Astronomy Wise January 2013 Free EZine

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Astronomy Wise is a community based Astronomy Magazine. Our motto is Astronomy for All includes sky charts and notes for the month ahead


<p>Welcome to another edition ofAstronomy Wise online magazine. This month is a limited publication with Xmas and New Year we decided last minute to run the Edition. A big thanks to Edward Dutton and Rob Watson for putting the publication together for Jan 2013.</p> <p>CreditsAndy Devey Solar Explorer</p> <p>Heather Dawn Extreme Planets And T</p> <p>John Harper The Night Sky, Occultati</p> <p>Pepe Gallardo Eye of Sauron, VV 340 Paul Rumsby Scope Review PT 2</p> <p>Happy New Year to all</p> <p>Mike Greenham Lunar/Planetary Ima</p> <p>Michael Knowles: Total Solar Eclipse</p> <p>Dave Bood</p> <p>James Adams: Voyager Mission</p> <p>Jason Ives: Voyager Mission, Brief Hi</p> <p>A big thank you to all for supporting AW in 2012 and here is to 2013</p> <p>Rouges Gallery. David Bood Education</p> <p>Editor: Edward Dutton &amp; Rob Watson</p> <p>www.Astronomy-Wise.com2</p> <p>Contents4. Eye of Sauron 6. Total Solar Eclipse - Palm Cove Australia 8. NGC 7635 - The Bubble Nebula 10. The Solar Explorer 12. Rouges Gallery 16. Sir Patrick Moore Tribute 18. VV 340 20. Astronomy Education 24. ERESO - UK 30. Scope Review Pt. 2 34. Apollo Unseen 38. A Brief History Of The Telescope 49. Lunar/Planetary Imaging 44. The Solar System Beginners Guide 46. Extreme Planets And Their Orbits 48. Voyager The Mission 54. The Night Sky 56.Occultations 60. Sky Chart</p> <p>Their Orbits</p> <p>ions, Sir Patrick Moore</p> <p>40</p> <p>aging/ Images</p> <p>e</p> <p>istory Of Telescopes</p> <p>n</p> <p>Mike Greenham: Andromeda with the Canon 500D and Skywatcher ED100. 90 to 240 second exposures @ iso800 giving a total of 120 mins</p> <p>www.Astronomy-Wise.com3</p> <p>In the "Eye of Sauron"It may seem that we are not going to write about "The Lord of the Rings" or something related with the astronomy in the novel. The astronomers have a very rich imagination and so they have called so this galaxy which is properly labeled as NGC 4151 ("NGC" stands for New General Catalogue of nebulae and clusters of stars). It is 43 million light years away from the Earth and is one of the nearest galaxies that is known to contain an actively growing black hole at its central region.</p> <p>You can mainly see three colors in the composite image: red (radio emission from NSF's Very Large Array), blue (X-rays as Chandra observatory recorded), yellow (optical data from Jacobus Kapteyn Telescope on La Palma) and white (the central region of the galaxy where the black hole is). The image is only the 'pupil' of the Eye not the entire one.</p> <p>An study has shown that the X-ray emission is caused by an outburst coming from a super massive black hole in the center of the galaxy (the white region in the image). Two theories have been proposed: as the matter falls onto the black hole it emits an intense bright radiation which strips electrons away from the atoms in the gas. These electrons recombine again with the ionized atoms and the recombination produces Xrays. This situation may be caused by an abnormal growth of the central black hole. Other theory suggests that the material falling onto the black hole releases energy which is heated to X-ray emitting temperatures. Since NGC 4151 is near to the Earth it offers a very good chance to study the interaction between a super massive black hole and the surrounding gas in its host galaxy.</p> <p>Pepe Gallardo @aechmu</p> <p>www.Astronomy-Wise.com4</p> <p>Credit: NASA/CXC/SAO/P.Slane, et al.</p> <p>www.Astronomy-Wise.com5</p> <p>Total Solar Eclipse 14th NovembeNovember 2012 people from all over the world besieged North Queensland Australia to witness a total solar eclipse. After viewing two previous total solar eclipses I was hooked. Travelling half way round the world did not deter me. Eager anticipation gripped thousands of people desperate to view the wondrous spectacle. I chose Palm Cove beach as my Eclipse vantage point. Trepidation filled the air as each wave rolled in. Increasing numbers of people staked out their beach position in the early hours. Cloud masked the horizon all through the partial eclipse phases. Hopes were diminishing with the ever decreasing light. Uncannily a few minutes prior Palm Beach crowd build up prior to solar eclipse. to second contact the clouds parted revealing the most awesome solar totality that Ive ever experienced. The bailies beads effect were the most prominent Ive witnessed out of two previous total solar eclipses chases Ive done. The Pacific Ocean provided an awesome backdrop which fused together with the deep uncanny rich totality gave a deep greenish, purple sombre spectacle. It is not surprising ancient civilisations feared this spectacle due to lack of knowledge. Totality occurred at 06:38:35 at Palm Cove beach.</p> <p>Prior to second contact phase.</p> <p>After third contact phase.</p> <p>www.Astronomy-Wise.com6</p> <p>er 2012 Palm Cove Australia.Total disbelief scoured Palm Cove beach esplanade as clouds vacated to show thousands a wondrous total solar eclipse. Dr. John Mason MBE was our professional astronomer.