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IAEA-TECDOC-1640

Improving Livestock Production Using Indigenous Resources and Conserving the EnvironmentA publication prepared under the framework of a Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology for Asia and the Pacific project with technical support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

Improving Livestock Production Using Indigenous Resources and Conserving the Environment

IAEA-TECDOC-1640

Improving Livestock Production Using Indigenous Resources and Conserving the EnvironmentA publication prepared under the framework of a Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology for Asia and the Pacific project with technical support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY VIENNA, 2010

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For further information on this publication, please contact: Animal Production and Health Section International Atomic Energy Agency Vienna International Centre PO Box 100 1400 Vienna, Austria email: Official.Mail@iaea.org

IMPROVED LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION USING INDIGENOUS RESOURCES AND CONSERVING THE ENVIRONMENT IAEA, VIENNA, 2010 IAEA-TECDOC-1640 ISBN 978-92-0-100310-2 ISSN 1011-4289 IAEA, 2010 Printed by the IAEA in Austria March 2010

FOREWORD Livestock farming is very important in Asia and the pacific region as a source of livelihood for resource poor farmers provision of food and food products and as a source of income. However, livestock productivity in many countries is below their genetic potential because of inadequate and imbalanced feeds and feeding, poor reproductive management and animal diseases exacerbated by lack of effective support services, such as animal husbandry extension, artificial insemination (AI) and/or veterinary services. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology for Asia and the Pacific (RCA), with technical support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, implemented a Technical Cooperation (TC) project entitled Integrated Approach for Improving Livestock Production using Indigenous Resources and Conserving the Environment (RAS/5/044). The overall objective of the project was to improve livestock productivity through better nutritional and reproduction strategies while conserving the environment. The specific objectives were (i) to improve animal productivity and decrease emission of selected greenhouse gases, (methane and carbon dioxide) and selected nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) into the environment; and (ii) to identify and adopt better breeding strategies that would improve animal productivity. This publication contains research results presented by scientists during the final review meeting incorporating the contributions of the experts associated with RAS/5/044. It is hoped that this publication will help stimulate further discussion, research and development into ways of improving the efficiency and productivity of livestock thus leading to higher income for smallholder farmers in the region. The IAEA officers responsible for this publication were O. Perera, A. Schlink and E.N. Odongo of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture.

CONTENTS SUMMARY........................................................................................................................ 1 Utilizing indigenous resources in an integrated approach to improving livestock production while conserving the environment........................................................ 11 M.A. Akbar, M. Jahiruddin Assessment of animal productivity and methane production using an associative feeding strategy ....................................................................................................... 25 S.A. Khanum, M. Hussain, H.N. Hussain, R. Kausar, S. Sadaf, T. Yaqoob Farmyard manure management and its effect on maize fodder and soil nutrients ........... 35 S.A. Khanum, H.N. Hussain, M. Hussain, T. Yaqoob, S. Sadaf Integrated approach for improving livestock production using indigenous resources and conserving the environment ............................................................................. 43 Su Su Kyi, Yab Naing Soe, Mi Mi Thaw Use of indigenous plant species as treatments for helminthes in farm animals ............... 65 S. Lkhagvatseren, Z. Batsukh, G. Battsetseg Effects of multi-nutrient feed supplement in beef cattle on methane production, manure quality and rice yield.................................................................................. 71 P. Suharyono, W. Yeni, M. Winugroho Integrated approaches for improving livestock production using indigenous resources and conserving the environment on smallholder farms in north-east Thailand .................................................................................................................. 87 M. Wanapat, N. Wongnen, A. Sukarin, N. Chantapasarn, M. Taoun, R. Pilajun, S. Joomchantha, A. Petlum, S. Wanapat Improving productivity and reducing methane production and N and phosphorous excretion in lambs through nutritional strategies. I. Pre-treatment......................... 97 Jian-Xin Liu, Hongtao Shan, Jia Lin, Jiakun Wang Improving productivity and reducing methane production and N and phosphorous excretion in lambs through nutritional strategies. II. Methane production ........... 109 Jian-Xin Liu, Hongtao Shan, Jia Lin, Jiakun Wang Improving genetic potential and fertility of dairy buffalo through appropriate managemental interventions ................................................................................. 121 P.S. Brar, A.S. Nanda Integration of feeding strategies and manure management for improving growth performance of local cattle and conserving the environment under farmers conditions in North Vietnam................................................................................. 129 Tran Quoc Viet, Le Thi Hong Thao, Nguyen Thanh Long Integration of feeding strategies and manure management for improving milk production of dairy cows and conserving the environment under farmers conditions in South Vietnam................................................................................. 137 Doan Duc Vu, Nguyen Van Tri Integrated approach in improving livestock-crop farming using indigenous resources and conserving the environment ........................................................... 147 C.O. Asaad, F.G. Rivera, M.M. Palis, A.O. Yambot, J.S. Rojales, C.R Bersabe, E.B. Bayalas, A.J. Gonzales, P.B. Tigno, F. Moneda, R. Cuevas LIST OF PARTICIPANTS............................................................................................. 161

SUMMARY

1.

INTRODUCTION

Livestock production is an important source of livelihood for the resource poor farmers in the Asia and the pacific region. It is a source of food and food products and a source of income. However, livestock productivity in many countries in the region is below their genetic potential, mainly because of inadequate nutrition, poor reproductive management and animal diseases. This is exacerbated by lack of effective support services such as animal husbandry extension, artificial insemination (AI) and/or veterinary services. From a nutritional perspective, productivity of the animals is restricted by imbalanced feed e.g. the low nitrogen (N) and high fibre content of the native grasses and crop residues which is exacerbated by the seasonal availability of the feed resources. Furthermore, low quality, highly fibrous forages when fed to ruminants result in higher enteric methane production than better quality forages, which represents a 5 to 15% loss in gross energy intake depending on type of carbohydrate, addition of dietary fat, quantity of feed ingested, and processing of forages. Another major limitation to increased milk and meat production in the region is the scarcity of high quality cattle, buffaloes and yaks partly due to the neglect of indigenous breeds i.e. no effort is devoted to improving indigenous breeds through selection for desirable production traits, etc and where cross-breeding has been executed, it is often performed without clearly defined goals such that in some situations the indigenous genetic resource is threatened with extinction. Furthermore, where upgrading of local animals has been undertaken through national cattle and buffalo breeding programmes, there is often a lack of knowledge and/or lack of procedures to ensure optimum use of the improved offspring from such programmes. 2. BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES

Technologies that can be used to alleviate some of these problems have already been developed through national and/or regional projects. For example, under the project RAS/5