Advertising Psychology

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Andreea Dicu (slide design) Carmen Neghina Probably my best presentation so far. An insider's view into advertising.

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<ul><li>Advertising<br /></li><li>7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />2<br /></li><li>Agenda<br />7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />3<br />Advertising revealed<br />Advertising tactics<br />Elaboration Likelihood Model<br />Communication Model/Techniques<br />1) Who say?<br />2) What?<br />3) By what means?<br />4) To whom?<br />Methods of measuring advertising effects<br />Trends and future developments<br /></li><li>Advertising Revealed<br /></li><li>Innovative<br />Fun<br />Hard Work<br />What do you think about advertising?<br />Creative<br />Deceptive<br />Aggressive<br /></li><li>Non-Personal<br />Sponsor<br />Mass Media <br />What is advertising in theory?<br />Large Audience<br />Paid form of communication<br />Persuasive<br /></li><li>Definition of advertising<br />Advertising is paid non-personal communication from an identified sponsor using mass media to persuade or influence an audience.<br />(Wells, Burnett &amp; Moriarty, 2003, p. 10)<br />An advertising idea is a credible and provocative statement of substance about the brands main consumer benefit.<br />7/3/2009<br />7<br />Advertising Psychology<br /></li><li>Major objectives<br />7/3/2009<br />8<br />Advertising Psychology<br /></li><li>Effects of advertising<br />7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />9<br /></li><li>Unique Selling Proposition<br />A motivating idea, uniquely associated with a particular brand, which is to be registered in the mind of the consumer<br />The U.S.P. <br />is about uniqueness<br />must sell<br />must make a proposition<br />7/3/2009<br />10<br />Advertising Psychology<br /></li><li>Unique Selling Proposition<br />In best cases our brand or product is unique in itself or is determined to be something unique for a special target group<br />Can you give examples?<br />Coca cola<br />Porsche <br />Rolex <br />7/3/2009<br />11<br />Advertising Psychology<br /></li><li>Unique Selling Proposition<br />7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />12<br />Unique<br />Advertising that promises a unique benefit,<br />or a benefit that is perceived as distinct and/or superior<br />Proposition<br />A clear, compelling<br />consumer benefit that is<br />delivered by the product<br />Selling<br />Significant and relevant <br />to consumers - persuasive<br />enough to incite action<br /></li><li>Unique Selling Proposition<br />7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />13<br />Unique<br />taste, shape, color, different flavors<br />Proposition<br />The Becks experience<br />Selling<br />Bottles, cans &amp; kegs <br /></li><li>Brand Wheel<br />7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />14<br />What the brand is / what the brand looks like: <br />Physical/functional characteristics of the brand<br />Rational advantage for me. What the brand does: The results of using the brand.<br />Psychological advantage of using the brand: <br />How the brand makes me feel about myself / how others feel about me, using the brand<br />If the brand were a person:<br />How would it be?<br />Brand Essence: The core of the brand.<br />The sum of characteristics in the wheel.<br />Attributes<br />Benefits<br />Values<br />Personality<br />Brand Essence<br /></li><li>Brand Wheel<br />7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />15<br />German, Masculine, Luxury, Expensive,<br />well-engineered. Quality, Performance,<br />Roadholding, Heritage, Bssssssing!<br />Sports performance in luxury comfort,<br />Best of both worlds. Is what it does<br />Wise heads on young shoulders<br />A passionate driver<br />Serious but not serious-minded, <br />charismatic, outgoing, joie de vivre,<br />half german, half human. <br />The steel fist in a velvet glove<br />Attributes<br />Benefits<br />Values<br />Personality<br />Brand Essence<br />DRIVING EXCELLENCE<br /></li><li>Advertising Tactics<br /></li><li>A framework of psychological meaning<br />7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />17<br />Attribute Bundle<br />Perceptual Mode<br />Context<br />Tangible Attributes<br />e.g. size<br /> color<br /> brightness<br /> music<br />Data driven<br />e.g. sight<br /> touch<br /> sound<br />Individual characteristics<br />e.g. attitudes<br /> perceptual selectivity<br /> personality<br />Psychological Meaning<br />Stimulus<br />e.g. TV ad<br /> Billboard<br /> Image ad<br />Social characteristics<br />e.g. gender<br /> social class<br /> marital status<br /> occupation<br />Intangible Attributes<br />e.g. modern<br /> fun<br /> exciting<br />Concept Driven<br />e.g. cognitive associations<br /> cognitive abstractions<br />Situational characteristics<br />e.g. time to make decision number of available choices<br /></li><li>Elaboration Likelihood Model (Petty &amp; Cacioppo, 1986)<br />Implies two routes to persuasion:<br />Consumers that are motivated and able to process the message will devote more thought to the message contained in advertisement<br /><ul><li>elaboration</li></ul>Attitude change depends on the quality of the arguments<br />Consumers that are not motivated and/or unable to process the message will switch to a less involved and elaborate processing of information<br />Attitude change depends on the peripheral cues<br />Central route to persuasion<br />Peripheral route to persuasion<br />7/3/2009<br />18<br />Advertising Psychology<br /></li><li>Examples of peripheral cues<br />celebrity<br />attractive source<br />sources with high credibility <br />expert sources<br />humor<br />erotic stimuli<br />7/3/2009<br />19<br />Advertising Psychology<br /></li><li>Elaboration Likelihood Model<br />Motivationto process the message can be influenced by<br />personal relevance of the product<br />need for cognition (a tendency to engage in and enjoy effortful analytic activity)<br />personal responsibility<br />Ability to process the message can be influenced by<br />distraction<br />prior knowledge<br />intelligence<br />message comprehensibility<br />7/3/2009<br />20<br />Advertising Psychology<br /></li><li>Elaboration Likelihood Model<br />7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />21<br />Consequences of elaboration<br />Central route to persuasion<br />Peripheral route to persuasion<br /><ul><li>relatively enduring / shows a greater temporal persistence</li><li>more predictive of behavior</li><li>shows a greater resistance to counter-persuasion</li><li> less enduring / relatively temporary</li><li>unpredictive of behavior</li><li> shows a greater susceptibility to counter-persuasion</li></ul>Attitude change<br /></li><li>Communication Model<br />Who?<br />Says what?<br />By what means?<br />To whom?<br /></li><li>Communication Model<br />Source characteristics<br />1) Credibility<br />Lowercredibility sources - when the receivers thoughts about the product are favorable<br />Higher credibility sources when the receivers thoughts are negative<br />Profession has a greater effect upon perceived credibility than the spokesperson<br />2) Attractiveness<br />3) Gender<br />7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />23<br />Who?<br />Says what?<br />By what means?<br />To whom?<br /></li><li>Communication Model<br />Source characteristics<br />1) Credibility<br />2) Attractiveness<br />For low involvement products coffee, perfume<br />Attractive models do not enhance recall, but facilitate ad recognition<br />3) Gender<br />7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />24<br />Who?<br />Says what?<br />By what means?<br />To whom?<br /></li><li>7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />25<br />Source<br />Credibility<br />Attractiveness<br />Gender<br /></li><li>7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />26<br />Source<br />Credibility<br />Attractiveness<br />Gender<br /></li><li>Communication Model<br />Source characteristics<br />1) Credibility<br />2) Attractiveness<br />3) Gender<br />Gender of models should match the image of the product held by users<br />Any role depiction should be realistic and natural rather than stereotypical and false<br />7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />27<br />Who?<br />Says what?<br />By what means?<br />To whom?<br /></li><li>7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />28<br />Source<br />Credibility<br />Attractiveness<br />Gender<br /></li><li>Communication Model<br />Who?<br />Says what?<br />By what means?<br />To whom?<br /></li><li>Communication Model<br />7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />30<br />Who?<br />Says what?<br />By what means?<br />To whom?<br />Message appeal - the overall style of the advertising<br />Rational appeal?<br />Emotional appeal?<br />One- vs. two- sided and comparative appeals?<br /></li><li>Communication Model<br />7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />31<br />Who?<br />Says what?<br />By what means?<br />To whom?<br />The MAC Model<br />Memory only most of the choices we make are determined by habit<br />Memory plus affect most of the conscious choices that make us pause are determined by affect<br />Memory plus affect plus cognition some ads make us think, as well as do some decision<br />Ads<br />Memory<br />Affect<br />Perceptual filters<br />Competitors for attention<br />Cognition<br /></li><li>Communication Model<br />The MAC Model<br />Consider a major purchase choice you made in the past. <br />Did you use some rational basis to create a consideration set, or did you just fall in love with it when you saw it?<br />7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />32<br />Who?<br />Says what?<br />By what means?<br />To whom?<br /></li><li>Communication Model<br />The role of emotion<br />Coca-Cola Have a Coke smile<br />Pepsi-Cola Get that Pepsi feeling<br />General Motors Get that great GM feeling<br />AT&amp;T Reach out and touch someone<br />Saab One car you can buy where your emotions arent compromised by your intellect<br />7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />33<br />Who?<br />Says what?<br />By what means?<br />To whom?<br /></li><li>Communication Model<br />The role of emotion<br />7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />34<br />Who?<br />Says what?<br />By what means?