All organisms are composed of cellsCells are the smallest living unit of living thingsAll cells come from cellsThe Cell TheorySpontaneousgeneration
Cell theoryGerm theory of diseaseTheory of evolutionAtomic theoryHeliocentric theory of the solar systemUniversal gravitationTheory of relativityQuantum theoryString theoryImportant Scientific Theories
ProkaryotesEukaryotesWhat kinds of organisms are they?What are the characteristics of their cells?
The Prokaryotic CellCell membrane (plasma membrane) Boundary Semi-permeable
The Prokaryotic CellRibosomes Not membrane-bounded Protein synthesis
The Prokaryotic CellCell wall Rigid Permeable
Nucleoid Genetic material (DNA)The Prokaryotic Cell
Flagella Protein filaments MotilityThe Prokaryotic Cell
The Eukaryotic CellRibosomes Bound to ER (rER) secreted proteins Free cytosol proteins
The Eukaryotic CellNucleus Genetic material (DNA) Chromatin (chromosomes) Nuclear envelope (with pores) Nucleolus
The Eukaryotic CellMitochondria Energy transduction Aerobic respiration ATP 2 membranes Own DNA (16,000 bp) & ribosomes Reproduce independently by divisionoutermembraneinnermembraneinter-membranespacematrix
The Eukaryotic CellChloroplasts Energy transformation: photosynthesis Photosynthetic eukaryotes only 3 membranes Own DNA & ribosomes Reproduce independently by division
The Eukaryotic CellEndoplasmic reticulum rough: synthesis of secreted proteins smooth: lipid synthesissERrERvesicle
The Eukaryotic CellGolgi apparatus Modification of secreted proteins Distribution of secreted proteinsVesicle Transport of secreted proteins
The Eukaryotic CellLysosomes Small membrane sacs Recycling center Enzymes break down molecules
The Eukaryotic CellVacuole Storage Phagocytosis Water balance etc.
The Eukaryotic CellCytoplasm Everything outside the nucleus Includes organellesCytosol Gel-like fluid of cytoplasm Does not include organellesProteins, amino acids, nucleotides, salts, small moleculesCytoskeleton Networks of protein fibersStructure, motility, organization, transport
Similar in size to prokaryotic cellsTwo membranesOwn DNAOwn ribosomes, prokaryote-likeDivide independentlyDNA sequence like prokaryotic genesThe Endosymbiosis Theoryancestral cellmembrane infoldingcreates nucleus, ERendosymbiosisresults in mitochondriaancestralanimal cellancestralplant cellendosymbiosisresults in chloroplasts
Why are prokaryotes small and eukaryotes large?