AP Psychology Chapter Two Methods of Research. How do psychologists collect data about behavior?
<ul><li><p>AP Psychology Chapter TwoMethods of Research</p></li><li><p>How do psychologists collect data about behavior? </p></li><li><p>Clever Hans!</p></li><li><p>Regardless of the method used, all research is based on the Scientific Method of Psychology</p><p>Scientific means systematic, testable, and objective.</p></li><li><p> What are the three main principles that guide the Scientific Method of Psychology?</p></li><li><p>Step 1 TheoryStep 2 HypothesesStep 3 Research and Observation</p></li><li><p>Theories organize known facts and summarizes current research in the field. </p><p>Theories are a well-substantiated explanation of existing data. </p><p>E.g Low self-esteem leads to depression </p></li><li><p>A hypothesis is a testable prediction based on what is known or what is theorized. </p><p>They let us reject or revise our theory.</p><p>I Feel So Dumb I Cant Do Anything!Eg: People with low self-esteem score higher on a depression scale.</p></li><li><p>Research or observation or experiments are generated to collect data, which then goes into evaluating the hypothesis, which may or may not add to the existing theory. </p></li><li><p> What are the two broad types of research that psychologists conduct?</p></li><li><p>Research DesignsQuantitative and Qualitative Research</p></li><li><p>Quantitative research emphasizes numbers and statistics and use tools like questionnaires</p><p>. It is very objective and all about the numbers and hard data!</p></li><li><p>Qualitative data is in the form of words, pictures or objects and emphasizes observations and narratives</p><p>It is much more subjective and results are based on observation and interpretation.</p></li><li><p> What are some examples of qualitative research methods?</p></li><li><p>Naturalistic Observation</p></li><li><p>Naturalistic Observation Study behavior in its natural context. Spontaneous behavior in a subjects natural environment. No interaction with the subject.Is this natural?</p></li><li><p>IE. If you want to study the interactive behavior of a specific breed of gorillas, you would need to go to where the gorillas live in nature (not a zoo). You would need to observe them without their knowledge, and without manipulating anything. </p></li><li><p> What are some potential problems with this type of research?</p></li><li><p>BiasSituation in which a factor unfairly increases the likelihood of a researcher reaching a particular conclusion</p></li><li><p>Example of Bias I am researching teenagers behavior and I was recently mugged by a group of teenagers am I likely to observe teenage behaviors as being motivated by evil versus good? Why?</p></li><li><p>Case Studies</p></li><li><p>Case StudyIn depth study of one individual with the hopes of determining universal principles</p></li><li><p>Case StudyCase studies often include face-to-face interviews, paper and pencil tests, and more.</p><p>Very open to bias</p><p>Difficulty of applying data from one person to everyone</p></li><li><p>IE. I want to know why Bart killed thirty-five people over a twenty-year period of time. I will examine the police files, observe and interview Bart, talk to his and the victims families, etc. </p></li><li><p>Difficulty of applying data from one person to everyonebias, etc</p><p> What are some potential problems with this type of research?</p></li><li><p>Surveys</p></li><li><p>Survey MethodResearch method that relies on self-reports; uses questionnaires, interviews.Usually a very efficient and inexpensive method to collect a lot of information and create basic assumptions about behaviors. </p></li><li><p>When Creating A SurveyQuestions need precise answersLanguage and wording must be simpleIE. 77% of New Yorkers where interested in plants and trees, but only 39% where interested in botany; 48% where interested in fossils, but only 39% where interested in paleontology; 42% where interested in rocks and minerals, but 53% where interested in Geology</p></li><li><p>When Creating A SurveyAsk questions that wont embarrass or humiliateResponders will lie if there is a perceived punishment Anonymity is keyDont ask morally ambiguous questions keep it simple and to the pointWho the interviewer is will affect the responders answers</p></li><li><p>When Creating A SurveyShortly phrased questions. IE. As you know, the term Holocaust usually refers to the killing of millions of Jews in Nazi death camps during WWII. Does it seem possible or does it seem impossible to you that the Nazi extermination of the Jew never happened?1 out of 5 Gallup poll responders said that the Holocaust never happened due to the phrasing of the question</p></li><li><p>When Creating A SurveyHot Topics/Key Words:IE. Do you favor an amendment prohibiting abortions? 70%</p></li><li><p>When Creating A SurveyLimited Answer OptionsOrder of Questions easier to more difficult works bestFright Terms avoid using terms with big repercussions IE. Use Problem V. Crisis, Past V. Dead, Dealt With V. PunishUse a RANDOM SAMPLE (more on that later)</p></li><li><p>False Consensus Effect Skews the reports by jumping to large conclusions that fit into our pre-conceived ideas.Tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors. </p></li><li><p>Correlation</p></li><li><p>What would a critical thinker say about this headline?