Welcome to Research Methods and Experimentation. How do psychologists collect data about behavior?

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    16-Dec-2015

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Welcome to Research Methods and Experimentation </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> How do psychologists collect data about behavior? </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Regardless of the method used, all research is based on the Scientific Method of Psychology Scientific means systematic, testable, and objective. </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> What are the three main principles that guide the Scientific Method of Psychology? What are the three main principles that guide the Scientific Method of Psychology? </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Scientific Method Step 1 Theory Step 2 Hypotheses Step 3 Research and Observation </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Theories organize known facts and summarizes current research in the field. </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> A hypothesis is then created as a testable prediction based on what is currently known and what we want to find out. </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Research or observation or experiments are generated to collect data, which then goes into evaluating the hypothesis, which may or may not add to the existing theory. </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> What are the most common methods used by psychologists to collect data? </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Naturalistic Observation </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Study behavior in in a subjects natural environment. No interaction with the subject. Is this natural? </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> What are some potential problems with this type of research? What are some potential problems with this type of research? </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Bias Situation in which a factor unfairly increases the likelihood of a researcher reaching a particular conclusion </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Example of Bias I am researching teenagers behavior and I was recently mugged by a group of teenagers am I likely to observe teenage behaviors as being motivated by evil versus good? I am researching teenagers behavior and I was recently mugged by a group of teenagers am I likely to observe teenage behaviors as being motivated by evil versus good?Why? </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Lets try this out !!! </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Going for an observational walk We are going to walk through the building Your job is to write EVERY behavior you see When we come back to the room, ask yourself Why was ____ doing ____? Please do not communicate with anyone during this exercise !!!! </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Case Studies </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Case Study In depth study of one individual with the hopes of determining universal principles Very open to bias Difficulty of applying data from one person to everyone </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Case Study Case studies often include face-to-face interviews, paper and pencil tests, and more. </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> IE. I want to know why Bart killed thirty-five people over a twenty-year period of time. I will examine the police files, observe and interview Bart, talk to his and the victims families, etc. </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Difficulty of applying data from one person to everyone bias, etc What are some potential problems with this type of research? What are some potential problems with this type of research? </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Surveys </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Survey Method Research method that relies on self-reports; uses questionnaires, interviews. Usually a very efficient and inexpensive method to collect a lot of information and create basic assumptions about behaviors. </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> very tricky to make a good survey! Questions need precise answers Wording must be simple: 77% of New Yorkers interested in plants and trees, but only 39% interested in botany; Dont embarrass or humiliate Responders will lie if there is a perceived punishment To long Etc Can you spot the problems.? </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Correlation </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Correlational Study Research study designed to determine the degree to which two variables are related to one another </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> IE. What is the relationship between exercise and weight? Smoking and cancer? Brain size and intelligence? Education and level of income? </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Is there a correlation? </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> What are some potential problems with this type of research? What are some potential problems with this type of research? </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Watch out for illusory correlations! Does sugar make kids more hyper? Does a full moon make people act crazier? Does going outside with no coat on mean you will catch a cold? </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Correlational Study Correlation studies DO NOT prove causation. They can only suggest that there is or is not a relationship between the two variables. </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> IE. A correlation study may suggest that people who earn higher levels of education generally earn higher salaries, but it cant definitively say that getting a degree will get you a higher paying job. A correlation study may suggest that people who earn higher levels of education generally earn higher salaries, but it cant definitively say that getting a degree will get you a higher paying job. </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Graphing Correlation Relationships </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> After you plot the data the slope (direction) of the line indicates whether or not there is a positive, negative, or no relationship between variables. How close the dots are together indicates how close the