Chapter 2: Research Methods Basic Terms Measurement of Behavior Research Designs Animal Use.
<ul><li><p>Chapter 2:Research Methods Basic Terms Measurement of Behavior Research Designs Animal Use</p></li><li><p>Basic Terms</p><p>VariableA characteristic that can change (vary) over time or from one situation to another</p><p>Independent variablea characteristic whose values are independent of changes in the values of other variablesDependent variableCharacteristic that is dependent upon changes in the IV</p></li><li><p>Basic Terms</p><p>Operational definitionAn exact description of an event or behavior that would otherwise be ambiguous</p></li><li><p>Measurement of Behavior</p><p>Rate of responseCumulative Recorder</p></li><li><p>Measurement of Behavior</p><p>Intensity</p><p>Duration </p><p>Speed</p></li><li><p>Measurement of Behavior</p><p>Latency</p><p>Interval recording</p><p>Time sample recording</p><p>Topography</p><p>Number of errors </p></li><li><p>Basic Terms</p><p>Stimulus (S)Any event that can produce a behavior</p><p>Response (R)A behavior elicited by a stimulus</p></li><li><p>Basic Terms</p><p>Overt BehaviorBehavior that can be observed by another individual</p><p>Covert BehaviorBehavior that is subjective (can be observed only by person performing behavior)</p></li><li><p>Basic Terms</p><p>Appetitive StimuliStimuli that an individual will seek out</p><p>Aversive StimuliStimuli that an individual will avoid</p></li><li><p>Basic Terms</p><p>DeprivationProlonged absence of an event, which tends to increase the events appeal</p><p>SatiationProlonged exposure to an event, which tends to decreases the appeal of that event</p></li><li><p>Basic Terms</p><p>ContiguityTemporal continuity: closeness of two events in time Spatial continuity: closeness of two events in space</p><p>ContingencyA predicted relationship between two events</p></li><li><p>Research Design</p><p>Descriptive ResearchRecording detailed observations about a behavior, and the situation that it occurs in </p><p>Naturalistic ObservationRecording of behavior in its natural environment</p><p>Case StudiesIntensive examination of one or a few individualshttp://www.loc.gov/exhibits/freud/images/vc009108.jpghttp://travel.3yen.com/wp-content/images/714px-japanese_macaque.jpg</p></li><li><p>Research Design</p><p>Experimental ResearchOne or more independent variables manipulated in order to show a cause-and-effect relationship between the variable and the behavior of interest</p><p>Control Group DesignsExperiment in which subjects are randomly assigned to a control group or an experimental group</p><p>Group 1FoodGroup 2No foodExperimentalDesign</p></li><li><p>Research Design</p><p>Experimental Research</p><p>Control Group Designs</p><p>Advantages: Good for showing cause-and-effect relationships</p><p>Disadvantages:Requires a large number of subjectsData sometimes analyzed only at end of experimentIgnores individual results (which might be important)</p></li><li><p>Six experimental conditions (groups of subjects) in a 2 3 factorial experiment involving two levels of a food variable and three levels of an age variable.</p></li><li><p>Research Design</p><p>Experimental Research</p><p>Single-Subject Designs</p></li><li><p>Simple Comparison (AB) Design</p></li><li><p>Reversal (ABAB) Design</p></li><li><p>Two-Treatment Reversal (ABCAC) Design</p></li><li><p>Problem:Reversal (ABAB) Design</p></li><li><p>Multiple Baseline Design</p></li><li><p>Changing Criterion Design</p></li><li><p>Use of Animals in Behavioral Research</p><p>Arguments For:Genetic and learning history can be controlledExperimental conditions can be more strictly controlledSome research cannot be ethically conducted in humans</p><p>Arguments Against:Animals subjects not human, so results may not be applicable to humansUnethical for animals too</p></li><li><p>Research EthicsFederal guidelines: The Common Rule Professional societies recommendations (APA, Society for Neuroscience)Institutional review boardsIACUCJournals</p></li><li><p>Animal Ethical GuidelinesClear purpose and necessityExcellent housing, food and health careMinimal pain and suffering</p><p>*Do you think prisons deter people from committing crimes? Why or why not?Part of problem is the delay between action (crime) and punishment (prison)How are we going to try to understand it what is going on here?We could reason it out logically, adding in examples from our past experiences (which is what most of us do)Bunch of problems with that though maybe technique that works for one person will not work for another person, or will work for one person only in a particular situationMaybe we think we understand what is happening, but it turns out that we were missing an important variable (maybe we think lack of money is a problem, along with social models), so that when we think we have everything under control, that variable changes and we are back where we started from (say intelligence is a factor or at least a factor for who gets caught, or drug use)In order to figure out an effective way of deterring crime, we would need to control everything we think is causing the behavior and vary one thing at a time to see if it really does have the effect that we think it does*Remember I said learning is change (in