 All organisms are composed of cells  Cells are the smallest living unit of living things  All cells come from cells The Cell Theory Spontaneous generation

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  • All organisms are composed of cellsCells are the smallest living unit of living thingsAll cells come from cellsThe Cell TheorySpontaneousgeneration

  • Cell theoryGerm theory of diseaseTheory of evolutionAtomic theoryHeliocentric theory of the solar systemUniversal gravitationTheory of relativityQuantum theoryString theoryImportant Scientific Theories

  • ProkaryotesEukaryotesWhat kinds of organisms are they?What are the characteristics of their cells?

  • The Prokaryotic CellCell membrane (plasma membrane) Boundary Semi-permeable

  • The Prokaryotic CellRibosomes Not membrane-bounded Protein synthesis

  • The Prokaryotic CellCell wall Rigid Permeable

  • Nucleoid Genetic material (DNA)The Prokaryotic Cell

  • Flagella Protein filaments MotilityThe Prokaryotic Cell

  • The Eukaryotic CellRibosomes Bound to ER (rER) secreted proteins Free cytosol proteins

  • The Eukaryotic CellNucleus Genetic material (DNA) Chromatin (chromosomes) Nuclear envelope (with pores) Nucleolus

  • The Eukaryotic CellMitochondria Energy transduction Aerobic respiration ATP 2 membranes Own DNA (16,000 bp) & ribosomes Reproduce independently by divisionoutermembraneinnermembraneinter-membranespacematrix

  • The Eukaryotic CellChloroplasts Energy transformation: photosynthesis Photosynthetic eukaryotes only 3 membranes Own DNA & ribosomes Reproduce independently by division

  • The Eukaryotic CellEndoplasmic reticulum rough: synthesis of secreted proteins smooth: lipid synthesissERrERvesicle

  • The Eukaryotic CellGolgi apparatus Modification of secreted proteins Distribution of secreted proteinsVesicle Transport of secreted proteins

  • The Eukaryotic CellLysosomes Small membrane sacs Recycling center Enzymes break down molecules

  • The Eukaryotic CellVacuole Storage Phagocytosis Water balance etc.

  • The Eukaryotic CellCytoplasm Everything outside the nucleus Includes organellesCytosol Gel-like fluid of cytoplasm Does not include organellesProteins, amino acids, nucleotides, salts, small moleculesCytoskeleton Networks of protein fibersStructure, motility, organization, transport

  • Similar in size to prokaryotic cellsTwo membranesOwn DNAOwn ribosomes, prokaryote-likeDivide independentlyDNA sequence like prokaryotic genesThe Endosymbiosis Theoryancestral cellmembrane infoldingcreates nucleus, ERendosymbiosisresults in mitochondriaancestralanimal cellancestralplant cellendosymbiosisresults in chloroplasts

  • Why are prokaryotes small and eukaryotes large?

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