Names and Terms to KnowAngle land: name given to England by some Europeans after the Anglo-Saxon tribes settled there.Alfred the Great: The greatest Anglo-Saxon king; fought the Danes.The Magna Carta: Contract signed by King John giving some power to English nobles.
Names and Terms to KnowBede: Monk and scholar who wrote a history of England.William the Conqueror: The Duke of Normandy in France who invaded and conquered England in 1066.Henry VII: First Tudor king, his accession ended the Wars of the Roses.
1. Christianity Comes to England43 AD Emperor Claudius invaded Britain; marking the coming of ChristianitySubsequently introducing Latin learning, Christian theology, and a new moral system that replaced the pagan, tribal Anglo-Saxon religion.
2. The Norman ConquestThe Norman Conquest changed the English language, introducing many French words; French nobles replaced the Saxon lords. The Normans brought the feudal property system to England.
3. England during the1300s & 1400s
What is the relationship between place and literature?
1. Responding to an Island EnvironmentThe early English regarded the sea as both a protective barrier and a dangerous, threatening place.Christian monks changed The Seafarer and The Wanderer by translating them and editing them to add Christian themes.In Beowulf the sea-road led to fame and honor.The mead-hall setting represented the center of human society-warmth, food, community.
2. Making a Nation of an IslandBede portrayed England as a beginning nation. Chaucers Canterbury Tales helped draw together a national identity by portraying all the layers of his contemporary English society.
How does literature shape or reflect society?
1. Capturing a Vanishing Tribal World Beowulf showed that to become a leader, he had to suffer various trials and prove himself.What world was passing away in Beowulf? The tribal, seafaring world Anglo-Saxon world.
2. Chaucer and SocietyWhat social types did The Canterbury Tales represent? All social types: clergy, nobility, the middle classes, and businesspeople. What were some of the problems in the Catholic Church during Chaucers time? The discontent and corruption that led to the Protestant Reformation.Chaucer portrayed his society without preaching about it.
What was a source of political turbulence in the medieval period? Class conflict in the Peasants Revolt.Chaucer reflects the rising middle class by creating memorable characters like the Wife of Bath.In dealing with social change, writers do not act like sociologist; rather they show how conflict and change affect peoples feelings and behavior.
What is the relationship of the writer to tradition?
1. Writers and TraditionTradition means well-established ways of doing things, or patterns from the past.What did Sir Gawain and the Green Knight express through the use of old legends? The attraction to the past.In Morte DArthur Sir Thomas Malory reworked the story of Arthur in order to write a farewell to the age of knighthood.What are three possible ways in which different tellers changed the story of Beowulf? Having Beowulf fight Grendels mother, showing Beowulf as an old king fighting his last enemy the dragon; adding Christian elements in the monks translation.
Chaucer modeled the structure of The Canterbury Tales on the earlier Decameron by Boccaccio.How did Chaucer depart from this model? He changed the story to reflect all levels of society and have them go on a pilgrimage, rather than take refuge in a castle.Describe the new poetic rhythm that Chaucer developed. The new poetic rhythm was iambic pentameter: a poetic line of 10 syllables, with an alternating rhythm.Beowulf, The Canterbury Tales, and the medieval retellings of the King Arthur stories show how traditions reach both back to the past and to the future.2. Chaucers Handling of Tradition
Characteristics of Epic HeroIs significant and glorifiedIs on a questHas superior or superhuman strength, intelligence, and/or courageIs ethicalRisks death for glory or for the greater good of societyPerforms brave deedsIs a strong and responsible leaderReflects the ideals of a particular society
***Refer to British Isles map in contents pages
Picture of Hadrian's Wall on page 7
The great defensive wall is Hadrian's Wall, which linked the North Sea and the Atlantic near the present-day border between England and Scotland, and held back the marauding Picts and Scots for two hundred years. Along this wall were seventeen large stone forts to house the Roman legions guarding the frontier.*The 5,000 miles of stone roads the Romans built linked tribal capitals and towns, especially London, York, and Winchester. These roads facilitated trade, the collection of taxes, and the movement of troops.
With the Romans gone and no central government in place, how did this leave the Britains? Vulnerable to outside attacks? Clans fighting for control?*What are some of the names of Anglo-Saxon gods that has survived and still very much part of our daily lives?
Tuesday from TiwWednesday from WodenThursday chief Teutonic god Thor god of thunderFriday from Frigga, goddess of the home
**Viking Ship, known as the Oseberg Ship, dates 825 AD, and is thought to be the burial chamber of Asa, a Viking queen, whose active life belied the passive role women played at this time in history. Married against her will to a Norwegian king, Asa had her husband killed and ruled alone until her death in 850. Accompanying Asa on her voyage to the afterlife was the body of a maidservant, priceless gold and gems (which subsequently were stolen by looters), and objects such as sleds and a wagon. These would permit Asa to travel in the afterlife as much as the Vikings enjoyed traveling while living.
Not a true longboat, this royal barge was tied to a rock before it was buried.
The ship was unearthed in 1904.