knowledge/behavior, from experience)?If we are a scientist studying learning, we will want to measure change to show that learning occurredAnd we would be interested in when and how learning takes place (or reasons that it doesnt)They want to be able to predict and control behaviorVariable: A characteristic that can change (vary) over time or from one situation to anotherIndependent variable: a characteristic whose values are independent of changes in the values of other variables(IV is cause or at least a possible cause) of the behaviorDependent variable: Characteristic that is dependent upon changes in the IVAn example experimentEffect of cocaine/pot on quality of paper or grade on testStudying for the GRE knowing vocab important?Name some other variables things that can change</p><p>Worksheet answers:IV juice/no juiceDV number of papers stapled2. IV coconut juice/ no coconut juiceDV amount of mold3.IV microwave/ no microwaveDV number of mice who pushed block out of the way to get to food4. IV original powder/ new powderDV number of minutes of itching</p><p>*Operational def An exact description of an event or behavior that would otherwise be ambiguouslets say you want to see if encouragement in a classroom improves grades or attentionWhat exactly is encouragement? Talking to each student? Comments on papers that are positive? How are you going to measure improvement in grades or attention? What is better attention?Why is it important to define behaviors exactly?1. Ensure our measurements are consistent over time (to make sure we dont change def during observation grading tests)2. More certain that IV really did cause changes, and not some related variable which we didnt notice b/c our def of the IV was too loose3. Easier for other researchers to replicate our results*There are a number of different ways that we can measure changes in behavior</p><p>1. Rate of response how often response occurs in a period of time (number of lever presses per minute, how often child whines in an hour)We can use something called a cumulative recorder to make a visual record of this rate of responseCumulative recorder has a roll of paper that is moving continuously, and a pen that marks the paperThe pen sits on a cylinder that moves from the bottom of the paper to the top, then back down to the bottomHeres the important point: Pen only moves IF a response is made (say a lever press)One lever press and moves to a new position slightly up on the paper (ignore these little tick marks for the moment, Ill explain those in a minute)Exact position on paper (up or down) isnt important, what is important is change in positionHow would this measure tells us something about learning? What would the numbers look like if learning had occurred?Straight horizontal line no behaviors, no bar presses at all Shallow slope some of the measure behaviors are occurring, say one bar press per minute, slow respondingRapid slope rapid responding, 10 bar presses per minuteSo if learning is happening, you would expect periods of high rate of responses (responses supposedly being the learned behavior)Tick marks show when reinforcement occurred </p><p>Best when used for a behavior that is short, and has a definite start and stopping point*Intensity force of behavior (how much salivation, child learns how hard to push on a pencil, how hard a pitcher throws a ball) </p><p>Duration how long behavior (amount of time spent) is repeatedly, constantly performed, we dont really care how many times behavior occurs, or speed of behavior, as long as behavior is constantly occurring (number of minutes spent running, studying, practicing piano)</p><p>Speed amount of time to perform a complete behavior note that this is not speed as in how many behaviors during a certain time that would be rate of responding (speed examples: time to travel a maze, apply makeup, how quickly we eat usually better to eat slowly)There has to be a definite start and endThese are some of the different types of mazes that well talk about for rat learningStraight-alley maze, t-maze, regular maze*Latency time required for a behavior to START (time it takes a child to obey parents request to be quiet)</p><p>Interval recording - # of time intervals when behavior occurs (NOT how many occur in that interval), tells us how frequently behavior is occurring, useful for those behaviors that occur very rapidly (several together) or have no definitely onset or stopping pointEx.: (draw graph) child whining all the time, divide an hour into 10 minutes intervals, count every interval when whine occurs, say 5 times, 5/6 = 83% If learning, say to decrease whining, should % should decrease over time</p><p>Time sample recording same thing, except intervals are not sequential, just a sample from time periods8 hours in school (record number of times child disturbs classroom, check at quarter after each hour, for next ten minutes)</p><p>Topography some learning requires you to perform a behavior in a particular fashion; so you can measure physical form of behavior (learning to write, or serve a tennis ball, swing a golf club), if learning, form should change, to predefined way</p><p>Number of errors for any behavior that can be categorized as right or wrong, count wrong choices (wrong turns in maze, wrong answers on test)If learning, errors should decrease*Stimulus (S): Any event that can produce a behaviorResponse (R): A behavior elicited by a stimulusA response itself can be a stimulus to someone else*Overt Behavior: Behavior that can be observed by another individualCovert Behavior: Behavior that is subjective (can be observed only by person performing behavior)</p><p>My story about studying and it looking like sleeping*Appetitive Stimuli: Stimuli that an individual will seek outAversive Stimuli: Stimuli that an individual will avoid</p><p>Same stimulus could be both appetitive and aversive to different peopleLikewise, the same stimulus could also be both appetitive and aversive in different situations*Deprivation: Prolonged absence of an event, which tends to increase the events appealSatiation: Prolonged exposure to an event, which tends to decreases the appeal of that event</p><p>*Contiguity: Temporal continuity: closeness of two events in time Spatial continuity: closeness of two events in space (easier for rat to learn to press a bar if bar close to food dish)</p><p>Contingency: A predicted relationship between two eventsif A happens, B will happenthe presentation of A is contingent on Bthe presentation of food is contingent on lever pressing</p><p>*So now we can measure learning by looking at specific types of changes in behaviorWe still need a logical, scientific, rational, sound way to make comparisons between learning and not learningSome ways of comparing data are not logical</p><p>DescriptiveNat obs goodalls work with chimps, showing they eat meat, kill other chimps, have war-like activity (stalking, attacking, killing members of another group); Food washing among macaques in Japan, one monkey started doing it, then others adopted practiceWhy use it? Good for getting detailed info about behavior, To see behavior in natural environment, where it normallty occurs, b/c in a different environment it might not occur, or may look differentProblem: hard to figure out exactly what is causing behavior, and prove hypotheses, alto observation may give clues; also biases can be important; Case studies anna o, hysteria, paralysis, speech difficulties, problems eating, had only temp relief of symptoms Why use it? Good for looking at unusual, rare behaviorsproblem: same as above, and unknown if person is exception or ruleThese types of research are usually where all research starts</p><p>Read shaman story lower back pain some time after having another child, went to shaman, who prayed, and said, by the way, take a hot bath at least once a week, and walk 10 minutes a dayCould be offered as a case study for effectiveness of shamanism, but problems here with confounding variables*Cause-and-effect relationships, andreas example, doctors say dont push, parents smart, could be genetic, but hes also a very sensitive child, and probably realizes that hell get more attention from adults around him if he does something intellectualWith descriptive research it would be very difficult to find convincing evidence that it was one way or anotherMake point about proving things in science, you can only show if hypothesis has more or less evidence supporting it</p><p>Control Group design example:Both groups put into chamber for 30 mins a day for 10 days, Stage 1: animals given free food (pellet every minute), or let run around in experiment roomStage 2: On 11th day, lever put into chamber, and rat has to press it to get pelletQ: will exp group, the ones that got free food, learn task more or less quickly than control group?Okay, first, what is the IV? Food/no foodWhat is the DV? How quickly press learned</p><p>Notice here that there were two stages to this experiment, sniffy does same</p><p>Experiments not usually that simple though</p><p>*Size usually need at least 10 subjects per condition, the more the better*We could have two IVsIn which case we might be looking for an interaction, where effect depends on combination of two or more variablesLets say only the young animals learn quickly</p><p>*Only need one or a few subjectsLots of variations*effectiveness of a treatment (self-punishment five pushups for each cig) on number of cigarettes smoked. What is IV and DV here?</p><p>dashed vertical line divides the baseline condition (a phase) from the treatment condition (b phase) Baseline = before treatment, normal occurance of behaviorTreatment = behavior while change in IV in effect(make sure you know diff b/t baseline and treatment)</p><p>Another example: Frank sent to Psych Center because kept slapping himself; they measured baseline for slapping for 30 minutes on 11 different days; went from 600 slaps to almost 0 and they didnt do anything; if they had tried a sedative first, without looking at baseline, it would look like the drug was responsible for change</p><p>Results are consistent with, but do not provide strong evidence for, the notion that the treatment was effective.Problem: does not control for possibility that something else happened at same time that accounts for change*Repeated alternations of control, treatment, control, treatment</p><p>Hypothetical results using a reversal design to assess the effectiveness of a treatment (self-punishme...</p></li></ul>