</p></li><li><p>Correlational StudyResearch study designed to determine the degree to which two variables are related to one another</p></li><li><p>IE. What is the relationship between exercise and weight? Smoking and cancer? Brain size and intelligence? Education and level of income? </p></li><li><p>Is there a correlation?</p></li><li><p> What are some potential problems with this type of research?</p></li><li><p>Watch out for illusory correlations!</p><p>Does sugar make kids more hyper?Does a full moon make people act crazier?Does going outside with no coat on mean you will catch a cold?</p></li><li><p>Which is the more likely hand?</p></li><li><p>Which is a more likely hand?1 in 2,598,960</p></li><li><p>Which is the more likely hand?1 in 2,598,9601 in 2,598,960We often perceive order in random events!</p></li><li><p>Correlational StudyCorrelation studies DO NOT prove causation. They can only suggest that there is or is not a relationship between the two variables.</p></li><li><p>IE. A correlation study may suggest that people who earn higher levels of education generally earn higher salaries, but it cant definitively say that getting a degree will get you a higher paying job. </p></li><li><p>IE. Student scores on the SAT are collected, as are senior year GPAs. We want to see if a high GPA correlates to a high SAT score. We cant say one causes the other, but we can imply that students who have high/low GPAs score high/low on SATs. Can we use GPA as a predictor of SAT performance? </p></li><li><p>But Remember. Correlation Does Not Imply Causation!</p></li><li><p>Graphing Correlation Relationships</p></li><li><p>After you plot the data the slope (direction) of the line indicates whether or not there is a positive, negative, or no relationship between variables.How close the dots are together indicates how close the relationship between the variables is.</p></li><li><p>Positive CorrelationAs the value of one variable increases (or decreases) so does the value of the other variable.</p></li><li><p>Studying and GradesAs students study more, their grades increase.Practice and AthleticsAs athletes practice more, their batting averages increaseDieting and Weight LossAs dieters ate less, their weight dropped.</p></li><li><p>Negative CorrelationAs the value of one variable increases, the value of the other variable decreases.The more you exercise, the less you weighThe more you study, the less your teachers yell at you</p></li><li><p>Zero CorrelationThere is no relationship whatsoever between the two variables.The length of your hair has no influence on your level of intelligence.</p></li><li><p>Correlational StudyImportant NOT to imply a cause and effect relationship between the variablesCorrelational study does not determine why the two variables are related--just that they are related.Correlational studies are helpful in making predictions.</p></li><li><p>Positive, Negative or Zero Correlation?Happy students have higher GPAs</p><p>Living together leads to Divorce</p><p>Eating oatmeal causes Cancer</p><p>The hotter the temperature, the less clothing you wear</p></li><li><p>Experiment</p></li><li><p>Experiment An investigation seeking to understand relations of cause and effect. </p></li><li><p>The experimenter changes a variable (cause), which in turn changes another variable (effect). At the same time the experimenter hopes to hold all of the other variables constant</p></li><li><p>IE. I want to know if new drug A will help to alleviate the symptoms of insomnia. Patients will be given different doses at different times to see what works and what doesnt. I need to control other factors, like mattress softness and room temperature, to eliminate them as causes of sleep deprivation.</p></li><li><p> How do I create a valid and reliable experiment?</p></li><li><p>Step 1: Choose a HypothesisA hypothesis expresses a relationship between two variables. (its a testable prediction remember?)</p><p>IE. My hypothesis is that watching violent television programs makes people more aggressive.</p></li><li><p>Step Two: Choose VariablesVariables are things that are measured, controlled, or manipulated in research.Type of television program, violent behavior, environment, participants, etc</p></li><li><p>The independent variable is the manipulated variable.</p><p>IE. The type of TV program viewed is the independent variable because I can adjust what shows are viewed, for how long, by whom, etc.</p></li><li><p>IE. Measuring the change in aggression levels is the dependent variable in our experiment because it changes based on what is viewed, for how long, etc.</p><p>The dependent variable is measured for change.</p></li><li><p>Step Three: OperationalizeWhen you operationalize your variables, you are defining them and explaining how you will measure them.</p></li><li><p>IE. The operational definition of the independent variable (what defines a violent show?) scenes of fighting, bloodshed, use of weapons, etcIE. The operational definition of the dependent variable (what defines an increase in aggressive behavior?) might be: threats of bodily harm, kicks, punches, throwing objects (must be specific!)</p></li><li><p>Step Four: Identify Potential Extraneous Variables/Confounding VariablesAny factor or variable that might have an effect (or potential affects) other than the variable being studied is considered an extraneous variable and must be eliminated or accounted for</p></li><li><p>IE. An extraneous variable in our experiment would be a phone call from a solicitor during a program, a viewer stubbing their toe during a show, alcohol abuse, etc. All of these could increase aggressiveness, but are not related to viewing violent television.