AMERICA CLAIMS AN EMPIRE Chapter 10 IMPERIALISM & AMERICA Section 1

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Slide 2 AMERICA CLAIMS AN EMPIRE Chapter 10 Slide 3 IMPERIALISM & AMERICA Section 1 Slide 4 IMPERIALISM IMPERIALISM- The policy in which stronger nations extend economic, political or military control over weaker territories. IMPERIALISM- The policy in which stronger nations extend economic, political or military control over weaker territories. By the 1880s, many American leaders thought the U.S. should establish colonies overseas. By the 1880s, many American leaders thought the U.S. should establish colonies overseas. Slide 5 3 FACTORS FUELED AMERICAN IMPERIALISM: 1) D esire for military strength 2) T hirst for new markets 3) B elief in the superiority of American culture Slide 6 NAVAL POWER Admiral Alfred T. Mahan of the U.S. Navy Admiral Alfred T. Mahan of the U.S. Navy Supported growing American naval power so the U.S. could compete w/other nations Supported growing American naval power so the U.S. could compete w/other nations Slide 7 U.S.S. Maine & Oregon U.S. built modern battleships like the Maine & the Oregon. U.S. built modern battleships like the Maine & the Oregon. The new ships made the U.S. the worlds largest naval power. The new ships made the U.S. the worlds largest naval power. Slide 8 Slide 9 U.S. was producing more than Americans could consume.. U.S. was producing more than Americans could consume.. U.S. needed foreign trade. U.S. needed foreign trade. American businesses needed markets for their products & raw materials for their factories. American businesses needed markets for their products & raw materials for their factories. Slide 10 Superiority of American Culture: The 3 rd root of American imperialism was a belief that the people of the U.S. were better than the people of other countries The 3 rd root of American imperialism was a belief that the people of the U.S. were better than the people of other countries Believed they had a duty to spread their culture & Christian religion among other people. Believed they had a duty to spread their culture & Christian religion among other people. Slide 11 U.S. Acquires Alaska & Hawaii: Slide 12 ALASKA William Seward purchases Alaska, for the U.S., from Russia in 1867. William Seward purchases Alaska, for the U.S., from Russia in 1867. The price? $7.2 million!! The price? $7.2 million!! Slide 13 HAWAII The Background.. The Background.. The Hawaiian islands had been important to the U.S. since 1790s. The Hawaiian islands had been important to the U.S. since 1790s. Merchants stopped there on their way to China & India. Merchants stopped there on their way to China & India. In 1920s, American missionaries founded Christian schools & churches on the islands In 1920s, American missionaries founded Christian schools & churches on the islands Slide 14 Hawaiian sugar plantations B/c of American owned sugar plantations, by 1900, foreign laborers outnumbered Hawaiians 3 to 1 B/c of American owned sugar plantations, by 1900, foreign laborers outnumbered Hawaiians 3 to 1 This weakened the influence of native Hawaiians. This weakened the influence of native Hawaiians. Slide 15 Powerful Hawaiian sugar growers called for the U.S. to annex Hawaii to avoid the tariffs. In 1887, U.S. military forced Hawaii to let it build a naval base at Pearl Harbor.Hawaiis best port. Slide 16 HAWAIIANS LOSE CONTROL OF THEIR ISLANDS: HOW? Slide 17 American business groups organized a revolt against Queen Liliuokalani: U.S. ambassador John L. Stevens helped them revolt. U.S. ambassador John L. Stevens helped them revolt. Planters took control of the island Planters took control of the island They established a temporary government. They established a temporary government. Slide 18 QUEEN LILIUOKALANI In 1893, Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii gave up her throne. In 1893, Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii gave up her throne. Hawaii was about to be taken over by the U.S. Hawaii was about to be taken over by the U.S. Slide 19 They established a temporary government. Made American businessman Sanford B. Dole the president. Slide 20 1898, HAWAII BECOMES A U.S. TERRITORY Stevens urged U.S. government to annex Hawaiian Islands. Stevens urged U.S. government to annex Hawaiian Islands. President Grover Cleveland refused unless majority of Hawaiians favored that. President Grover Cleveland refused unless majority of Hawaiians favored that. Slide 21 1897, William McKinley became president. 1897, William McKinley became president. McKinley favored annexation. McKinley favored annexation. 1898, Hawaii became a U.S. territory. 