Best Practices in Intraoral Digital Radiography ?· Best Practices in Intraoral Digital Radiography…

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  • Earn2 CE creditsThis course was

    written for dentists, dental hygienists,

    and assistants.

    Best Practices in Intraoral Digital RadiographyA Peer-Reviewed Publication Written by Gail F. Williamson, RDH, MS

    Go Green, Go Online to take your course

    Publication date: Aug. 2010Review date: Oct. 2013 Expiration date: Sept 2016

    This educational activity was made possible through an unrestricted educational grant by Dentsply.This course was written for dentists, dental hygienists and assistants, from novice to skilled. Educational Methods: This course is a self-instructional journal and web activity. Provider Disclosure: PennWell does not have a leadership position or a commercial interest in any products or services discussed or shared in this educational activity nor with the commercial supporter. No manufacturer or third party has had any input into the development of course content.Requirements for Successful Completion: To obtain 2 CE credits for this educational activity you must pay the required fee, review the material, complete the course evaluation and obtain a score of at least 70%.CE Planner Disclosure: Heather Hodges, CE Coordinator does not have a leadership or commercial interest with products or services discussed in this educational activity. Heather can be reached at hhodges@pennwell.comEducational Disclaimer: Completing a single continuing education course does not provide enough information to result in the participant being an expert in the field related to the course topic. It is a combination of many educational courses and clinical experience that allows the participant to develop skills and expertise.Image Authenticity Statement: The images in this educational activity have not been altered.Scientific Integrity Statement: Information shared in this CE course is developed from clinical research and represents the most current information available from evidence based dentistry. Known Benefits and Limitations of the Data: The information presented in this educational activity is derived from the data and information contained in reference section. The research data is extensive and provides direct benefit to the patient and improvements in oral health. Registration: The cost of this CE course is $49.00 for 2 CE credits. Cancellation/Refund Policy: Any participant who is not 100% satisfied with this course can request a full refund by contacting PennWell in writing.

    Supplement to PennWell Publications

    PennWell designates this activity for 2 Continuing Educational Credits

    Dental Board of California: Provider 4527, course registration number CA# 02-4527-13091This course meets the Dental Board of Californias requirements for 2 units of continuing education.

    The PennWell Corporation is designated as an Approved PACE Program Provider by the Academy of General Dentistry. The formal continuing dental education programs of this program provider are accepted by the AGD for Fellowship, Mastership and membership maintenance credit. Approval does not imply acceptance by a state or provincial board of dentistry or AGD endorsement. The current term of approval extends from (11/1/2011) to (10/31/2015) Provider ID# 320452.

    AbstractDetailed, accurate radiographs are a primary diagnostic tool as well as neces-sary for and during some treatments. Increasingly, digital radiographic imaging is being used with two types of available receptors. Anatomical variations and patient comfort must be considered when taking intraoral radiographs. In addition, recognizing common sources of errors is important to ensure that the clinician avoids them and knows how to correct them when they occur. Techniques, as well as devices and accessories, can be used that will enable accurate image acquisition and improve patient comfort.

    Educational Objectives:Upon completion of this educational activity the participant will be able to:1. List and describe the types of digital receptors used for

    intraoral radiographic imaging.2. List and describe the principles of paralleling and bisecting

    angle techniques for effective and accurate intraoral digital radiography.

    3. List and describe the adjustments in technique that may be necessary to accommodate anatomy, discomfort and placement difficulties.

    4. List and describe best practices for patient radiation safety and protection.

    5. List and describe common errors that occur when taking intraoral digital radiographs and corrections that can be made when errors occur.

