAINAGE AND SEWERAGE:

Open drainage system is a critical problem of the study region from the view 266

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point of health. NMC needs to prepare Master Plan considering Phase I and Phase II

schemes with respect to the projected population for year 2031 considering Nashik

city as a whole. The Present sewerage system is serving for only 70 per cent

population. In some areas sewerage system is over loaded due to rapid increase of

population in vertical direction. Old existing treatment plants and pumping stations in

CIDCO Area need renovation, augmentation, and rehabilitation of existing system.

Need of curative maintenance system for sewer network, pumping stations and STP.

Existing system are under utilize in some areas due to insufficient number of drainage

connections. There is lack of sewerage network and treatment facility in Industrial

area. After treatment plants the water may be used for irrigation and gardening

purposes in the city.

7.7.9 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION:

The deterioration of environmental quality began when man first gathered and

formed village or community and utilized the natural resources. The present levels of

population in the Nashik urban cent re are not critical. But the alarming quality of air,

water and especially noise was observed in the study area. To safe guard the

population from such a alarming environmental quality the Municipal Corporation

can take the following creative measures.

7.7.9 A) WATER POLLUTION:

1) Regular checkup and maintenance of drinking water lines, and removal the

leakages.

2) In order to enhance source sustainability of groundwater, it would be

necessary to impose certain restriction applicable to the entire user of

groundwater in the city.

3) The total disinfection programmers of the contaminated and unused open

wells should be carried in the city.

4) Constructions of decentralize and underground storm water and drainage

system in the city.

5) Reconstruction and lining of existing nalla in the city.

6) Solid waste, leachate control and surface run-off in the open well must be in

control.

7) Conduct the programme of awareness of water and groundwater resources and

its sustainable exploitation, for the people in the city.

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8) Introduce the awareness programme of human health and water born diseases,

particularly in the slum area.

7.7.9 B) AIR POLLUTION:

1) One way system must employ in some congested roads.

2) The old vehicles (at least the vehicles above 15 years) will be banned in the

city area.

3) Isolated bus stops will help to avoid the traffic jam as observed frequently in

the city.

4) Higher pollution levels are emitted from the traffic flow due to frequent traffic

jams.

5) The widening and maintenance of the roads will be undertaken in an effective

manner.

7.7.9 C) NOISE POLLUTION:

1) Create silent zone in the sensitive areas of the city.

2) Regulate continuous traffic flow on the roads to avoid traffic jam.

3) Mass plantation on the roadside especially on the highway side should be

undertaken. The noise and air pollution absorbing plants will be planted on

both sides of the roads which will help to increase aesthetic beauty of the city.

4) Increase noise awareness in the city area by conducting various programmers

at various levels.

7.7.9 D) SOIL POLLUTION:

Unscientific waste disposal is the major reason for the degradation of soil

quality in and around the city area. To maintain the soil quality the following

strategies will be adopted.

1) Use of barren land for the waste disposal.

2) Identification of sites for the waste dumping through scientific and geological

view.

3) Various reuse strategies must be adopted for the reuse of municipal solid waste

such as composting, vermin composting, which is an additional source of

revenue generation for the municipal corporation.

In all the environmental programmes public participation is playing key role.

Hence, the municipal corporation in collaboration with NGO’s and educational

institutes will take the special efforts.

7.7.10 OTHER SUGGESTIONS:268

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1) It is necessary to built fllayoveres where the problem of traffic jam is

prominent, e.g. Shalimar, Trimbak Naka, Raviwar Karanja,Nimani,Ashok

Sthamb, and Pancwati circle etc.

2) There should be compulsory plantation and conservation of trees for

governmental, nongovernmental offices, educational institution, and industrial

areas which is helpful to control pollution.

3) It is necessary to switch off the vehicles when they are waiting for signals.

4) It is necessary to check the vehicles causing air and noise pollution and PUC

should be compusory to control air pollution .The strict legal action should be

taken against the owners of vehicles.

5) The municipal corporation should give the slum dwellers the facilities like,

clean drinking water, sanitation, electricity, medical and educational facilities.

6) There should be modification in the land acquisition acts when a land is

acquired for urban facilities.

7) All types of industrial area should be developed out of residential area and

according to regional industrial policies, large and small scale industries

should be established in MIDC area.

8) Education and medical facilities should be provided to poor people on low

economic budget by Municipal Corporation.

Only making a plan is not important but implementation of that plan is very

important. Hence, to solve the problem is depending on proper implementation of

plans.

******

269

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REFERENCES

1. Abercrombie, Sir P., Town and country planning IInd Edition, P. 27.

2. Mandal, R. B., (2000), ‘Urban Geography’, Concept Publishing Company,

New Delhi, P. 538.

3. Mandal, R. B., (2000), ‘Urban Geography’, Concept Publishing Company,

New Delhi, P. 537.

4. Rimsha, A. (1976), ‘Town Planning in Hot Climates’, Mir Publishers,

Moscow, P.P. 21, 22.

5. Ibid.

6. Ibid.

7. Singh, R. L., (1964), ‘Bengalore: An Urban Survey”. PP. 95, 99.

8. Ibid.

9. Ibid.

10.Freeman, W. T., (1958), ‘Geography and Planning”, London, PP.112.

11.Clarie W. H., (Ed.), (1969), ‘Urban Planning Guide’ - ASCEM and R, 49, New

York.

12.Abercrombie, Sir P., Town and country planning IInd Edition, P. 27.

13.Malshe, P. T., (1968), ‘Kolhapur: A Study in Urban Geography, PP. 56.

14.Ministry of Urban Development Report 1988-89, New Delhi, P. 12-14.

15.Zodage S. B., (2001), ‘Impact of Urban Growth on Environment: A Case study of Kolhapur

city’, (A Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis) P.P. 220, 221.270