1898, Hawaii became a U.S. territory. Slide 22 THE SPANISH- AMERICAN WAR Section 2 Slide 23 CUBANS REBEL AGAINST SPAIN B/w 1868 & 1878, Cubans fought their 1 st war for independence from Spain. B/w 1868 & 1878, Cubans fought their 1 st war for independence from Spain. Rebels didnt win, but forced Spain to abolish slavery in 1886 Rebels didnt win, but forced Spain to abolish slavery in 1886 Slide 24 U.S. CAPITALISTS INVEST Invested heavily in sugar cane plantations in Cuba. Invested heavily in sugar cane plantations in Cuba. Cuban economy collapsed in 1894 when a tariff on sugar was imposed in the U.S. Cuban economy collapsed in 1894 when a tariff on sugar was imposed in the U.S. Slide 25 JOSE MARTI 1895, Cubans began 2 nd war for independence. 1895, Cubans began 2 nd war for independence. Rebellion led by Jose Marti, a Cuban poet & journalist who had been living in exile in N.Y. Rebellion led by Jose Marti, a Cuban poet & journalist who had been living in exile in N.Y. The rebels wanted the U.S. to join their cause. The rebels wanted the U.S. to join their cause. Slide 26 WAR FEVER ESCALATES! 1896, Spain sent an army to Cuba to restore order. Army led by General Valeriano Weyler. Weyler rounded up 300,000 people as prisoners in Concentration camps. Slide 27 Stories of concentration camps widely reported in U.S. newspapers. Stories of concentration camps widely reported in U.S. newspapers. Rival N.Y. newspapers exaggerated the brutality to attract readers.(yellow journalism) Rival N.Y. newspapers exaggerated the brutality to attract readers.(yellow journalism) Slide 28 William McKinley became U.S. President in 1897. Since many Americans wanted the U.S. to help the rebels against Spain, McKinley tried to find a peaceful solution. Slide 29 McKinleys efforts pay off. 1) Spain sent General Weyler home 2) Changed the concentration camp policy. 2) Changed the concentration camp policy. 3) Gave Cuba limited self-government 3) Gave Cuba limited self-government Slide 30 But then, 2 events made Americans very angry at Spain. Slide 31 1) The publication of a letter that insulted the American president.The de Lome letter was written by a Spanish diplomat. It criticized McKinley for being weak. Slide 32 U.S.S. MAINE.. 2) The battleship U.S.S. Maine exploded on February 15, 1898. The ship had been stationed in Cuba to protect American lives. Cause of the explosion was not known.. But Slide 33 Slide 34 Newspapers blamed Spain. Slide 35 WAR WITH SPAIN ERUPTS!!!! April 20, 1898, U.S. went to war w/Spain. Slide 36 Slide 37 THE PHILIPPINES 1 st battle took place in the Philippines. 1 st battle took place in the Philippines. Philippines had been a Spanish colony for 300 years. Philippines had been a Spanish colony for 300 years. In 1896, Philippines rebelled against Spanish. In 1896, Philippines rebelled against Spanish. Slide 38 George Dewey On May 1, 1898, American naval commander George Dewey sailed into Manila Bay in the Philippines. On May 1, 1898, American naval commander George Dewey sailed into Manila Bay in the Philippines. His ships destroyed the Spanish fleet there. His ships destroyed the Spanish fleet there. For the next 2 months, U.S. soldiers fought on the side of the Filipino rebels. For the next 2 months, U.S. soldiers fought on the side of the Filipino rebels. Spanish surrendered (in the Philippines) to the U.S. in August. Spanish surrendered (in the Philippines) to the U.S. in August. Slide 39 Slide 40 Meanwhile, back in Cuba American navy blocked off the harbor of Santiago de Cuba. American navy blocked off the harbor of Santiago de Cuba. Spanish ships could not leave. Spanish ships could not leave. American troops then landed on the island in June 1898. American troops then landed on the island in June 1898. Slide 41 ROUGH RIDERS: Unit of volunteers Unit of volunteers Theodore Roosevelt one of their leaders. Theodore Roosevelt one of their leaders. Rough Riders helped win the important battle of San Juan Hill Rough Riders helped win the important battle of San Juan Hill American newspapers made Roosevelt a hero. American newspapers made Roosevelt a hero. Slide 42 THEODORE ROOSEVELT The Rough Riders U.S. Army 1st Volunteer Cavalry commanded by Lt. Colonel Theodore Roosevelt Slide 43 Spanish Surrender July 25, 1898! When the Spanish ships tried to leave the harbor, their fleet was destroyed. Spain then surrendered to U.S. (The entire war only lasted 113 days!) Slide 44 Slide 45 TREATY OF PARIS Spain quickly agreed to a peace treaty. What were the terms? Slide 46 1) Cuba is granted independence ! Slide 47 2) Spain gave Puerto Rico & the Pacific Island of Guam to the U.S. Slide 48 3) U.S. paid Spain $20 mill. For the annexation of the Philippine Islands. Slide 49 Debate in U.S. about Imperialism: Treaty of Paris touched off debates in U.S.. Treaty of Paris touched off debates in U.S.. President McKinley was in favor of it. President McKinley was in favor of it. Some Americans said annexing territories violated the spirit of the Declaration of Independence. Some Americans said annexing territories violated the spirit of the Declaration of Independence. The U.S. Senate approved the treaty on February 6, 1899. The U.S. Senate approved the treaty on February 6, 1899. http://www.historywiz.com/primarysources/treatyofparis1898.htm Sl