Absolute Monarchs 15001800
Philip II SpainLouis XIVFrancePeter the GreatRussiaFrederick IIPrussia
Philip II (1527 1598)Dynasty: Hapsburg
Inherited Spain, Spanish Netherlands & Americas from his father, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1556
"I would rather lose all my lands and a hundred lives if I had them because I do not propose to be a ruler over heretics."
A Powerful Spanish Empire
Defender of Catholicism Philip defends Catholicism against Muslims, Protestants Spanish fleet helps defeat Ottomans at Lepanto (Greece) in 1571 Spanish Armada defeated by British in 1588 Philip IIs Empire Philip seizes Portugal in 1580 Gold and silver from Americas make Spain extremely wealthy
Increased power of monarchy:
Seized kingdom of Portugal Built El Escorial Centralized decision making Tried to control the religion of subjects (great-grandparents Isabella and Ferdinand had used the Inquisition)
El Escorial, the historical residence of the king of Spain. Philip included a monastery within its walls.
The Spanish Empire WeakensMaking Spains Enemies Rich Spaniards buy goods abroad, making Spains enemies rich (remember mercantilism?) Philip declares bankruptcy three times due to weak economy. Borrows from foreign bankers to finance wars.The Dutch Revolt Protestants in Netherlands win independence from Spain in 1579 Netherlands is a republic and practices religious toleration
Inflation and Taxes Inflation weakens Spains economy (merchants raise prices; oversupply of silver reduces its value) Taxes on lower class prevents development of middle classGold & silver from the Americas made Spain temporarily wealthy. Its economy, however, was not productive.
Louis XIV (1638 1715)Dynasty: Bourbon
The most powerful monarch of his time and French history.
Liked to be called the Sun King, as all power radiated from him.
I am the state.
Economic Growth Jean Baptiste Colbertfinance ministerhelps economy grow through mercantilism In 1685, Louis cancels Edict of Nantes (granted religious toleration); Huguenots flee France which weakens economy Louis Weakens Nobles Authority Became king at the age of 5; took control of govt at 23 in 1661 Excluded nobles from councils Appoints intendantsgovernment agentsto collect taxes and administer justiceLouis XIV in coronation robes.
Louis Controls the Nobility Louis keeps nobles at palace to increase his power over them Builds magnificent palace at Versailles Cost over $2 billion in current dollars 15,000 acres of gardens; 1,400 fountainsPatronage of the Arts Versailles is a center of arts during reign of Louis XIV Purpose of the arts is to glorify Louis
Virtual tour of Palace of Versailles
Louis Fights Disastrous Wars Under Louis, France was the most powerful country in Europe Louis invades the Spanish & Dutch Netherlands to expand France In 1680s, European powers unite against him in League of Augsburg (balance of power) France is weakened by poor harvests, warfare, high taxes War of the Spanish Succession (1701): European powers declare war to prevent union of the French and Spanish thrones (balance of power)
Louiss Death and Legacy Louis dies leaving mixed legacy Rule makes France a major military and cultural power in Europe His wars and palace leave France with heavy debts
Peter the Great (1672 1725)Dynasty: Romanov
Religion: Eastern Orthodox
Peter the Great makes many changes in Russia to try to make it more like Western Europe.
I have conquered an empire, but I have not been able to conquer myself.
The Rise of Peter Peter the Great becomes czar (caesar) in 1696 & begins to reform RussiaRussia Contrasts with Europe Land of boyars and serfs Cut off geographically from Europe Culturally isolated, little contact with western Europe Religious differences widen gap Peter Visits the WestIn 1697, Peter visits western Europe to learn European ways At 6 feet 8 inches tall, Peter had the strength and temper of a bear
Peters Reforms Brings Orthodox Church under state control Reduces power of landowners (boyars) Modernizes army by having European officers train soldiers Builds new capital at St. PetersburgWesternizing Russia Introduces potatoes Starts Russias first newspaper Raises womens status Adopts Western fashion Advances education See Chapter 6 in Documents in World History, Peter the Great Reforms Russia.
Establishing St. Petersburg Peter wants a seaport that will make travel to West easier Fights Sweden to win port on Baltic Sea In 1703, begins building new capital called St. Petersburg Building city takes many years; many serfs die in process Peters window to Europe
Peter ordered his noblemen to wear fashionable Western clothes instead of their archaic long costumes. He also cut off their beards. All men had to pay a special tax to retain their beards.This token served as a receipt that you paid.
By the time of Peters death in1725, Russia is a power to be reckoned with in Europe.
Peter is #83 on the Biography of the Millennium List.
Peter the Great video (24 minutes)
Frederick II (1712 1786)Dynasty: Hohenzollern
Religion: raised Calvinist (became atheistic)
Nickname: Old Fritz
Under his reign, Prussia became a great European power
The fundamental role of governments is the principle of extending their territories.
The Rise of Prussia Hohenzollern rulers of Prussia build Europes best army Call themselves kings and become absolute monarchs Nobles resist royal power, but king buys loyaltyPrussia - a historical region and former kingdom of north-central Europe including present-day northern Germany and Poland.
Practiced benevolent despotism:
My people and I have come to an agreement which satisfies us both. They are to say what they please, and I am to do what I please.Frederick the Great Frederick the Great becomes king of Prussia in 1740. Enforces fathers military policies but softens some of his laws Influenced by the Enlightenment; corresponded with Voltaire.Old Fritz conversing with the French philosophe Voltaire
War with Austria In 1740, Maria Theresa becomes empress of Austria Frederick starts war against Austria; gains Silesia, a historical region of Central Europe located mostly in present-day Poland As result of war, Prussia becomes a major power in Europe Fought again in Seven Years War (1756 1763), also called the "first World War because of its global nature