<br />To whom?<br /></li><li>7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />35<br />Message appeal<br />Pleasure<br /></li><li>7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />36<br />Message appeal<br />Arousal<br />Vitality<br />Liveliness<br /></li><li>7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />37<br />Message appeal<br />Dominance<br /></li><li>Communication Model<br />Fear appeals as arousal<br />Optimal range of tension<br />Point of inflection where increasing tension activates anxiety &gt; negative feelings<br />7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />38<br />Who?<br />Says what?<br />By what means?<br />To whom?<br />Audio-Visual<br />Print<br />Anxiety &amp; Energy<br /> generation<br />Energy generation<br />Threshold<br />No picture<br />Picture<br />Tension<br /></li><li>7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />39<br />Message appeal<br />Fear<br /></li><li>7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />40<br />Message appeal<br />Fear<br /></li><li>7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />41<br />Message appeal<br />Fear<br /></li><li>7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />42<br />Message appeal<br />Fear<br /></li><li>7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />43<br />Message appeal<br />Fear<br /></li><li>Communication model<br />Humor appeal<br />"Trying to figure out why something is funny is like dissecting a frog. You'll come up with answers, but the frog always dies. Mark Twain<br />One of the most common techniques, but hard to realize<br />The belief that humor can increase advertising effectiveness has led to its unprecedented popularity<br />However, it can work for you or it can work against you!<br />Peripheral cue - drawing attention to the ad<br />7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />44<br />Who?<br />Says what?<br />By what means?<br />To whom?<br /></li><li>7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />45<br />Message appeal<br />Humor<br /></li><li>7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />46<br />Message appeal<br />Humor<br /></li><li>Communication Model<br />Subliminal Messages<br />the use of hidden or otherwise imperceptible stimuli to manipulate viewers or listeners to behave in ways they otherwise would not.<br />The Vicary Eat Popcorn/Drink Coke Study<br />Below threshold<br />Subjective threshold<br />Objective threshold<br />7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />47<br />Who?<br />Says what?<br />By what means?<br />To whom?<br /></li><li>Communication Model<br />Who?<br />Says what?<br />By what means?<br />To whom?<br /></li><li>Communication Model<br />7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />49<br />Who?<br />Says what?<br />By what means?<br />To whom?<br /></li><li>Communication Model<br />7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />50<br />Who?<br />Says what?<br />By what means?<br />To whom?<br />1) Copy theme<br />Surface level <br />Text<br />Different ads using the same kinds of techniques (characters, jingles)<br />Underlying level <br />Text<br />Signification system structured around connatative signified<br /></li><li>Communication Model<br />1) Copy theme<br />Use of figurative language and rhetorical devices<br />7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />51<br />Who?<br />Says what?<br />By what means?<br />To whom?<br /></li><li>Communication Model<br />2) Visual representations<br />What visual images express can only be approximated by words, but never fully captured by them. Words represent an artificially imposed intellectual system removed from primal feeling; images plunge us into the depth of experience itself. (Barry, 75)<br />7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />52<br />Who?<br />Says what?<br />By what means?<br />To whom?<br /></li><li>Communication Model<br />2) Visual representations<br />7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />53<br />Who?<br />Says what?<br />By what means?<br />To whom?<br /></li><li>7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />54<br />Attracting attention<br />Violating reality <br /></li><li>Communication Model<br />2) Visual representations<br />7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />55<br />Who?<br />Says what?<br />By what means?<br />To whom?<br /></li><li>7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />56<br />Attracting attention<br />Visual Metaphor <br /></li><li>7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />57<br />Attracting attention<br />Visual Metaphor <br /></li><li>Communication Model<br />2) Visual representations<br />7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />58<br />Who?<br />Says what?<br />By what means?<br />To whom?<br /></li><li>7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />59<br />Attracting attention<br />Visual parodies <br /></li><li>7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />60<br />Attracting attention<br />Visual parodies <br /></li><li>Communication Model<br />2) Visual representations<br />7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />61<br />Who?<br />Says what?<br />By what means?<br />To whom?