Chapter 16 Marketing Presentation (2)

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<p>Chapter 16: Integrated marketing communications and international advertising.Global advertising and the communication process International communications may fail for a variety of reasons: A message may not get through because of media inadequacy, the message may be received by the intended audience but not be understood because of different cultural interpretations, or the message may reach the intended audience and be understood but have not effect because the marketer did not correctly assess the needs and wants or the thinking processes of the target market. Quc t truyn thng c th tht bi v nhiu l do: Mt tin nhn khng th c c thng qua do thiu phng tin truyn thng, tin nhn c th c nhn bi cc i tng d nh nhng khng hiu v gii thch khc nhau v vn ha, hoc cc tin nhn c th tip cn i tng d nh v c hiu nhng khng hiu qu bi v cc nh tip th khng nh gi ng nhu cu v mong mun hay suy ngh cc qu trnh ca cc th trng mc tiu. The international communications process consists of the following seven steps:1. An information source: An international marketing executive with a product message to</p> <p>communicate. Mt iu hnh tip th quc t vi mt thng ip sn phm giao tip.2. Encoding: The message from the source converted into effective symbolism for</p> <p>transmission to a receiver. Thng ip t ngun chuyn i thnh biu tng c hiu qu truyn n ngi nhn.3. A message channel: The sales force and/ or advertising media that convey the encoded</p> <p>message to the intended receiver. Cc lc lng bn hng v / hoc cc phng tin qung co truyn ti thng ip c m ha ngi nhn nh.4. Decoding: The interpretation by the receiver of the symbolism transmitted from the</p> <p>information source. Vic gii thch ca ngi nhn biu tng ny truyn t cc ngun thng tin.5. Receiver: Consumer action by those who receive the message and are the target for the</p> <p>thought transmitted. Ngi tiu dng hnh ng ca nhng ngi nhn c tin nhn v c cc mc tiu cho cc t tng truyn i.6. Feedback: Information about the effectiveness of the message that flows from the receiver</p> <p>(the intended target) back to the information source for evaluation of the effectiveness of the process. Thng tin v hiu qu ca thng ip rng chy t ngi nhn (cc mc tiu d nh) tr li vi ngun thng tin nh gi hiu qu ca qu trnh.</p> <p>7. Noise: Uncontrollable and unpredictable influences such as competitive activities and</p> <p>confusion that detract from the process and affect any or all of the other six steps. Khng kim sot c v khng th on trc nh hng nh cc hot ng cnh tranh v s nhm ln lm gim qu trnh ny v nh hng n bt k hoc tt c su bc khc. The process is not as simple as just sending a message via a medium to a receiver and bring certain that the intended message sent is the same one perceived by the receiver. Qu trnh ny khng n gin nh ch cn gi mt tin nhn thng qua mt phng tin tip nhn v ang c chc chn rng th dnh gi l cng mt cm nhn ca ngi nhn. 1.The information source is a marketer with a product to sell to a specific target market. The product message to be conveyed should reflect the needs and wants of the target market; however, often the actual market needs and the marketers perception of them do not coincide. Cc ngun thng tin l mt nh tip th vi mt sn phm bn cho mt th trng mc tiu c th. Thng ip sn phm s c chuyn ti phi phn nh nhu cu v mong mun ca cc th trng mc tiu, tuy nhin, thng c nhu cu th trng thc t v nhn thc ca tip th ca h khng trng. ex: 2. The encoding step causes problems even with a proper message. At this step such factors as color, timing, values, beliefs, humor, tastes, and appropriateness of spokespersons can cause the international marketer to symbolize the message incorrectly. Bc m ha gy ra vn ngay c vi mt tin nhn "thch hp". Ti bc ny cc yu t nh mu sc, thi gian, gi tr, nim tin, s hi hc, th hiu, v ph hp ca ngi pht ngn c th gy ra cc nh tip th quc t tng trng cho tin khng chnh xc. Ex: the marketer wants the product to convey coolness so the color green is used; however, people in the tropics might decode green as dangerous or associate it with disease. tip th sn phm mun truyn ti lnh nn cc mu xanh l cy mu sc c s dng, tuy nhin, ngi dn cc vng nhit i c th gii m mu xanh l cy l nguy him hoc lin kt n vi bnh tt. 3.Problems of literacy, media availability, and types of media create problems in the communications process at the encoding step. Message channel must be carefully selected if an encoded message is to reach the consumer. Errors such as using television as a medium when only a small percentage of an intended market is exposed to TV, or using print media for a channel of communications when the majority of the intended users cannot read or do not read the language in the medium, are examples of ineffective media channel selection in the communication process. Vn ca bit ch, c phng tin truyn thng, v cc loi phng tin truyn thng to ra vn trong qu trnh truyn thng ti cc bc m ha. knh tin nhn phi c la chn cn thn nu mt thng ip c m ha l</p> <p> tip cn ngi tiu dng. Li nh s dng truyn hnh nh mt phng tin khi ch c mt t l nh ca mt th trng d nh tip xc vi truyn hnh, hoc bng cch s dng phng tin truyn thng in cho mt knh truyn thng khi a s ngi s dng d nh khng c c hoc khng c c ngn ng trong mi trng, l v d v la chn knh truyn thng hiu qu trong qu trnh giao tip. 4. Decoding problems are generally created by improper encoding, which caused such errors as Pepsis Come Alive slogan being decoded as Come out of the grave. 