</p> <p>Frequency of EclipsesThe conditions for an eclipse to occur are similar to those for transits of planets across the Sun. That is at the time of New Moon (for Solar eclipses) or Full Moon (for Lunar eclipses) the Moon must be close to one of the points (nodes) at which it crosses the ecliptic. The positions of the Moon's nodes effectively revolve round the Earth relative to the Sun with a period of just over 18 years. As a result there is no fixed time of the year at which eclipses occur. The nodes are revolving in a retrograde direction (opposite to the direction of rotation of the Earth about the Sun). The "eclipse year" is therefore shorter than a calendar year approx 346.6 days. Eclipses tend to occur earlier each successive year. They must occur at New or Full Moon. Australian Nov 14th 2012 Total Solar Eclipse Track After 18 years (6585 and a third days, i.e. 18 years and 11 and a third days) the Lunar nodes return to the same place enabling similar eclipses to occur. This period of time is known as the Saros. Due to the third of a day involved positions of the eclipses on the Earth's surface move round by about 120 of longitude. Similar eclipses recur at a similar position on the Earth after 3 Saros. However changes of latitude occur. The Nov 14th 2012 was a Saros</p> <p>Michael Knowles.Radio Programmer</p> <p>www.Astronomy-Wise.com7</p> <p>www.Astronomy-Wise.com8</p> <p>www.Astronomy-Wise.com9</p> <p>Capturing the Suns large scale suspended magnetic structures.This month I thought that I should cover how to capture the Suns suspended magnetic structures such as filaments, prominences and post flare loops. These are spectacular targets that can offer excellent views of plasma flowing through them from the Corona back to the Chromosphere. These structures can exhibit some tremendous diversification in movement and in some instances they lift off as coronal mass ejections. As with active regions, I initially get a reasonable idea of the dynamics of the current suspended structures from the GONG site movies before selecting which areas to photograph. On a few occasions, I have been able to predict when a large filament/prominence is becoming unstable and ready to lift off. When these huge structures start to escape they can trigger ribbon flares, a beautiful spectacle to record. I consider that capturing a time lapse of such an event a real bonus as they are far less frequent than solar flares. When I am trying to capture such a structure, I always consider its initial size and try to allow for any lift off potential before I choose the F-ratio and how much solar disc to include in the frame. I was caught out on one occasion when for the first 30 minutes I was at F40 and then had to quickly switch to F20 during mid sequence so as to capture the expanding arc as a huge prominence lifted off. I later had to double the image scale of the F20 images to make the final movie. The final movie speed will depend on the interval between individual still [I rarely go above 4 minutes] and the frame rate selected to run the sequence. These escaping events can develop into gigantic but very tenuous strucPhoto 1: Here a large prominence has tures as their form detached from the north-west limb on 4 gradually starts to September 2012 and is in the process of expand and evapolifting off, I captured the whole event at rate as their mag1.6m focal length over a 3 hour duranetic connections to tion. the solar surface become severed. Their proportions can extend for hundreds of thousands of kilometres and estimated as a proportion of the Suns diameter (1,500,000km). The duration of such an event depends upon its size and escape velocity. Its form is a just a matter of its position either prominence ejections if located on the limb or as irruptive filaments if face on.Photo 2: Here another large prominence has detached from the north-west limb on 13 April 2010. Its height is equivalent to the distance from the Earth to the Moon. This is a mosaic combining a disc and an edge image.</p> <p>www.Astronomy-Wise.com10</p> <p>The slinky post flare loop structures that follow large flares are best imaged on the limb, they can last for hours and in time-lapse can show the plasma flowing from the centre of the loop and simultaneously down both sides to the chromosphere. When imaging limb features always consider whether you want to concenPhoto 3: Here is a large filament that lifted split trate the eye on into two and then reformed. the feature itself and if so over expose your image so that later you will achieve bright featureless disc or use a black blanking disc as some imagers chose. You will need to double stack or use a 12 or 16 bit grey scale camera to get disc and prominence features on the same exposure setting unless they are very bright. The alternative is to take two images one of the disc and the other for the limb and merge them into a mosaic.</p> <p>a</p> <p>Photo 4: Here is a large post flare structure photographed on the 19 July 2012.