<br /></li><li>7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />62<br />Attracting attention<br />Direct eye gaze <br /></li><li>Communication Model<br />2) Visual representations<br />7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />63<br />Who?<br />Says what?<br />By what means?<br />To whom?<br /></li><li>7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />64<br />Eliciting Emotion<br />Vertical camera Angle, Power, and Status<br /></li><li>Communication Model<br />2) Visual representations<br />7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />65<br />Who?<br />Says what?<br />By what means?<br />To whom?<br /></li><li>7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />66<br />Eliciting Emotion<br />Looking down, Nurturance, Subservience<br /></li><li>Communication Model<br />3) Music<br />Attention gaining value<br />Ability to engage a listeners attention through speed and loudness<br />Role in advertising attract and hold attention<br />However, can be act as a distractive factor<br />Message congruence<br />The extent to which purely instrumental music conveys meanings (feelings, images, thoughts) that are congruent with those evoked by ad messages<br />7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />67<br />Who?<br />Says what?<br />By what means?<br />To whom?<br /></li><li>7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />68<br /></li><li>Communication Model<br />Who?<br />Says what?<br />By what means?<br />To whom?<br /></li><li>Targeting Cultures<br />Language<br />Communication Style<br />Symbols<br />Cultural Values<br />Communication Model<br />7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />70<br />Who?<br />Says what?<br />By what means?<br />To whom?<br />Linguistics<br />Cultural Suitability<br /></li><li>7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />71<br />Targeting Cultures<br />Linguistics<br /></li><li>7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />72<br />Targeting Cultures<br />Cultural Suitability<br /></li><li>Targeting Cultures<br />Language<br />Communication Style<br />Symbols<br />Cultural Values<br />Communication Model<br />7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />73<br />Who?<br />Says what?<br />By what means?<br />To whom?<br />Explicit<br />Implicit<br /></li><li>7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />74<br />Targeting Cultures<br />Explicit<br /></li><li>Targeting Cultures<br />Language<br />Communication Style<br />Symbols<br />Cultural Values<br />Communication Model<br />7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />75<br />Who?<br />Says what?<br />By what means?<br />To whom?<br />Colors<br />Numbers<br /></li><li>Colors and cultures<br />7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />76<br /></li><li>Targeting Cultures<br />Language<br />Communication Style<br />Symbols<br />Cultural Values<br />Communication Model<br />7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />77<br />Who?<br />Says what?<br />By what means?<br />To whom?<br />Religion<br />Individualism<br />Masculinity<br /></li><li>7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />78<br />Targeting Cultures<br />Religion<br /></li><li>Communication Model<br />7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />79<br />Targeting Cultures<br />US Melting Point<br /></li><li>7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />80<br /></li><li>Targeting Generations<br />7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />81<br />US<br />I<br />ALL<br />Respond to:<br />Themselves reflected in images<br />Fierce sarcasm/ Imagination, Creativity<br />Stupid / Smart Messages<br />Deconstructed Paradigms<br />Style<br />Luxury Goods and Mass Market<br />Respond to:<br />Cues of achievement / Status / Heroes<br />Iconic Authority <br />Heroes / Trailbrazers<br />The things that are earned<br />Comfort<br />Ive earned it luxury<br />Perks<br />Anti-Aging<br />Respond to:<br />New Ideas<br />Companies with a Philosophy<br />Multi-Sensory Experiences<br />Multi Generational Models<br />Fun / Learning<br />Parents as their Heroes<br />Interesting People<br />Senses of Community<br />GEN-X<br />(24-35)<br />BABY BOOMERS<br />(36-54)<br />GEN-Y<br />(6-23)<br /></li><li>7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />82<br />Targeting Generations<br />Baby Boomers<br /></li><li>7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />83<br />Targeting Generations<br />Gen X<br /></li><li>7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />84<br />Targeting Generations<br />Gen Y<br /></li><li>Communication Model<br />The consumer is not an idiot, shes your wife.<br /> - David Ogilvy<br />I heard another one: Shes not an idiot, shes your boss!<br /> - David Lubars, BBDO West<br />7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />85<br />Targeting Genders<br /></li><li>Communication Model<br />What do women want?<br />7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />86<br />Targeting Genders<br /></li><li>7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology<br />87<br />Individuality<br />Respect<br />Connection<br />What Do Women Want?<br />Relationship<br />Stress Relief<br /></li><li>7/3/2009<br />Advertising Psychology