Age of Absolutism. Philip II of Spain Defender of CatholicismDefender of Catholicism Arrogant, ambitiousArrogant, ambitious Great wealth from empireGreat.

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<ul><li><p>Age of Absolutism</p></li><li><p>Philip II of SpainDefender of CatholicismArrogant, ambitiousGreat wealth from empireHigh inflation &amp; taxesLarge standing armySpanish Armada but defeated Golden Age of Spanish cultureEscorial palace built to demonstrate his power &amp; faith Golden Age of Spanish culture</p><p>His smile and his dagger were very close.</p></li><li><p>Escorial Palace</p></li><li><p>Louis XIV of FranceSaw self as head of Cath. Church in FranceRevoked Edict of NantesThe Sun KingSupported the arts BUT arts were to glorify himself as ruler, promote absolutismIncreased central powerClosely watched over govt officialsWeakened nobilityRequired nobility to live in Versailles Estates General never met</p><p>Ltat ,cest moi. (I am the state).</p></li><li><p>Louis XIV of FranceNeeded large army for many warsWar of Spanish Succession France rose to military leaderStrong empireControlled the economyHigh debt &amp; taxationFinance minister Jean Baptiste Colbert</p></li><li><p>Palace of VersaillesProof of Louis XIVs absolute power</p></li><li><p>Frederick William I of PrussiaHohenzollern familyKnown as the Great ElectorWeakened nobilitys powerFreed serfsPurchased cooperation of Junkers (nobility in Prussia)Strong army to ensure safetyGrew from 38,000 to 83,000Rigidly controlled, militaristic societyMandatory military servicePermanent annual taxCouncil of Advisors</p></li><li><p>Frederick II (the Great) of PrussiaFollowed his fathers military policiesEncouraged religious toleration &amp; legal reformRuler should be like a father to his peopleWar of Austrian Succession v. Maria Theresa of AustriaSucceeded in getting SilesiaPrussia became major European power</p></li><li><p>Maria Theresa of AustriaOf the Hapsburgs of AustriaStrong-willed would not surrender power to husbandDecreased power of nobilityLimited amount of labor nobles could force peasants to doExpanded the armyDoubled troopsWar commissionerEconomic reformsCreated office to collect taxesAlliance with French</p></li><li><p>Ivan IV (the Terrible) of RussiaSeized power and crowned himself czarWanted Russia to be Third Rome (hence czar)Turned against the boyars (nobility)Confiscated landOrganized own police forceExecuted boyars, their families, &amp; peasantsMust serve in army to own landKilled his oldest son during quarrel</p></li><li><p>Peter I (the Great) of RussiaIncreased czars power67, obsessed w/war gamesBrought Russian Orthodox Church under state controlReduced power of landownersForced boyars to serve in military or govtModernized armyRecruited men of lower-ranksTalented foreigners Imposed heavy taxes80-85% of taxes went to warBeard tax</p></li><li><p>Peter I (the Great) of RussiaWesternized RussiaPotatoes1st newspaperRaised womens statusWestern fashionsAdvanced education</p></li><li><p>Peter Is St. PetersburgGlorify himselfForced nobility to live thereSectioned by social status</p></li><li><p>Catherine II (the Great) of RussiaCame to power by conspiring against husbandHer strong army crushed peasant rebellionGave nobles more power over serfsFought Turks for control of Black SeaExpanded empire </p><p>************</p></li></ul>


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