</p> <p>Out in the garden I always use the British Astronomical Association seeing scale as a reference and generally only attempt to image from grade 1 to grade 3 seeing, unless a major flare/event goes off that I just have to try to capture! I have found that my local seeing often seems to deteriorate during the peak period of the larger solar flares. There are quite a number of free download image processing programs such as Registax 6, Avistax or Autostakkert that produce higher quality still pictures from averages of the captured video data to help reduce the effects of the local atmospheric shimmer. I build my kit up outside and use a homemade wooden observing box. My longest continuous solar imaging session to Photograph 5: An observing session in the UK. date was 6 hours so comfort is vital. My observing box is The box has the fan cut into the far side. The lined with black cloth and the outside is painted white to resmall triple solar scope has the two PSTs flect the heat. I fitted the rear top with a hinged flap housing mounted on a piece of laminate floor boarding a small solar panel to recharge the internal 12v-battery that while the larger triple set up is assembled on powers a 100mm fan to keep the laptop and my head cool. to a homemade aluminium cradle. The box has a Velcro strip around the front opening to attach an observing blanket. This box has proved excellent for lengthy imaging sessions even in 45C temperatures!Have fun with the Sun!</p> <p>Andy Devey</p> <p>www.Astronomy-Wise.com11</p> <p>Image: James Lennie</p> <p>www.Astronomy-Wise.com12</p> <p>David Lupton</p> <p>Our Christmas Day Occultation: From L to R: Callisto, Ganymede, Jupiter, Europa &amp; our Moon</p> <p>www.Astronomy-Wise.com13</p> <p>www.Astronomy-Wise.com14</p> <p>www.Astronomy-Wise.com15</p> <p>Patrick Moore FRAS 1923 - 2012It was my honour and privilege to be invited to say a few words on all the local BBC radio stations in this area, following the sad news of the death of Patrick Moore, earlier this month. Undoubtedly he is the man who will be forever known as the Father of Amateur Astronomy. Patrick was unique, not only because he was the presenter of the longest running BBC television series, The Sky at Night which made available astronomy to everyone, but also because he was one of the founder members of the Junior Astronomical Society, which later became, and is now known as the Society for Popular Astronomy, one of the three UK nation-wide astronomical societies we currently have, the others being: The Royal Astronomical Society, and the British Astronomical Association, in all of which Patrick was a long serving and renowned member. I first met him at the old City Museum in Park Row, Leeds, (HSBC bank now stands on the site), when at the tender age of 16, I was enthralled by a lecture given by an enthusiastic young man, the presenter of Sky at Night, a short series which had just started on BBC TV. He clearly knew his stuff, and his enthusiasm was infectious. I vividly remember coming away from the lecture with the thought that one day we would know whether or not there were aliens like those shown in the slide of one of his mothers paintings, on the planet Mars! So the decades passed, and we now know the answer, there are not! At the beginning of the 21 st century I was able to bring Patrick up to North Yorkshire to open the Astronomy Facility in the North York Moors National Park in Dalby Forest. The event was well attended and everyone fell silent as I escorted the larger than life Celebrity of Astronomy to the gathering of people around the two domes which the Scarborough and Ryedale Astronomical |Society had constructed, near the old Visitors Centre. Everyone was surprised and amused as Patrick started taking photos with his old Brownie camera as he approached the multitude. The event was well covered by the local press and radio, and everyone had the chance to speak with the maestro during the bun feast that followed the opening ceremony.</p> <p>www.Astronomy-Wise.com16</p> <p>Afterwards, we drove him back to Farthings in Selsey, his home on the Channel coast, south of Chichester, to be entertained by him for the rest of the weekend. Reminiscing about that occasion, several amusing things come to mind. Firstly, the surreal occasion, when after arriving late at night, I had the opportunity to sit with Patrick in his lounge watching an edition of BBCs Sky of Night at one in the morning, sipping a triple brandy which he insisted I pour out for myself, after pouring his! Patricks famous xylophone keeping us company in the corner. The second occasion was when I was with him in his study. There on the wall was a huge frames display of all the honours he had achieved, including his spurs of knighthood. He said to me --and do you see that one? pointing to a rather beautiful badge-like object. Yes I replied and wondered what award it might be. Oh, he replied, That fell out of a Christmas Cracker! Patrick Moore, was an unique individual who has inspired scientists and amateurs alike to look at the stars. There will never be another Patrick Moore! We are so fortunate to have lived during the time o...</p>


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