relationship between the variables is. </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Positive Correlation As the value of one variable increases (or decreases) so does the value of the other variable. </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Studying and Grades As students study more, their grades increase.As students study more, their grades increase. Practice and Athletics As athletes practice more, their batting averages increaseAs athletes practice more, their batting averages increase Dieting and Weight Loss As dieters ate less, their weight dropped.As dieters ate less, their weight dropped. </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> Negative Correlation As the value of one variable increases, the value of the other variable decreases. The more you exercise, the less you weighThe more you exercise, the less you weigh The more you study, the less your teachers yell at youThe more you study, the less your teachers yell at you </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> Zero Correlation There is no relationship whatsoever between the two variables. The length of your hair has no influence on your level of intelligence.The length of your hair has no influence on your level of intelligence. </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> Correlational Study Important NOT to imply a cause and effect relationship between the variables Correlational study does not determine why the two variables are related--just that they are related. Correlational studies are helpful in making predictions. </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> Experiment </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> Experiment An investigation seeking to understand relations of cause and effect. </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> IE. I want to know if new drug A will help to alleviate the symptoms of insomnia. Patients will be given different doses at different times to see what works and what doesnt. I need to control other factors, like mattress softness and room temperature, to eliminate them as causes of sleep deprivation. </li> <li> Slide 49 </li> <li> How do I create a valid and reliable experiment? How do I create a valid and reliable experiment? </li> <li> Slide 50 </li> <li> The Hawthorne Effect refers to the fact that some subjects will alter their behaviors simply because they know that they are part of an experiment, regardless of what is being done to them. </li> <li> Slide 51 </li> <li> Step 1: Choose a Hypothesis Hypothesis expresses a perceived relationship between two variables. IE. My hypothesis is that watching violent television shows makes people more aggressive.IE. My hypothesis is that watching violent television shows makes people more aggressive. </li> <li> Slide 52 </li> <li> Step 2: Choose Variables Variables are things that are measured, controlled, or manipulated in research. </li> <li> Slide 53 </li> <li> The independent variable is the manipulated variable. IE. Watching television violence is the independent variable because I can adjust what shows are viewed, for how long, by whom, etc. </li> <li> Slide 54 </li> <li> The dependent variable is measured for change. IE. Measuring the change in aggression levels is the dependent variable in our experiment because it changes based on what is viewed, for how long, etc. </li> <li> Slide 55 </li> <li> Step 3: Identify Extraneous/Confounding Variables Any factor that can effect an experiment (other than the variable being studied) is considered an extraneous variable. </li> <li> Slide 56 </li> <li> IE. An extraneous variable in our experiment would be a phone call from a solicitor during a program that might make the viewer angry, the viewer receiving mail including a poor report card, a viewer stubbing their toe during a show, alcohol abuse, etc. All of these could increase aggressiveness, but are not related to viewing violent television. </li> <li> Slide 57 </li> <li> Step 4: Identify Who You Will Be Testing The individuals on which the research will be conducted are called subjects. A small group of subjects are drawn from a larger potential population. </li> <li> Slide 58 </li> <li> IE. Our subjects will be drawn from the overall population of 12 th grade students at Appoquinimink High School. </li> <li> Slide 59 </li> <li> Step 5: How Do We Decide Who Will Be Subjects, and Who Wont? Since we cant realistically include all 12 th graders at AHS in our study, we have to somehow narrow down the population to more manageable numbers. But how? </li> <li> Slide 60 </li> <li> Method 1: Rigorous Control Design Designing an experiment with specific, hand-picked groups in mind. IE. Only testing males, 18 years old, in CP Psychology. </li> <li> Slide 61 </li> <li> Method 2: Sample Design A random sample allows that every member of an overall population has an equal chance to be in the sample. IE. Drawing names from a hat. IE. Drawing names from a hat. </li> <li> Slide 62 </li> <li> Step Six: Assignment Once you have chosen your subjects to study, you must assign them to one of two groups; those that will be manipulated, and those that wont. </li> <li> Slide 63 </li> <li> Group 1: Experimental Group The experimental group receives the independent variable and is manipulated throughout the experiment. </li> <li> Slide 64 </li> <li> IE. In our television violence experiment, those in the experiment group will watch varying degrees of violent program, for varying lengths of time, etc., and their changes in levels of aggression measured. </li> <li> Slide 65 </li> <li> Group 2: Control Group The control group does not receive the independent variable. </li> <li> Slide 66 </li> <li> IE. In our television violence experiment, the control group will be shown a variety of non-violent programming in order to create a baseline to compare the experiment group against. </li> <li> Slide 67 </li> <li> Blind Procedure An experimental procedure where the research participants are ignorant (blind) to the expected outcome of the experiment Sometimes called single blind procedure </li> <li> Slide 68 </li> <li> Double Blind Procedure An experimental procedure where both the research participants and those collecting the data are ignorant (blind) to the expected outcome of the experiment </li> <li> Slide 69 </li> <li> Step 7: Replication Repeating the experiment to determine if similar results are found If so, the research is considered reliable. </li> </ul>

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