</p></li><li><p>Step Five: Identify Who You Will Be TestingThe individuals on which the research will be conducted are called subjects (or participants). </p><p>A small group of subjects are drawn from a larger potential population.IE. Our subjects will be drawn from the overall population of 12th grade males at Appo. High School.</p></li><li><p>Step Six: How Do We Decide Who Will Be Subjects, and Who Wont?Since we cant realistically test all 12th grade males at Appo. High School, we have to create a representative sample of the population so that we can generalize our findings to the whole group.</p></li><li><p>Many Options!Rigorous Control DesignDesigning an experiment with specific, hand-picked groups in mind. IE. Only testing males, 18 years old, in AP Psychology.Sample DesignA sample is a representation of the entire population. A random sample allows that every member of an overall population has an equal chance to be in the sample. IE. Drawing names from a hat.</p></li><li><p>Stratified SampleSubdivide the population into at least two different subpopulations that share the same characteristics, then draw a random sample from each group.IE. 8 random men and 8 random womenSystematic SampleSelect a starting point from your population and then select every ?th participant.IE. choose every 100th name on a list.</p></li><li><p>Cluster SampleDivide your population into multiple subgroups, randomly choose a subgroup to test, and then test the entire population of that subgroup.IE. Choose a grade level (like the Juniors) and test all of themConvenience SampleIE. Like your friends or familyUse a population that is readily available</p></li><li><p>Step Seven: AssignmentOnce you have chosen your subjects to study, you must assign them to one of two groups; those that will be manipulated, and those that wont.</p></li><li><p>Group 1: Experimental GroupThe experimental group receives the independent variable and is manipulated throughout the experiment.</p></li><li><p>IE. In our television violence experiment, those in the experiment group will watch varying degrees of violent program, for varying lengths of time, etc., and their changes in levels of aggression measured. </p></li><li><p>Group 2: Control GroupThe control group does not receive the independent variable. </p></li><li><p>IE. In our television violence experiment, the control group will be shown a variety of non-violent programming in order to create a baseline to compare the experiment group against.</p></li><li><p>PlaceboA non-active substance or condition administered instead of a drug or active agentGiven to the control groupSugar pill in the test made to look like the SmartPill </p></li><li><p>How Do We Choose Our Subjects?</p><p>Method 1: Random AssignmentRandom assignment (dont confuse with random sample) means that the subjects have an equal chance of being placed into each group. If we allow subjects to choose their own group, we may have a subject-relevant confounding variable. </p></li><li><p>Subject-Relevant Confounding VariablesA subject-relevant confounding variable would allow those people that liked violent movies or were prone to violence already to choose to be in the experimental group. Whats wrong with that?</p></li><li><p>Blind procedureTo help avoid this confounding variable, we prescribe a single-blind design. The subjects are blind to whether they have been randomly placed in the control or experiment group.</p><p>The researcher would know who is getting the SmartPill but not the participant</p></li><li><p>Double Blind ProcedureAn experimental procedure where both the research participants and those collecting the data are ignorant (blind) to the expected outcome of the experiment(the people handing out the pills nor the people taking the pills know who actually got the SmartPill </p></li><li><p>Method 2: Group Matching When assigning members to the experiment or control group, it is important that the characteristics of both groups need to be as similar as possible.</p></li><li><p>IE. After rigorously or randomly determining our subjects, as many white, black, tall, short, overweight, slim members should be in the control group as there are in the experiment group.</p></li><li><p>Was the experiment reliable? (did you get the results you expected; consistent results)</p><p>Was it Valid? (did it test what it was supposed to test)</p><p>Can the experiment be replicated? (can someone else conduct the same experiment and get similar results?Was the experiment a success?</p></li><li><p>REMEMBER !!! Only experimental data can conclusively demonstrate causal relations between variables (A causes B to happen).</p></li><li><p>Step Eight: Address Other Potential Issues With ExperimentsSituation-relevant confounding variables refer to making sure that the situations that the experiment and control groups are placed in are exactly the same. We must have equivalent environments.</p><p>IE. We cannot have those watching violent films in a large auditorium, and those viewing sitcoms in a small living room.</p></li><li><p>Experimenter BiasExperimenter Bias occurs when the experimenter unconsciously treats members of the control and experiment groups differently, which increases the chances of confirming their hypothesis.</p><p>IE. The experi...</p></li></ul>