5. Errors at the receiver end of the process generally result from a combination of factors: an improper message resulting from incorrect knowledge of use pattern, poor encoding producing a meaningless message, poor media selection that does not get the message to the receiver, or inaccurate decoding by the receiver so that the message is garbled or incorrect. Li phn cui ca qu trnh thu thng l kt qu ca mt s kt hp ca cc yu t: mt thng bo khng ng kt qu ca kin thc khng chnh xc ca m hnh s dng, ngi ngho sn xut m ha tin nhn v ngha, ngi ngho la chn phng tin truyn thng m khng nhn c thng bo cho ngi nhn, hoc khng chnh xc gii m ca ngi nhn thng bo l b ct xn hoc khng chnh xc. 6. The feedback step of the communications process is important as a check on the effectiveness of other steps. Companies that do not measure their communications efforts are apt to allow errors of source, encoding, media selection, decoding, or receiver to continue longer than necessary. In fact, a proper feedback system (ad testing) allows a company to correct errors before substantial damage occurs. Bc phn hi ca qu trnh truyn thng l quan trng nh l mt kim tra v hiu qu ca cc bc khc. Cc cng ty khng nh gi nhng n lc truyn thng ca h c khuynh hng cho php cc li ca ngun, m ha, la chn phng tin truyn thng, gii m, hoc tip nhn tip tc lu hn cn thit. Trong thc t, mt h thng phn hi thch hp (qung co th nghim) cho php mt cng ty sa li trc khi xy ra thit hi ng k. 7. Noise comprises all other external influences, such as competitive advertising, other sales personnel, and confusion at the receiving end, that can detract from the ultimate effectiveness of the communication. Noise is a disruptive force interfering with the process at any step and is frequently beyond the control of the sender or the receiver. Ting n bao gm tt c cc nh hng bn ngoi khc, chng hn nh qung co cnh tranh, doanh s bn hng khc ngi, v s nhm ln cc u tip nhn, c th lm gim</p> <p>hiu qu cui cng ca truyn thng. Ting n l mt lc lng gy ri cn tr qu trnh ny bc no v thng vt qu s kim sot ca ngi gi hoc nhn. =&gt; In developing advertising message, the international marketer can effectively use this model as a guide to help ensure that all potential constraints and problems are considered so that the final communication received and the action taken correspond with the intend of the source. Trong vic pht trin thng ip qung co, cc nh tip th quc t hiu qu c th s dng m hnh ny nh mt hng dn gip m bo rng tt c cc hn ch tim nng v cc vn c coi l cc thng tin lin lc cui cng nhn c v cc hnh ng tng ng vi nh ca ngun.</p> <p>Legal constraints ( nhung su cuong che phap ly)1. Advertising campaigns must comply with legal regulations around the world.</p> <p>(chien dich quang cao phai tuan thu theo nhung qui tac phap ly tren khap the gioi) So, as a international marketing manager we have to study about the legal regulation on advertising. Laws that control comparative advertising vary from country to country. Some thing will be accepted in this country but unaccepted in other. For example: in Germany, it is illegal to use any comparative terminology; you can be sued (kien) by a competitor if you do. Belgium and Luxembourg explicitly ban comparative advertising whereas it is clearly authorized in the UK, Ireland, Spain, and Portugal. The directive covering comparative advertising allows implicit comparisons that do not name competitor, but bans explicit comparisons between named products. 2. Comparative advertising is heavily regulated in other parts of the world (quang cao canh tranh phai duoc dieu chinh theo moi phan khac nhau tren the gioi). Because of the deference among deference country. For example: In Asia, an advertisement showing chimps choosing Pepsi over Coke was banned from most satellite TV, the phrase the leading cola was accepted only in the Philippines. An Indian court ordered Lever to cease claiming that its New Pepsodent tooth past was 102 % better than the leading brand. Colgate, the leading brand, was never mentioned in the advertisement, although a model was shown mouthing the word Colgate and the image was accompanied by a ting sound recognized in all Colgate ads as the ring of confidence. Banning explicit comparisons rules out an effective advertising approach heavily used by US. Companies at home and in other countries where it is permitted,</p> <p>3. A variety of restrictions on advertising of pharmaceuticals is restricted in many countries.</p> <p>For example, critics in Canada complain that laws there havent been revised in 50 years and rendered obsolete by the advent of TV and more recent the Internet. Toy, tobacco, and liquor advertising is restricted in numerous countries. The French government until recently forbade TV ads for retailers, publishing, cinema and the press. 