    Author ProfileGail F. Williamson, RDH, BS, MS, is a professor of Dental Diagnostic Sciences in the Department of Oral Pathology, Medicine and Radiology at Indiana University School of Dentistry in Indianapolis, Indiana. She received an A.S. in Dental Hygiene, a B.S. in Allied Health, and a M.S. in Education, all from Indiana University. She serves as Director of Allied Dental Radiology and Course Director for Dental Assist-ing and Dental Hygiene Radiology courses. A veteran teacher, Prof. Williamson has received numerous awards for teaching excellence throughout her career. She is a published author and presents numerous continuing education courses on Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology on the national level. In addition, she is actively involved in the American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and currently serves as a radiology expert on the American Dental Associations Dental Hygiene National Board Test Construction Committee B. She can be reached at gwilliam@iupui.edu .

    Author DisclosureGail F. Williamson, RDH, BS, MS has no commercial ties with the sponsors or the providers of the unrestricted educational grant for this course.

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    Educational ObjectivesUpon completion of this educational activity the partici-pant will be able to: 1. List and describe the types of digital receptors used

    for intraoral radiographic imaging.2. List and describe the principles of paralleling and

    bisecting angle techniques for effective and accurate intraoral digital radiography.

    3. List and describe the adjustments in technique that may be necessary to accommodate anatomy, discomfort and placement difficulties.

    4. List and describe best practices for patient radiation safety and protection.

    5. List and describe common errors that occur when taking intraoral digital radiographs and corrections that can be made when errors occur.

    AbstractDetailed, accurate radiographs are a primary diagnostic tool as well as necessary for and during some treatments. Increasingly, digital radiographic imaging is being used with two types of available receptors. Anatomical varia-tions and patient comfort must be considered when taking intraoral radiographs. In addition, recognizing common sources of errors is important to ensure that the clinician avoids them and knows how to correct them when they occur. Techniques, as well as devices and accessories, can be used that will enable accurate image acquisition and improve patient comfort.

    IntroductionDental radiographs are taken as primary diagnostic tools and for treatment purposes. As such, they must be as detailed and accurate as possible to meet clinical require-ments. Increasingly, digital radiography is becoming the technology of choice and offers several advantages over film radiography. These include the ability to view im-ages on the screen, computerized archiving of images, ability to enhance acquired images, reduced exposure to radiation, and rapid acquisition of images without the need for chemical processing. In order to produce high-quality diagnostic images, a careful technique is required that considers best practices and patient comfort. Accurate technique, effective patient manage-ment, and proper exposure are required to optimize the information that can be obtained from radiographs and, therefore, their value.

    Typically, radiographic examinations are used to evaluate oral disease states such as periodontal disease, caries, and periapical pathology. While for periodontal disease and periapical pathology the radiographic projec-tion of choice is usually a periapical or series of periapical images that record the entire tooth and supporting bone and is of value in diagnosing bony and root pathoses,

    bitewing radiographs are the radiograph of choice for the detection and monitoring of dental caries in the posterior teeth and can also better detect alveolar bone levels in these sextants. Vertical bitewings (size 1) may also be used to take images of the anterior teeth to assess alveo-lar bone levels. The patients medical and dental history, clinical signs and symptoms of disease, risk factors, age and dentition, and new or recall patient status must also be considered when determining which radiographs are required. Recommendations are available for the ap-propriate patient-specific selection of radiographs (The Selection of Patients for Dental Radiographic Examina-tions, Revised 2004).1 The overall objective of intraoral radiography is to minimize exposure to radiation while maximizing the diagnostic and interpretative value of the radiographs. The focus of this article is on the use of digital radiography, which in the last two decades has steadily increased.

    I. Digital ReceptorsDigital receptors are available in two formats: 1) pho-tostimulable phosphor plate (PSP) receptors; or 2) rigid wired or wireless charge-coupled devices (CCD), complementary metal oxide semi-conductors (CMOS) or complementary-metal-oxide semiconductor active pixel sensor (CMOS-APS) receptors. These rigid digital receptors are often referred to as sensors and the term is used interchangeably. Both systems are computer-based technologies that require specific hardware and software components for operation.

    Digital receptors are faster than film, which reduces the amount of radiation nee