Artificial Intelligence

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Text of Artificial Intelligence

  • 1. Presented By:Kathryn Fitzpatrick, Matt Nieusma,and Fabrizio Lepiz

2. What is Artificial IntelligenceThe ability of adigital computeror computercontrolled robotto perform taskscommonlyassociated withintelligentbeings. 3. History of Artificial IntelligenceThe idea of AI goes as farback as ancient Greece.Greek myths speak ofHephaestus, a blacksmithwho created mechanicalservants. This is one ofmany examples. 4. History of Artificial IntelligenceFast forward to 1935, when the earliestsubstantial work in this field was done byAlan Turing, a logician and computerpioneer. Turing Machine1951: Christopher Strachey wrote the firstsuccessful AI program Computer checkers program1956: John McCarthy coined the termArtificial Intelligence1963: ANALOGY, a program created byThomas Evans, proved that computers cansolve IQ test analogy problems 5. History of Artificial Intelligence 1967: First successful knowledge-based program in science and mathematics 1972: SHRDLU created by Terry Winograd Robot arm responded to commands 1987: Marvin Minsky publishes The Society of Mind, which portrays the brain as a series of cooperating agents 1997: A chess program, Deep Blue, beats the current world chess champion, Gary Kasparov 2000s: Interactive robot smart toys are made commercially available 6. Where We Are Today? IBMs Watson Driver-less Transportation Automated Assembly Lines and Dangerous Jobs Surgery Aid Robots Next-Generation Traffic Control 7. IBMs Watson IBMs Watson is currently being put to work in healthcare and financeWatsons Capabilities: Natural language processing - to help understand the complexities ofunstructured data which makes up as much as 90% of the data in the world today Hypothesis generation and evaluation - by applying advanced analytics toweight and evaluate a panel of responses based on only relevant evidence Evidence-based learning - to improve based on outcomes to get smarter witheach iteration and interactionWatson in Medicine Watson can incorporate treatment guidelines, electronic medical record data,doctors and nurses notes, research, clinical studies, journal articles, and patientinformation in order to better inform the doctor of a proper diagnosisWatson in Finance capable of performing deep content analysis and evidence-based reasoning toaccelerate and improve decisions, reduce operational costs, and optimizeoutcomes. 8. IBM Watson Video 9. Driverless Transport Google has been investing in a driverless car, and has completed over480,000 autonomous-driving miles accident-free. Through the use of cameras, sensors and special software built intovehicles manufacturers have been able to build cars that park themselvesat the touch of a button. Driverless trains carry passengers from city to city in Japan without theneed for human help. Googles driverless car relies on lasers and sensors to spot obstacles,interpret signs and interact with traffic and pedestrians. Artificial intelligence takes away the responsibility from the drivers, andalso eliminates the danger of distracted driving and boasts a reactiontime much faster than that of any human. 10. Surgical Aid Robots Cedars-Sinai Medical Center relies on special software to examine theheart and stop heart attacks before they occur Artificial muscles feature smart technology that allows them to functionmore like real muscles. Penelope, a Robotic Surgery Assistant developed at Columbia Universitycan not only pass the correct tools to doctors, but also keep track of thesetools and learn about a doctors preferences through artificialintelligence. The most advanced surgical robots are programmed to perform theentire surgery on their own, except for the suturing or the cutting. Inthese operations, a surgeon stands by just in case something goes wrong. Miniature intelligent robots are being developed for eye surgeries. 11. Automated Assembly Lines andDangerous Jobs Some countries have put smart robots to work disabling land mines andhandling radioactive materials in order to limit the risk to human workers. Ford is using an Artificial Intelligence based approach for vehicleassembly process planning, ergonomics analysis, and a system that usesmachine translation to translate assembly-build instructions for assemblyplants that dont use English. Other Companies such as GM have developed robots with ArtificialIntelligence techniques to inspect cars made by humans 12. Next Generation Traffic Control Artificial Intelligence in traffic lights seeks toimprove the efficiency of traffic flow, henceimproving road space utilization, reducingjourney times and potentially, improving fuelefficiency, as well as reducing the impact ofcars on the road. In the future, they want to create a trafficcontrol system that thinks like a human indirecting traffic. We can consider a future where all vehiclesare equipped with WiFi and GPS and cantransmit their positions to signalizedjunctions. This opens the way to the use ofartificial intelligence approaches to trafficcontrol such as machine learning." 13. Future of A.I.Right now, A.I. is at level comparable toless intelligent animals or insects.Is it possible to go farther, to reachhuman intelligence?Cognitivists, who believe the humanconscious can be simulated, and anti-cognitivists who believe it to beimpossible. 14. Future of A.I.2050: Estimated date of the emergence ofthe Singularity, or greater-than-humansuper-intelligence.At this point, its thought that certainmachines will exceed the human brain interms of intelligenceIts believed that this breakthrough will leadto a rapid advancement in technology, assuper intelligent A.I. designs new computersand machines at a rate no human could 15. Strong A.I.Strong A.I. is intelligence thatmatches or exceeds that of humanintelligenceUltimate goal of A.I. researchWeak A.I. is narrow/more focusedthan strong A.I.Whole Brain emulation- Mappingand re-creating the human brainthrough neuro- imaging 16. What Could This Mean for I.S?If the singularity is reached, andan age of rapid technologicaladvancement occurs, IS andmany technologies will be in adynamic eraCompanies will have toconstantly change to keep upwith the rapid pace oftechnologyIts probable that everysuccessful company involved intechnology will need their ownA.I. 17. Problems with A.I. One basic problem lies in the question of what intelligence is exactly. How can we recreate a learning, thinking mind with technology? Is it even possible? Some do not think so. David Gelernter, a Yale professor, says A.I. is lost in the woods. 18. Problems with A.I.What is the human conscious? Gelernter argues thatwe cant construct a conscious A.I. without evenknowing what exactly the conscious is.Without this cognitive continuum, AI has nocomprehensive view of thought: it tends to ignoresome thought modes (such as free association anddreaming), is uncertain how to integrate emotion andthought, and has made strikingly little progress inunderstanding analogies--which seem to underliecreativity. 19. Problems with A.I.Scientists need to figure out the algorithms ofthought, basically a way to mathematicallysimulate the human thought process.The human brain relies on chemistry and physicsof different molecules in order to function. Howcould scientists ever replicate this process? 20. Questions Do you believe that A.I. should be taken anyfurther? Is A.I interfering with religion? Are we playingGod? If machines can be made to think like us, thenwhat do you think sets us apart as humans? Atwhat point is a machine considered life? If we were to create intelligent beings, whatkind of rights would they be given? Should theyeven be given rights? 21. 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