4. Advertising on TV is strictly controlled in many countries. For example: in Germany, commercials must be spaced at least 20 minutes apart and total ad time may not exceed 12 minutes per hour. Commercial stations in UK are limited to 7 minutes per hour.</p> <p>Linguistic limitation Language is one of the major barriers to effective communication through advertising .The problem involves different languages of different country , different language or dialect within one country and the problem of linguistic nuance and vernacular . Beside that , language is the matter of cultural pride and preservation and France is the best example Careless handling of language will create problem in all country .For example Chrysler corporation translated its US theme that advertised Dart is power to Spanish the phrase implied that buyers sought but lacked sexual vigor and some another example in the slide . Language raise innumerable barriers that impede effective idiomatic translation and thereby hamper communication .Communication is impeded by the great diversity of cultural heritage and education that exist within country and which causes varying interpretation of even single sentences or simple concept. In addition to translation challenges , low literacy in many country impede communication and call for greater creativity and use of verbal media .Multiple languages within a country or advertising area pose another problem for the advertiser. CONSTRAINTS TO ADVERTISING CAMPAIGNS There are many problems in communicating a firms product offerings to its various . target markets around the world. Some of these include: Cultural Diversity: The problems associated with communicating to people in diverse cultures present one of the great creative challenges in advertising.</p> <p>Communication is more difficult because cultural factors largely determine the way various phenomena are perceived. If the perceptual framework is different, perception of the message itself differs. Example: case study in take care of health Cupping is a method where a partial vacuum is created in a cupping jar, usually by means of heat, which is then applied directly to the skin. The underlying tissue is drawn up into the jar forming an area of blood stasis.1,2 The famous Taoist alchemist and herbalist, Ge Hong (281341 A.D.) recorded the earliest evidence of cupping. He wrote: A Handbook of Prescriptions for Emergencies and described the technique in great detail. More recently during the Qing Dynasty, Zhao Xuemin wrote: Supplement to Outline of Materia Medica, and included an entire chapter on fire jar qi or cupping. He emphasized the value of cupping in treating headaches, dizziness, and abdominal pain. Last Fall, I saw a 37-year-old male Chinese immigrant. The physical was going as most exams go until the patient took his shirt off. What I saw made me take several steps back. All over the man's back and chest were 2-inch perfectly-round bruises. I estimated at least 30-35 on his back and about 20 on his chest. I didn't know what to think. I struggled to keep a non-descript face although I thought I was looking at leprosy or perhaps a type of cancer. My face must have belied my thoughts as the patient's wife spoke up, describing what the circles were and what cupping was. She didn't seem impressed that her husband was still practicing ancient Chinese medicine. She said that cupping made her husband feel better and that he swore by the treatment, although she wished he would stop the practice and get a regular Western practitioner for his medical care and treatment. Since our first office visit and physical, I have seen the man 3 times. Each time he was treated by his Taoist first, before his wife insisted he come to see me. On each occasion, I have called the patient one week after each visit to see how he was doing. Each time the patient has stated that he felt great and was glad that his wife allowed him to see me. Still, he insists that the cupping has aided the Western medicine. I tell him every time that I'm glad he has more than one type of treatment to rely on and that he is always welcome in the office. Cultural diversity is a mainstay in the role of the nurse practitioner. Understanding traditions and methods of Eastern medicine assists me in providing balanced, unbiased care. Media limitations: The limitations on creative strategy imposed by media may diminish the role of advertising in the promotional program and may force marketers to emphasize other elements of the promotional mix. In some underdeveloped countries, there is a shortage of advertising media such as radio stations, print media (newspapers, magazines), and television stations, cable TV, and satellite TV. For example: In some African countries, advertisers run boats up and down the rivers playing popular music and broadcasting commercials into rural areas as they travel.</p> <p> Production and cost limit...</p>